principle of management - motivating employees
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DESCRIPTIONPrinciple of Management, Fundamentals of management, Motivating employees
- 1. MOTIVATING EMPLOYEES Copyright: University Kuala Lumpur (Malaysian Institute of AviationTechnology)
- 2. Its refers to the force either within or external to a person that arouse enthusiasm and persistence pursue a certain course action. Employee motivation affects productivity and parts of manager job is to channel motivation towards the accomplishment of organizational goals. MOTIVATION IS ABOUT CULTIVATING YOUR HUMAN CAPITAL.THE CHALLENGE LIES NOT IN THE WORK ITSELF,BUT IN YOU,THE PERSON WHO CREATES AND MANAGES THE WORK ENVIRONMENT.
- 3. People have needs such as for recognition, achievement and monetary gain. Its will create an internal tension that motivates specific behaviour with which to fulfill the need. NEED Creates desire to fulfill needs (food,friendship,recognition,achievement) BEHAVIOUR Results in actions to fulfill needs REWARDS Satisfy needs: intrinsic or extrinsic rewards.
- 4. Intrinsic Rewards Satisfaction a person receive in the process of peforming of particular action. Ex : praised such as well done,good job! Extrinsic Rewards Given by another person typically a manager and include high position, pay increases and bonuses THEREARETWOTHINGS PEOPLEWANT MORETHAN RELATIONAND MONEY..RECOGNITIONAND PRAISE -MARY KAY ASH,FOUNDER MARY KAY COSMETICS
- 5. Theory developed by Abraham Maslow. He proposed that people are motivated by multiple needs and that these needs exist in a hierarchical order. Basic human needs include food, water & oxygen. In the organizational setting, these are reflected in the needs for adequate heats. air and base salary to ensure survival. Physiological needs Needs include a safe and secure physical and emotional environment and freedom from threats. Organizational workplace its reflect to safe jobs, fringe benefits ,and job security. Safety needs Desire to be accepted by ones peers, have friendship, be a part of group and be loved. In Organizational these influence to desire for good relationship with coworkers and positive relationship with managers. Belongingness needs
- 6. Desire for a positive self-image and to receive attention,recognition,and appreciation from the others.within organization its reflect an increased in responsibility,high status and credit to contributions to the organizations. Esteem needs Developing ones full potential,increasing ones competent and becoming better person.in organization its providing people opportunities to grow,be creative,and acquire training for challenges. Self- actualization needs
- 7. Clayton Alderfer proposed a modification of Maslows theory in an effort to simplify it and response to criticism of its lack of empirical verification. Existence needs The needs for physical well-being. Relatedness needs The needs for satisfactory relationship with others Growth needs The needs that focus on the development of human potential and the desire for personal growth and increased competence.
- 8. The ERG and Maslows need hierarchy are similar because both are presume that individuals move up the hierarchy one step at time. The ERG model therefore is less rigid than Maslows need hierarchy, suggesting that individuals may move down as well as up the hierarvchy, depending to their ability to satisfy needs. Aldefer reduce the number of hierarchy to three and proposed that movement up the hierarchy is more complex, reflecting a frustration-regression principle. FRUSTRATION-REGRESSION PRINCIPLE The idea that failure to meet a high-order need may cause a regression to an already satisfied lower-order need.
- 9. Develop by Frederick Herzberg. Herzbeg interviewed hundreds of workers about times when they were highly motivated to work and other times when they were dissatified and unmotivated. Presence or absence of job dissatifiers working conditions, pay, company policies and interpersonal relationship. When hygiene factor are poor, work dissatisfying Good hygiene factor cause people to become highly satisfied and motivated in their work. Hygiene factor Factors that influence job satisfaction based on fulfillment of high-level needs such as achievement, recognition, responsibility, and opportunity to growth. Motivators
- 10. Develop by David McClelland, proposed that certain type of needs are acquired during the individuals life time. In the words, people are not born with these needs to may learn them through their life experience. Need for Achievement Desire to accomplish something to difficult, attain a high standard of success, master complex task, and surpass others. Need forAffiliation Desire to form close personal relationship, avoid conflict, and establish warm friendship. Need for power Desire to influence or control others, be responsible for others and have authority over others.
