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  • PREQIN SPECIAL REPORT:PRIVATE CAPITAL COMPENSATION AND EMPLOYMENTMARCH 2018

    In association with

  • © Preqin Ltd. 2018 / www.preqin.com2

    PREQIN SPECIAL REPORT: PRIVATE CAPITAL COMPENSATION AND EMPLOYMENT

    FOREWORD

    The private capital industry has seen significant growth and development in recent years; with that comes the demand for key talent to undertake specific roles to contribute to the success of this increasingly competitive industry. Assets under management are nearly at the $5tn mark globally, and capital raised has increased year on year since 2010. As the industry has grown, so has the number of firms active in the market. Preqin estimates that there are currently over 7,500 active firms in the industry (as at the end of 2017), each employing staff integral to the firm’s activities and success.

    Preqin and FPL Associates have partnered together to produce The 2018 Preqin Private Capital Compensation and Employment Review, a 218-page publication packed full of data from our latest global compensation survey. In its ninth year, the publication serves an important role in the industry to provide transparency and data in an opaque area of the market.

    Over the course of 2017, we conducted an in-depth survey with 173 leading firms across the private capital industry (private equity, private debt, real estate, infrastructure and natural resources) to gain a better understanding of their compensation practices and remuneration levels. The information and data collected is used to compile meaningful statistics covering a wide range of positions at these firms, from junior-level professionals to senior executives. The publication encompasses all of the major private capital strategies, including buyout, growth, venture capital, distressed debt/special situations, mezzanine, real estate, infrastructure and natural resources. The main publication looks at a wide range of employment practices as well as actual figures for salaries by individual position.

    In this Special Report, we take a look at key highlights of the survey and provide exclusive insights into the main publication.

    p3 Key Facts

    p4 Current Trends in Compensation Practices - FPL Associatesp7 Growing Job Market and Demand for Talentp8 Industry Compensation Practices

    p10 Individual Compensation by Position- Executive Management (Sample Table)

    All rights reserved. The entire contents of Preqin Special Report: Private Capital Compensation and Employment, March 2018 are the Copyright of Preqin Ltd. No part of this publication or any information contained in it may be copied, transmitted by any electronic means, or stored in any electronic or other data storage medium, or printed or published in any document, report or publication, without the express prior written approval of Preqin Ltd. The information presented in Preqin Special Report: Private Capital Compensation and Employment, March 2018 is for information purposes only and does not constitute and should not be construed as a solicitation or other offer, or recommendation to acquire or dispose of any investment or to engage in any other transaction, or as advice of any nature whatsoever. If the reader seeks advice rather than information then he should seek an independent financial advisor and hereby agrees that he will not hold Preqin Ltd. responsible in law or equity for any decisions of whatever nature the reader makes or refrains from making following its use of Preqin Special Report: Private Capital Compensation and Employment, March 2018. While reasonable efforts have been made to obtain information from sources that are believed to be accurate, and to confirm the accuracy of such information wherever possible, Preqin Ltd. does not make any representation or warranty that the information or opinions contained in Preqin Special Report: Private Capital Compensation and Employment, March 2018 are accurate, reliable, up-to-date or complete. Although every reasonable effort has been made to ensure the accuracy of this publication Preqin Ltd. does not accept any responsibility for any errors or omissions within Preqin Special Report: Private Capital Compensation and Employment, March 2018 or for any expense or other loss alleged to have arisen in any way with a reader’s use of this publication.

    PARTICIPATING FIRMS

    We are extremely grateful to all the firms that participated in this important study.

    If you would like to participate in the next survey and receive a free copy of next year’s Review and an exclusive Excel document containing all the compensation data, please contact [email protected]

  • 3

    DOWNLOAD DATA PACK: www.preqin.com/PCCOMP18

    KEY FACTS

    $4.93tnPrivate capital assets under management

    (as at June 2017).

    7,500+Number of firms active in the industry globally.

    200,000Estimated employment

    of the private capital industry.

    $909bnAmount of capital

    distributions in 2016, the highest on record*.

    $754bnAggregate capital raised by private capital funds

    closed in 2017.

    THE STATE OF THE PRIVATE CAPITAL INDUSTRY

    65%of firms expect to increase the size of

    their workforce in 2017/2018.

    61%of firms added to the staff headcount

    in 2016.

    GROWING JOB MARKET AND DEMAND FOR TALENT

    5%Average proportion of women in Chief Executive Officer positions

    at participating firms.

    3%Average proportion of women

    in Managing Director/Partner roles in the investment (deal) team at

    participating firms.

    15%of all senior employees at China-based

    private equity firms are women, the largest proportion among the

    top 10 locations**.

    WOMEN IN THE INDUSTRY

    32.2%Average promote/carried interest

    allocation to CEOs for their most recent fund(s) (as a percentage of GP’s share).

    82%Average allocation of GP’s share

    of carried interest split to partners at buyout firms.

    87%Average allocation of GP’s share of carried

    interest allocated to investment (deal) team employees at venture capital firms.

