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<ul><li><p>ANGLEINAslovnica</p><p>PRESENT SIMPLEThePresentSimpleisusedtotalkabout:</p><p>a) actionsdoneregularlyorfrequently,oftewithadverbslikenever,seldom,occasionally,sometimes,often,usuallyandalways:DavidusuallyplaysfootballonSaturday.Whatdoyoudointheevenings.</p><p>b) factsthatarealwaystrue:Elephantsdonteatmeat.ShecomesfromCairo.</p><p>PRESENT CONTINUOUSisusedtotalkaboutthingsthatarehappeningnow,atthemomentofspeaking(now,atthemoment,atpresent,today,thisweek):Elenaiswritingaletteratthemoment.SheswritingtoMaria.</p><p>Thefollowingverbsdonotnormallytakethecontinuousform:belive,belong,contain, dislike,doubt,hate,impress,know,like,love,mean,need,owe,own,prefer,resemble,seem,suppose,surprise,understand,want,wish.</p><p>ThisverbscanbeusedintheSimpleorContinuousformbutwithdifferentmeanings:appear,feel,see,smell,taste,think.</p><p>PAST SIMPLEisusedtotalkaboutcompletedactionsataparticularpointinthepast,oftenwithdatesortimesandwordslikeyesterday,lastandago:KurtwenttoCanadain1992.Ididntseeyouyesterday.Wherewereyou?</p><p>PRESENT PERFECT SIMPLEa) recentactionsoreventswhennofixedtimeisgiven(oftenwithwordsjust,recently,</p><p>lately):AvolcanohasrecentlyeruptedinJapan.Ivejustseenyourmotheronthestreet.</p><p>b) actionswhichhavearesultinpresent:Whatswrong?Haveyoulostyourkeys?</p><p>I</p></li><li><p>ANGLEINAslovnica</p><p>c) actionsinaperiodoftimewhichisnotyetfinished,andexperiencesinsomeoneslifesofar,oftenwithyet,sofar,ever,forandsince:Ihaventrecievedanylettersthisweek.ShehasvisitedNewYorkfivetimes.HaveyoueverbeentoMorocco?</p><p>PRESENT PERFECT CONTINUOUSisusedtotalkaboutactionswhichstartedinthepastandarestillhappening,orwhichhaverecentlystoppedbuthavearesultinthepresent:Ivebeenwaitingherefortenminutes.Youreyesarered.Youhaventbeencrying,haveyou?</p><p>PAST CONTINUOUSisusedtotalkaboutcontinuousactionswhichareinterruptedbyaPastSimpleaction:Iwashavingmybreakfastwhenthepolicearrived.</p><p>Itsalsousedfordescriptionsandtosetthescenewhentellingastory:ItwasraininghardasIwalkeddowntheroad.</p><p>PAST PERFECT SIMPLEisusedtoshowthatacompletedactionhappenedbeforesomethingelseinthepast:ItelephonedJaneat8.00,butshehadalreadylefthome.</p><p>Butiftwopastactionsarecloseintime,orcloselyconnected,thePastPerfectisnotusuallyused:Whenhearrivedatthehotel,heaskedforaroom.</p><p>PAST PERFECT CONTINUOUSisusedtoshowthattherehadbeenacontinuousorrepeatedactionbeforesthelseinthepast:Iwasveryangrywhenthebusfinallycame,becauseIhadbeenwaitingalongtimeforit.</p><p>FUTUREWillandshallareusedtoexpress:</p><p>II</p></li><li><p>ANGLEINAslovnica</p><p>a)predictions:Ithinkhellgetajob(Ithink).b)instantdecisions:Thephoneisringing.Illanswerit.c)offersofhelp:Illhelpyouwiththat,shallI?d)promises:Illwritetoyoueveryday.e)invitationsandpoliterequests:Willyoucometomyparty?</p><p>TheshortformsIllandwellareusuallyusedinspokenEnglish.ShallisusuallyusedonlywithIorwe,anditsmainuseisinoffersofhelporsuggestions:ShallImakeyouacupoftea?Shallwebooktheticketsnow?</p><p>ThePresentContinuousisusedforplannedfuturearrangements(100%somebodydecidesanddoessomething):HesflyingtoParistomorrow.Icantseeyoutonight.Imvisitingmyaunt.