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  • ANGLEINAslovnica

    PRESENT SIMPLEThePresentSimpleisusedtotalkabout:

    a) actionsdoneregularlyorfrequently,oftewithadverbslikenever,seldom,occasionally,sometimes,often,usuallyandalways:DavidusuallyplaysfootballonSaturday.Whatdoyoudointheevenings.

    b) factsthatarealwaystrue:Elephantsdonteatmeat.ShecomesfromCairo.

    PRESENT CONTINUOUSisusedtotalkaboutthingsthatarehappeningnow,atthemomentofspeaking(now,atthemoment,atpresent,today,thisweek):Elenaiswritingaletteratthemoment.SheswritingtoMaria.

    Thefollowingverbsdonotnormallytakethecontinuousform:belive,belong,contain, dislike,doubt,hate,impress,know,like,love,mean,need,owe,own,prefer,resemble,seem,suppose,surprise,understand,want,wish.

    ThisverbscanbeusedintheSimpleorContinuousformbutwithdifferentmeanings:appear,feel,see,smell,taste,think.

    PAST SIMPLEisusedtotalkaboutcompletedactionsataparticularpointinthepast,oftenwithdatesortimesandwordslikeyesterday,lastandago:KurtwenttoCanadain1992.Ididntseeyouyesterday.Wherewereyou?

    PRESENT PERFECT SIMPLEa) recentactionsoreventswhennofixedtimeisgiven(oftenwithwordsjust,recently,

    lately):AvolcanohasrecentlyeruptedinJapan.Ivejustseenyourmotheronthestreet.

    b) actionswhichhavearesultinpresent:Whatswrong?Haveyoulostyourkeys?

    I

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    c) actionsinaperiodoftimewhichisnotyetfinished,andexperiencesinsomeoneslifesofar,oftenwithyet,sofar,ever,forandsince:Ihaventrecievedanylettersthisweek.ShehasvisitedNewYorkfivetimes.HaveyoueverbeentoMorocco?

    PRESENT PERFECT CONTINUOUSisusedtotalkaboutactionswhichstartedinthepastandarestillhappening,orwhichhaverecentlystoppedbuthavearesultinthepresent:Ivebeenwaitingherefortenminutes.Youreyesarered.Youhaventbeencrying,haveyou?

    PAST CONTINUOUSisusedtotalkaboutcontinuousactionswhichareinterruptedbyaPastSimpleaction:Iwashavingmybreakfastwhenthepolicearrived.

    Itsalsousedfordescriptionsandtosetthescenewhentellingastory:ItwasraininghardasIwalkeddowntheroad.

    PAST PERFECT SIMPLEisusedtoshowthatacompletedactionhappenedbeforesomethingelseinthepast:ItelephonedJaneat8.00,butshehadalreadylefthome.

    Butiftwopastactionsarecloseintime,orcloselyconnected,thePastPerfectisnotusuallyused:Whenhearrivedatthehotel,heaskedforaroom.

    PAST PERFECT CONTINUOUSisusedtoshowthattherehadbeenacontinuousorrepeatedactionbeforesthelseinthepast:Iwasveryangrywhenthebusfinallycame,becauseIhadbeenwaitingalongtimeforit.

    FUTUREWillandshallareusedtoexpress:

    II

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    a)predictions:Ithinkhellgetajob(Ithink).b)instantdecisions:Thephoneisringing.Illanswerit.c)offersofhelp:Illhelpyouwiththat,shallI?d)promises:Illwritetoyoueveryday.e)invitationsandpoliterequests:Willyoucometomyparty?

    TheshortformsIllandwellareusuallyusedinspokenEnglish.ShallisusuallyusedonlywithIorwe,anditsmainuseisinoffersofhelporsuggestions:ShallImakeyouacupoftea?Shallwebooktheticketsnow?

    ThePresentContinuousisusedforplannedfuturearrangements(100%somebodydecidesanddoessomething):HesflyingtoParistomorrow.Icantseeyoutonight.Imvisitingmyaunt.

    Goingtoisusedtotalkabout:a)thingsyouintendtodo:Imgoingtobuyanewcar.b)predictionsbasedonsomethinginthepresent:Look!Hesgoingtowintherace.Imgoingtobesick.Itsgoingtoraintomorrow.thesientistssaythis

    ThePresentSimpleisusedtotalkabouttimetables,programmesofeventsandpeoplesschedules:Thetrainleavesat10.00.WhattimedowearriveinNewYork.