    SHARE OF PROMOTE/CARRIED INTEREST

    37%A Managing Director/Partner in the investment (deal) team

    in the US makes 37% more (based on median total remuneration) than the same position in Asia-Pacific.

    Chief Executive Officers that work at firms primarily involved in buyout funds earn the highest total

    remuneration out of all private capital strategies.

    COMPENSATION

    The need for good investments

    starts with the deal team

    - Survey respondent

    *Latest full-year total available.**By aggregate capital raised by closed-end funds over the last 10 years by firm location.

  • © Preqin Ltd. 2018 / www.preqin.com4

    PREQIN SPECIAL REPORT: PRIVATE CAPITAL COMPENSATION AND EMPLOYMENT

    Consistent with the past several years, compensation levels continue to rise year-over-year. In this section, we have highlighted some of those key changes. Additionally, we have summarized and expanded on relevant hot topics related to incentive plan design (compensation structure). While the amount of compensation remains a pressing issue, delivering the ‘right’ currency is playing an increasing role in compensation discussions. Specifically, firms are focusing in on delivering the most effective currency for attracting, motivating and retaining key talent. In some cases, this requires more line-of-sight between pay and performance by clearly delineating performance metrics, and in other cases, it means creating long-term incentive plans to serve as an alternative (or additive) to carried interest.

    BASE SALARIESFor the last several years, the vast majority of participants have increased salaries. This year’s survey was no exception, with 77% of firms increasing base salaries by an average of 8.6% (see table).

    These increases are more commonly going to professionals on the investments team and corporate functions. Functions like portfolio management, investor relations (reporting/marketing/support) and capital raising did not see the same frequency or amount of increase in base salaries (on average 36% of firms increased salaries for these functions and by an average of 6.7%). Investments, junior professionals and executive management saw the most dramatic increase in salaries (all above 10%). Not surprisingly, junior-level investment professionals remain the most in-demand functions.

    BONUS TARGETSActual bonus awards remain strong. While the average aggregate bonus pool as a percentage of pre-bonus profits was slightly down from last year (34% from 40%); over half (52%) of participating firms reported bonus increases (up from 47%), with the average individual increase holding steady at just under 18%.

    Bonus practices continue to evolve to be more balanced (not completely discretionary or overly formulaic). Nearly

    60% of participating firms use an annual bonus target. Bonus targets are commonly communicated at the beginning of the year and most often accompanied by specific performance goals/initiatives for the year. Actual awards are driven based upon the achievement of those goals and fall above or below target. Most commonly, awards fall between 50-200% of target (in some cases up to 300%). Goals almost always include some form of company-level performance as well as individual performance and the weighting of these two dimensions (company and individual) is oftentimes driven by level and function within the organization.

    Finally, while not a majority practice, 16% of firms force a deferral of annual bonuses. These deferrals generally range between 15-50% of the award size and cover a three-year window. In general, these types of deferrals are more common at institutional firms (versus independent firms). Bonus deferrals serve as a retention strategy, especially for employees who are not yet eligible for a long-term incentive award like carried interest.

    CURRENT TRENDS IN COMPENSATION PRACTICES- Austin Morris, FPL Associates

    Firm-Wide Changes in Base Salaries and Annual Bonuses by Organization Function and Level

    Salary Annual Bonus

    Percent of Firms that Increased Average Increase

    Percent of Firms that Increased Average Increase

    Function

    Investments (Deal Team) 73% 11.6% 49% 19.0%

    Portfolio Operations (Operating Partners) 34% 6.8% 22% 17.5%

    Investor Relations - Capital Raising 33% 7.0% 23% 16.8%

    Investor Relations - Reporting/Marketing/Support 41% 6.1% 26% 16.0%

    Corporate Operations (i.e., Accounting, HR, IT, Legal) 67% 7.0% 44% 20.3%

    Organization Level

    Company Overall 77% 8.6% 52% 17.7%

    Executive Management 33% 10.2% 34% 16.6%

    Senior-Level Professionals 55% 9.6% 42% 18.3%

    Mid-Level Professionals 57% 8.3% 43% 18.4%

    Junior-Level Professionals 64% 10.3% 43% 15.8%

    Source: The 2018 Preqin Private Capital Compensation and Employment Review

  • 5

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    FPL ASSOCIATES FPL Associates, a member of the FPL Advisory Group family of companies, provides a range of specialized compensation and management consulting solutions to the real estate and related financial services industries. FPL actively represents a number of leading private equity firms in which, as part of our compensation services, we assist such firms in the assessment, design, and implementation of compensation programs. We specialize in compensation benchmarking, program design with respect to crafting performance management and reward systems that align management interests with the achievement of strategic business objectives, employment agreement structuring and negotiation, customized compensation surveys, IPO-related compensation assistance, and integrating compensation plans resulting from mergers/acquisitions.

    www.fpl-global.com

    NON-CARRY LONG-TERM INCENTIVESLast year was the first year in which this survey reported out on non-carried interest long-term incentive (LTI) plans. This year’s results continue to indicate that many of the participants of this survey use this as a third or fourth currency for their professionals (40% of participating firms offer non-carried interest vehicles). Many types of LTI awards are prevalent, including enterprise awards and cash-based awards.