- 11. Process theory explain how people select behavioral action to meet their needs and determine whether their choice were successful. important in this area include goal-setting, equity theory, and expectancy theory.
- 12. Described by Edwin Locke and Gary Latham, proposed that managers can increase motivation and enhance performance by setting specific, challenging goals, then helping their people track their progress towards goal achievement by providing timely feedback. People know what to work toward, so they can direct efforts towards the most important plan or activities to accomplish the goals.
- 13. Goal Specificity is the clarity and precision of the goals. Refers to the degree to which goals are concrete and unambiguous. Ex : what u want and when u want start and finished it. Goal acceptance means that employees have to buy into the goals and be committed to them. Having people participate insetting goals is a good way to increase acceptance and commitment. Ex : Manager and workers are running the bussiness together. Goal Difficulty is the extent to which a goal is challenging and requires effort. This means that you cannot have goals that you cannot reach, but at the same time you cannot have goals that are so easy that you surpass them quickly. You need to be realistic about the goals that you do set.
- 14. Focused on individuals perceptions of how fairly they are treated compared with others. Develop by J. Stacy Adams, proposed that people are motivated to seek social equity in the rewards they expect for performance. Ex ; people evaluate equity by a ratio of inputs to outcomes.
- 15. Expectancy theory says that motivation depends on two things--how much we want something and how likely we think we are to get it? Depends on the individuals expectations about their ability to perform task and received desired rewards.
- 16. Reinforcement is defined as anything that causes a certain behaviors to be repeated or inhibited. Reinforcement theory is simply looks at the relationship between behavior and its consequences. Behavior modification is the technique by which reinforcement theory is used to modify human behavior.
- 17. Slow work rate Supervisor request faster work EMPLOYEE INCREASEWORK RATE EMPLOYEECONTINUES SLOWWORK PRAISE EMPLOYEE RECOMMEND PAY RAISE AVOID REPRIMANDS, NEGATIVE STATEMENTS REPRIMAND EMPLOYEE MAKE NEGATIVES STATEMENTS WITHHOLDS RAISES,MERIT PAY,PRAISE
- 18. This pursues task efficiency by reducing the number of tasks one person must do. Task are designed to be simple, repetitive and standardized. The worker has more time to concentrate on doing more of same routine task. Workers with low skill levels can perform the job, and the organization achieves a high level of efficiency. As a motivational technique, job simplification has failed. people dislike routine and boring jobs and react in a number of negative ways, including sabotage, absenteeism and unionization.
- 19. Systematically moves employee from one job to another, thereby increasing the number Of different task an employee performs without increasing the complexity of any one job. As companies break away from ossified job categories, workers can perform several jobs, thereby reducing labor cost and giving people opportunities to develop new skills. job rotation also gives companies greater flexibility. Ex ; Rotate job every several time.
- 20. Its combines a series of tasks into one new, broader job. This type of design is a response to the dissatisfaction of employee with oversimplified jobs. Instead of only one job, an employee may be responsible for three or four and will have more time to do them. Job enlargement provides job variety and a greater challenge for employees. Ex : Mechanics who changes the oil, greases the car, airs rhe tires, air filters.
- 21. Based on Maslows need hierarchy and Herzbergs two- factor theory. This incorporates high-level motivators into the work, including job responsibility, recognition, and opportunities for growth, learning, and achievement. In an enriched job, employees have control over the resources necessary for performing it, make decisions on how to do the work, experience personal growth , and set their own work pace. Enriched jobs have improved employee motivation and satisfaction, and the company has benefits from higher long-term productivity, reduce cost, and happier.
- 22. Make employees feel like partners When people feel and experience ownership of something, they look out for it, protect it, and pour themselves into it. Be clear about rewards and recognition Be clear about rewards for hitting those goals. Plan their goals beyond wildest imagination. Put heart and soul into your team People dont care how much you know, until they know how much you care. This is because when you care about employee s, you create an atmosphere where they care about you and others.
- 23. Always expect the best from employees Research has found that in an organization, our expectations of others can be tied directly to productivity, profitability and MOTIVATION. Build a motivated workforce People are motivated to do what is in their best interest. Its imperative that you continually look for ways to engage your people . Employees feel motivated to work hard. Show employees how the business operates To succeed in todays business environment, the employees need to know more about business than just how to do their jobs.They need to know how it operates.