    TheFutureContinuous(will+be+ing)isusedforafutureactivityatspecifictimeinthefuture:At3.20wellbehavingourbreak.

    TheFuturePerfect(will+have+pastparticiple)isusedwhenyouarelookingforwardtoafinishedactionataspecifictimeinthefuture:By3.30wellhavefinishedourbreak.

    FuturePossibility(may/might)50%sureDonotuse:!!!maybeIwill!!!

    CONDITIONALSTheZeroConditionalisusedforasituationwhichisalwaystrue:Ifwateriscolderthan0*C,itfreezes.

    III

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    TheFirstConditionalisusedforapossiblefutureactionwhichdependsonanotheraction:Ifheworkshard,hewillpasstheexam.Wellgetontimeifweleavenow.

    TheSecondConditionalisusedforanimaginarysituation,wherethemeaningisinpresent:IfIhadmoremoney,Iwouldbuyanewcar.(Ihaventgotenoughmoneyatthemoment.)

    Itcanbealsousedforaremotepossibilityinthefuture:IfIwonthecompetition,Idgoonaworldcruise.

    Itsalsousedforgivingadvices:IfIwereyou,Idstayathome.

    TheThirdConditionalisusedforanimaginarysituationreferringtoapastaction:Ifhehadntstolenthemoney,hewouldnthavegonetoprison.(Buthestolethemoney,sohewenttoprison.)

    NoticethismixedConditionalsentence:Ifhehadntstolenthemoney,hewouldntbeinprison.(Buthestolethemoney,soheisinprisonnow.)

    !!!Remember!!!UnlessmeansIfnot!!!DoNOTusewillafterif!!!

    Whencanbeusedinsteadofif,butonlyifitiscertainthatsomethingwillhappen:Whenhearrives,Illthankhim.(Iknowheisgoingtoarrive.)

    DoNOTusewillafterwhen,after,before,assoonas,until,tillandwhile.Whentheyareusedtorefertoarealfutureaction,theytakethesamestructureastheFirstConditional.ThePresentPerfectcansometimesbeusedafterthem:Illwaithereuntilthedoctorarrives/hasarrived.

    TENSEINTHEIFCLAUSETENSEINTHEMAINCLAUSE

    ZEROCONDITIONAL PresentSimple PresentSimpleFIRSTCONDITIONAL PresentSimple Future(will)SECONDCONDITIONAL PastSimple Would+InfinitivewithouttoTHIRDCONDITIONAL PastPerfect Would+Have+Past

    Participle

    IV

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    PASSIVESThepassiveisusedtodescribeanactionwhenisnotsoimportantwhoorwhatdidtheaction,orwhenwedonotknow:Mikescarwasdamagedinanaccident.(Act:SomeonedamagedMikescarinanaccident.)

    Itisoftenusedtodescribesientificprocesses:Thewaterisfilteredbeforeitismixedwiththechemicals.

    Theobjectofaactivesentencebecomesthesubjectofapassiveone;theverbbeisusedinthesametenseoftheverbinactive,withthepastparticipleoftherelevantverb.Byisonlyusedifaname,oranoungivinnecesseryinformation,isincluded:Act.:Theguideshowedhimround.Pass.:Hewasshownroundbytheguide.

    Notetheverycommonpassive:ShewasborninZurich.

    REPORTED SPEECHReportedSpeechisusedtoreporttoathirdpersonwhatsomeoneelsesaid.TochangesentencesfromDirectSpeechtoReportedSpeech,thepronoun,tenseandtimephrasemaybeallchanged:Imworkingtonight,Danielsaid.(Direct)Danielsaid(that)hewasworkingthatnight.(Reported)

    InReportedSpeechusing2ndand3rdConditionalsentences,thetensesarenotchanged:Ifyouwenttobedearlier,youwouldntfeelsotiredinthemorning,saidhismother.Hismothertoldhimthatifhewenttobedearlier,hewouldntfeelsobadinthemorning.

    Verbsthatreportwhatsbsaidareusedwiththeinfinitive(todo)orthegerund(doing).