</p><p>Goingtoisusedtotalkabout:a)thingsyouintendtodo:Imgoingtobuyanewcar.b)predictionsbasedonsomethinginthepresent:Look!Hesgoingtowintherace.Imgoingtobesick.Itsgoingtoraintomorrow.thesientistssaythis</p><p>ThePresentSimpleisusedtotalkabouttimetables,programmesofeventsandpeoplesschedules:Thetrainleavesat10.00.WhattimedowearriveinNewYork.</p><p>TheFutureContinuous(will+be+ing)isusedforafutureactivityatspecifictimeinthefuture:At3.20wellbehavingourbreak.</p><p>TheFuturePerfect(will+have+pastparticiple)isusedwhenyouarelookingforwardtoafinishedactionataspecifictimeinthefuture:By3.30wellhavefinishedourbreak.</p><p>FuturePossibility(may/might)50%sureDonotuse:!!!maybeIwill!!!</p><p>CONDITIONALSTheZeroConditionalisusedforasituationwhichisalwaystrue:Ifwateriscolderthan0*C,itfreezes.</p><p>III</p></li><li><p>ANGLEINAslovnica</p><p>TheFirstConditionalisusedforapossiblefutureactionwhichdependsonanotheraction:Ifheworkshard,hewillpasstheexam.Wellgetontimeifweleavenow.</p><p>TheSecondConditionalisusedforanimaginarysituation,wherethemeaningisinpresent:IfIhadmoremoney,Iwouldbuyanewcar.(Ihaventgotenoughmoneyatthemoment.)</p><p>Itcanbealsousedforaremotepossibilityinthefuture:IfIwonthecompetition,Idgoonaworldcruise.</p><p>Itsalsousedforgivingadvices:IfIwereyou,Idstayathome.</p><p>TheThirdConditionalisusedforanimaginarysituationreferringtoapastaction:Ifhehadntstolenthemoney,hewouldnthavegonetoprison.(Buthestolethemoney,sohewenttoprison.)</p><p>NoticethismixedConditionalsentence:Ifhehadntstolenthemoney,hewouldntbeinprison.(Buthestolethemoney,soheisinprisonnow.)</p><p>!!!Remember!!!UnlessmeansIfnot!!!DoNOTusewillafterif!!!</p><p>Whencanbeusedinsteadofif,butonlyifitiscertainthatsomethingwillhappen:Whenhearrives,Illthankhim.(Iknowheisgoingtoarrive.)</p><p>DoNOTusewillafterwhen,after,before,assoonas,until,tillandwhile.Whentheyareusedtorefertoarealfutureaction,theytakethesamestructureastheFirstConditional.ThePresentPerfectcansometimesbeusedafterthem:Illwaithereuntilthedoctorarrives/hasarrived.</p><p> TENSEINTHEIFCLAUSETENSEINTHEMAINCLAUSE</p><p>ZEROCONDITIONAL PresentSimple PresentSimpleFIRSTCONDITIONAL PresentSimple Future(will)SECONDCONDITIONAL PastSimple Would+InfinitivewithouttoTHIRDCONDITIONAL PastPerfect Would+Have+Past</p><p>Participle</p><p>IV</p></li><li><p>ANGLEINAslovnica</p><p>PASSIVESThepassiveisusedtodescribeanactionwhenisnotsoimportantwhoorwhatdidtheaction,orwhenwedonotknow:Mikescarwasdamagedinanaccident.(Act:SomeonedamagedMikescarinanaccident.)</p><p>Itisoftenusedtodescribesientificprocesses:Thewaterisfilteredbeforeitismixedwiththechemicals.</p><p>Theobjectofaactivesentencebecomesthesubjectofapassiveone;theverbbeisusedinthesametenseoftheverbinactive,withthepastparticipleoftherelevantverb.Byisonlyusedifaname,oranoungivinnecesseryinformation,isincluded:Act.:Theguideshowedhimround.Pass.:Hewasshownroundbytheguide.</p><p>Notetheverycommonpassive:ShewasborninZurich.</p><p>REPORTED SPEECHReportedSpeechisusedtoreporttoathirdpersonwhatsomeoneelsesaid.TochangesentencesfromDirectSpeechtoReportedSpeech,thepronoun,tenseandtimephrasemaybeallchanged:Imworkingtonight,Danielsaid.(Direct)Danielsaid(that)hewasworkingthatnight.