    INFINITIVE GERUND+prepositionAsk AccuseofWarn ApologiseforPersuade RegretThreaten InsistonSeem Introduceto

    V

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    Tell DiscouragefromAdvise ProtectfromBeg RemindofNeed Congratulateon

    BlameforThankforMistakeforPreventfrom

    Shesuggestedweshouldallgo...

    GERUND or INFINITIVE?I. always GERUND:1.afterprepositions:Imgoodat Wearethinkingof Iminterestedin AfterImlookingforwardto Icantgetusedto

    2.aftercertainverbs:enjoy,deny,avoid,admit,finish,cantstand,dontmind,adore,giveup,keepon,cantstop,canthelp

    II. always INFINITIVE:1.aftercertainverbs:cantafford,hope,didntmean,agree,attempt,choose,learn,manage,need,dare,offer, decide,promise,expect,refuse,help,seem,want,long,

    2.Xsomeonetodosomething:X:advise,invite,allow,remind,encourage,teach,order,tell,persuade,force,want,dlike (dlove,dprefer,dhate),ask,beg,expect,help,need

    Iadvisedhimnottogoout.

    3.aftermakeletandallow:

    4.aftercertainadjectives:difficult,impossible,pleased,surprised,lucky,easy,good,nice

    VI

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    5.toexpresspurpose:Icameheretomeetyou.

    III. GERUND or INFINITIVE?1.Continue,start,begin:

    Bothformsarepossible:theinfinitiveismorecommon.Iftheverbisinacontinuoustenseweprefertheinfinitive.

    Hebeganworking/toworkwhenhewastwenty.Shecontinuedironing/toiron.

    Itsstartingtorain.

    Becarefulsomeverbsdonottakethecontinuousform(thelistisonpageI)

    2.Like,love,hate,prefer:

    Usetheinfinitive,exceptwhenf.ex.likehasaverygeneralmeaning.

    Iliketoreadabookbeforegoingtosleep.specificatedwhenIlikecooking.verygeneralmeaning

    3.Remember,forget,regret:

    Thegerundreferstoanactionhappenedbeforetheactofremembering,forgettingorregretting.Iremembereatinginthisrestaurant.Illneverforgetmeetingyou.Iregretlyingtoher.

    Theinfinitivereferstoanactionthattakesplaceaftertheactofremembering,etcImustremembertobuysomeflowers.Dontforgettolockthedoors.Iregrettotellyouthatyouhavefailed.

    4.Stop:

    Thegerundreferstoanactionwhichwashappeningbeforetheactofstopping.Westoppedplayingtennisbecauseitgottoodark.

    Theinfinitivetellsuswhytheactionstopped,andwhathappenednext.Westoppedtohaveabreak.

    5.Try:

    VII

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    Theinfinitivereferstotheaimwewanttoachieve.ItriedtolearnChinese,butitwastoodifficult.

    Thegerundreferstothemethodsweusedtoachievethegoal.Ieventriedtogooneveningclasses.

    I WISH AND IF ONLYIwishandIfonlyarebothusedwhenthespeakerwouldlikeasituationtobedifferent.Forawishaboutthefuture,usewouldotcould:IwishIcouldgotothepartytomorrow.(Iwanttogo,butIcant.)Ifonlyitwouldstopraining!

    Wouldisoftenusedwhenthespeakeriscomplaninigaboutsomething:Iwishshewouldntusemyphonesomuch.Iwishyouwouldbequiet.

    DONOTuseIwould or Wewould afterIwish/wewishorIfonlyI/we!!!

    Forawishaboutthepresent,useapasttenseafterIwishandIfonly:Iwishhedidntsmokesomuch.(Hesmokesalot.)IfonlyIhadacar.(Butihaventgotone.)

    WereinsteadofwasisoftenusedafterwishandIfonly:Iwishhewereherewithmenow.

    Forawishaboutthepast,usethePastPerfectafterwishandIfonlytoexpressregret:Shewishesshehadmarriedhim.(Butshedidntmarryhim.)IfonlyIhadntbeensonervous.(ButIwasnervous.)

    DONOTusewouldhaveafterwishandIfonly!!!!

    DIFFICULT VERBSMakesomeonedosomethingmeanstoobligeorfotcethem:MyparentsmademestudyhardwhenIwasyoung.(active)IwasmadetostudyhardwhenIw