(Reported)</p><p>InReportedSpeechusing2ndand3rdConditionalsentences,thetensesarenotchanged:Ifyouwenttobedearlier,youwouldntfeelsotiredinthemorning,saidhismother.Hismothertoldhimthatifhewenttobedearlier,hewouldntfeelsobadinthemorning.</p><p>Verbsthatreportwhatsbsaidareusedwiththeinfinitive(todo)orthegerund(doing).</p><p>INFINITIVE GERUND+prepositionAsk AccuseofWarn ApologiseforPersuade RegretThreaten InsistonSeem Introduceto</p><p>V</p></li><li><p>ANGLEINAslovnica</p><p>Tell DiscouragefromAdvise ProtectfromBeg RemindofNeed Congratulateon</p><p>BlameforThankforMistakeforPreventfrom</p><p>Shesuggestedweshouldallgo...</p><p>GERUND or INFINITIVE?I. always GERUND:1.afterprepositions:Imgoodat Wearethinkingof Iminterestedin AfterImlookingforwardto Icantgetusedto</p><p>2.aftercertainverbs:enjoy,deny,avoid,admit,finish,cantstand,dontmind,adore,giveup,keepon,cantstop,canthelp</p><p>II. always INFINITIVE:1.aftercertainverbs:cantafford,hope,didntmean,agree,attempt,choose,learn,manage,need,dare,offer, decide,promise,expect,refuse,help,seem,want,long,</p><p>2.Xsomeonetodosomething:X:advise,invite,allow,remind,encourage,teach,order,tell,persuade,force,want,dlike (dlove,dprefer,dhate),ask,beg,expect,help,need</p><p>Iadvisedhimnottogoout.</p><p>3.aftermakeletandallow:</p><p>4.aftercertainadjectives:difficult,impossible,pleased,surprised,lucky,easy,good,nice</p><p>VI</p></li><li><p>ANGLEINAslovnica</p><p>5.toexpresspurpose:Icameheretomeetyou.</p><p>III. GERUND or INFINITIVE?1.Continue,start,begin:</p><p>Bothformsarepossible:theinfinitiveismorecommon.Iftheverbisinacontinuoustenseweprefertheinfinitive.</p><p>Hebeganworking/toworkwhenhewastwenty.Shecontinuedironing/toiron.</p><p>Itsstartingtorain.</p><p>Becarefulsomeverbsdonottakethecontinuousform(thelistisonpageI)</p><p>2.Like,love,hate,prefer:</p><p>Usetheinfinitive,exceptwhenf.ex.likehasaverygeneralmeaning.</p><p>Iliketoreadabookbeforegoingtosleep.specificatedwhenIlikecooking.verygeneralmeaning</p><p>3.Remember,forget,regret:</p><p>Thegerundreferstoanactionhappenedbeforetheactofremembering,forgettingorregretting.Iremembereatinginthisrestaurant.Illneverforgetmeetingyou.Iregretlyingtoher.</p><p>Theinfinitivereferstoanactionthattakesplaceaftertheactofremembering,etcImustremembertobuysomeflowers.Dontforgettolockthedoors.Iregrettotellyouthatyouhavefailed.</p><p>4.Stop:</p><p>Thegerundreferstoanactionwhichwashappeningbeforetheactofstopping.Westoppedplayingtennisbecauseitgottoodark.</p><p>Theinfinitivetellsuswhytheactionstopped,andwhathappenednext.Westoppedtohaveabreak.</p><p>5.Try:</p><p>VII</p></li><li><p>ANGLEINAslovnica</p><p>Theinfinitivereferstotheaimwewanttoachieve.ItriedtolearnChinese,butitwastoodifficult.</p><p>Thegerundreferstothemethodsweusedtoachievethegoal.Ieventriedtogooneveningclasses.</p><p>I WISH AND IF ONLYIwishandIfonlyarebothusedwhenthespeakerwouldlikeasituationtobedifferent.Forawishaboutthefuture,usewouldotcould:IwishIcouldgotothepartytomorrow.(Iwanttogo,butIcant.)Ifonlyitwouldstopraining!</p><p>Wouldisoftenusedwhenthespeakeriscomplaninigaboutsomething:Iwishshewouldntusemyphonesomuch.Iwishyouwouldbequiet.</p><p>DONOTuseIwould or Wewould afterIwish/wewishorIfonlyI/we!!!</p><p>Forawishaboutthepresent,useapasttenseafterIwishandIfonly:Iwishhedidntsmokesomuch.(Hesmokesalot.)IfonlyIhadacar.(Butihaventgotone.)</p><p>WereinsteadofwasisoftenusedafterwishandIfonly:Iwishhewereherewithmenow.</p><p>Forawishaboutthepast,usethePastPerfectafterwishandIfonlytoexpressregret:Shewishesshehadmarriedhim.(Butshedidntmarryhim.)IfonlyIhadntbeensonervous.(ButIwasnervous.)</p><p>DONOTusewouldhaveafterwishandIfonly!!!!</p><p>DIFFICULT VERBSMakesomeonedosomethingmeanstoobligeorfotcethem:MyparentsmademestudyhardwhenIwasyoung.(active)IwasmadetostudyhardwhenIwasyoung.(passive)</p><p>Letandallowmeantogivepermissionforsomethingtohappen:Heletmedrivehiscar.Heallowedmetodrivehiscar.(act.)</p><p>VIII</p></li><li><p>ANGLEINAslovnica</p><p>Iwasallowedtodrivehiscar.(pass.)</p><p>Noticethatthereisnotobeforetheinfinitiveintheactiveconstructionwithmakeorlet.Thereisnopassiveconstructionforlet.</p><p>Generallyspeaking,doisusedwithnounsexpressingwork,adutyoranobbligation:doyourhomework dothewashingup</p><p>Whenmakeisusedwithnouns,itoftenmeanstoproduceotcreatesomethingnew,whichdidnotexistbefore:makeacake makeaplan makeamistake</p><p>Usedtodoexpressesahabitinthepastwhichisfinishednow.Inthisexpression,usedtoisaverbinthePastSimple:Weusedtowearuniformatschool.Ididntusetolikecurry.</p><p>Be/getusedtomeansbe/getaccustomedtodoingsth,ortoacquireahabitoveralongtime.Intheseexpressions,usedislikeanadjective:AntonettahasgotusedtoeatingdinnerlateinSpain.(Thiswasratherstrangeforherwhenshefirstarrived.)</p><p>Be/getusedtocanbealsofollowedbyanoun:Ittookheralongtimetogetusedtothefood.</p><p>Lie(lying),lied,liednottotellthetruth:Hesalwayslyingtothepeople.Lie(lying),lay,laintobehorizontal:Shelaythereinthesunforhours.Lay(laying),laid,laidtoputsthdown:Helaidthechildgentlyontheground.</p><p>Rise(rising),rose,risentakesnoobject:Pricesroselastyear.Raise(raising),raised,raisedtakesanobject:Heraisedhishand.</p><p>PREPOSITIONSTheprepositionsat,inandonareusedinexpressionsoftime:at4.30,atChristmas,atnight,attheweekend,onMonday,on4thJune,onmybirthday,inthemorning/afternoon/evening,inApril,in1967,in(the)spring/autumn/summer/winter</p><p>Theyarealsousedinexpressionsofplace:(stay)athome,at318OxfordStreet,inBirmingham,inAfrica,onthebeach</p><p>Notethatyoucanarriveatorinsomewhere,butnotto!!!!!!!!!</p><p>IX</p></li><li><p>ANGLEINAslovnica</p><p>Someimportantadjectivesandnounswiththeirprepositionsare:attitudetowards,awareof,capableof,confidentof,crowdedwith,difficultyin, envious/jelousof,fedupwith,guiltyof,intentionof,interestedin,keenon,keyto,pointin, possibilityof,pridein,proudof,reasonfor,resultof,solutionto,surprisedat,suspiciousof, typicalof</p><p>Somecommonverbswiththeirprepositionsare:accusesomeoneof,apologizefor,blamesomeonefor,concentrateon,congratulatesomeoneon,dependon,forgivesomeonefor,insiston,objectto,preventsomeone/sthfrom,succedin</p><p>Theingformnormallyusedafteranadjective,nounorverbpluspreposition:Weforgavehimforlyingtous.</p><p>Notethatthereisnoprepositionaftertheseverbs:ring,phone,discuss,divorce,marry,lack,tell</p><p>Thesameprepositionisoftenusedafteradjectivesorverbswithasimilaroroppositemeaning:care,worry,beanxiousabout(thechild)ready,preparedfor(school)married,engaged,relatedto(thatgirl)good,badat(swimming)approve,disapproveof(hisfriends)angry,annoyed,irritated,furiouswith(him)apply,send,askfor(information)frightened,afraid,scaredof(thedog)agree,disagreewith(them)</p><p>CONJUNCTIONSThelinkingwordsorconjunctionsalthough,however,but,despite,inspiteof,eventhoughandthoughareusedwithdifferentstructures:Althoughitwasraining,hewentforawalk.Itwasraining.However,hewentforawalk.Itwasraining,buthewentforawalk.Despitetherain/Inspiteoftherainhewentforawalk.Inspiteof/Desoitethefactitwasraining,hewentforawalk.Eventhoughitwasraining,hewentforawalk.(astrongerformofalthough)Itwasraining.Hewentforawalk,though.(morecommoninspokenEnglish)</p><p>Notethatdespiteandinspiteofcanonlybefollowedbyanounoragerund.Thegerundcanonlybeusedifthesaubjectofbothpartsofthesentenceisthesame:Despitewinningthescholarship,hecouldnotaffordtogotouniversity.</p><p>Otherusefulconjunctionsareto,inorderto(expressingpurpose),and(whichlinksclausesofequalimportance),because,as,since(usedtogivereasons),when,as,since(referringtotime),if,unless(usedinConditionals)andso/such.......that(expressingresult):Asitwasmyturn,Ipaidthedrinks.Hesbeenillsinceshearrived.</p><p>X</p></li><li><p>ANGLEINAslovnica</p><p>Incasedoesnotmeanif.Itreferstothepossibilityofsomethinghappening.UseeitheraPresentorPasttenseafterit.Donotusewill:Takeakeyincasethedoorislocked.(Itspossiblethatitislocked.)IdidntoffertohelpincaseIoffendedhim.(Imighthaveoffendedhim.)</p><p>Itstimeisusedtosaythatsomethingshouldbedonebecausethetimetodoithascome.Itisnotusedwithfuturetenses.Therearetwowaysofusingit,withthesamemeaning:Itstimeforustogohome Itstimewewenthome.</p><p>MODAL VERBSWill,would,shall,should,can,could,may,might,mustandoughttoarecalledmodalverbs.Theydonothaveotherformsanddonotusedo/didtomakeaquestionoranegative.Notetheshortforms:willnot=wont,shallno=shant,cannot=cant.</p><p>Alltheseverbsexceptoughttotaketheinfinitivewithoutto:Youmuststay. Theycantcome. Wewontseehim.</p><p>Insteadofcan,youcanusebeabletoinalltenses:Illbeabletogetmyvisalater. Hewasabletomarryherafterall.</p><p>Insteadofmust,youcanusehavetoinalltenses:Hehadtobepunished. Itsallright,youwonthavetosayanything.</p><p>Youmustntisanegativeimperative,similartodont:Youmustntplayfootballintheroad.Itsdangerous.</p><p>Youneedntmeansthesameasyoudonthaveto,itisntnecessary.</p><p>Modalverbsareoftenusedwhenwesuppodethatsomethingisorisnttrue,takingintoaccountallfactsavailable.</p><p>Mustisusedwhenweassumesomethingistrue:Youhaventeatenalltheday.Youmustbehungry.</p><p>Cantisusedwhenwesupposesomethingisimpossible:Thoseresultscantberight.Youmusthavemadeamistake.</p><p>May/mightareusedwhensthispossible,butwearenotsureaboutit:Janicemybehere.Tmnotsure. Hemightbeabletohelp,butIcantpromise.</p><p>Notewhathappensifwearereferringtosomethinginthepast:Hemusthavegotthejob.Youcanthavelostyourpassaport.Thaymighthavesignedtheformalready.</p><p>XI</p></li><li><p>ANGLEINAslovnica</p><p>Couldisusedtoexpresspossibilityinasimilarwaytomay/might:Thiscouldbethehousewearelookingfor.</p><p>Couldisalsousedexpressgeneralabilityinthepast:Shecouldswimwhenshewasfive.</p><p>Wasableto/managedto/succededinareusedforaparticularachievmentinthepast:Theyallmanagedtopasstheentrytest.</p><p>Couldntcanbeusedforbothgeneralandparticularsituations.</p><p>XII</p><p>PRESENT SIMPLEPRESENT CONTINUOUSPAST SIMPLEPRESENT PERFECT SIMPLEPRESENT P...</p></li></ul>