    Firms oftentimes use this currency to achieve one or more initiatives, including: offsetting more modest cash compensation, offsetting modest carried interest allocations, offering a long-term incentive award to employees who would not otherwise be eligible to participate in the carried interest, and/or developing an incentive that ties employees to platform performance versus investment returns.

    CARRIED INTEREST PLANSThe amount of carried interest shared with key members of management remains a key aspect of any private equity firm’s compensation program. While carried interest eligibility expanded at nearly a quarter of participating firms, it remains fairly restrictive, allocated largely to senior professionals and select mid-level investment professionals. Actual allocations are influenced by several key factors and key among them is ownership. Allocations to management teams that

    are captive to larger firms range between 30-60% of the amount of carry received by the GP. Actual allocations are dependent on the type of investment, management’s track record, how much support is being received by the ‘parent’, cash compensation practices and eligibility. For independent firms with active partners, allocations to non-partners tend to fall between 15-30%. This perceived ‘lower’ allocation is typically due to the fact that the active partners within these independent firms have a substantial role as members of the management team, so the traditional approach of analyzing the split between ‘house’ and ‘management’ can be misleading.

    Given the increasingly unique ownership structures (multiple partners, strategic partners and captive structures), there are many approaches to analyzing how much carry should be allocated to the management team. To that end, firms are evaluating market practices in aggregate, by individual, based on capital contribution (co-investment) and ownership, among others. We are increasingly working with firms to evaluate carry allocations based on peer/competitor landscape, but also the company-specific factors that influence carry allocations.

    Many firms continue to use a reserve when allocating carried interest. On average, firms carve out 12% of the carried interest allocated for management into

    a reserve to be used for future awards such as new hires and promotions. As mentioned last year, we are continuing to see more and more firms tie the final vesting event to liquidation of the fund. As it relates to termination provisions, a best practice provides the company the ability to buy out vested interests for departed employees upon termination. When provided the option, this allows companies to differentiate how carry is treated based upon the employee-specific situation.

    CO-INVESTMENTWhile not considered compensation, co-investment continues to be a common requirement and/or option at many firms. Many firms tie co-investment requirements to individual promote allocations. Firms can offset the co-investment requirement by the use of a promote-to-co-investment ratio (i.e. for every three points of promote a participant receives, they are required to co-invest 1% of the GP’s co-investment requirement, or 3:1) and/or a loan. Ratios and/or loan terms vary based upon other compensation program-specific aspects. For example, firms with generous cash compensation arrangements and generous carried interest allocations may require a more robust co-investment requirement from the team. The key to a balanced co-investment program is that it is aligned with carried interest, ownership and/or cash-compensation, and takes into account the other aspects of the overall compensation program.

  • FPL is a global professional services firm that specializes

    in providing executive and Board search, as well as

    leadership, compensation, and management consulting

    solutions to leaders across the real estate,

    infrastructure, hospitality and leisure, and healthcare

    services sectors.

    Visit fpl-global.com for more information.

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    Work with a proven global market leader.

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  • 7

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    GROWING JOB MARKET AND DEMAND FOR TALENT

    EMPLOYMENT LEVELSParticipating firms were asked about changes to their staff headcount over 2016 (Fig. 2). The majority (61%) of firms reported that they added to the staff headcount within their company, while the smallest proportion (8%) made reductions during the year.

    Firms in the study were asked about the level or function that is most in demand from a hiring and retention standpoint, the results of which are shown in Fig. 3. The large majority (72%) of firms stated that the hiring and retention of their investment team (deal team) was the most in demand, with one respondent explaining that “this is the hardest area to gain experience and therefore [to] find experienced individuals”.

    0% 0% 1% 0%

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    Source: The 2018 Preqin Private Capital Compensation and Employment Review

    Prop

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    Fig. 1: Expected Proportional Change in Size of Workforce in 2017/2018 at Participating Firms

    61%

    31%

    8%

    Added to Headcount

    Flat Headcount (No NetAdditions or Reductions)

    Reduced Headcount

    Source: The 2018 Preqin Private Capital Compensation and Employment Review

    Fig. 2: Changes to Company Staff Numbers in 2016 by Headcount

    72%

    10%

    9%

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    Investments (Deal Team)

    Corporate Operations (i.e.Accounting, HR, IT, Legal)

    Portfolio Operations(Operating Partners)

    Executive Management

    Investor Relations -Capital Raising

    Investor Relations -Reporting/Marketing/Support

    Source: The 2018 Preqin Private Capital Compensation and Employment Review

    Fig. 3: Level or Function that Is in the Greatest Demand from a Hiring/Retention Standpoint at Participating Firms

    Fig. 4: Sample Reasons Why Each Level/Function Is in Greatest Demand*

    Level/Function Participant Response

    Investments (Deal Team)“The need for good investments starts with the deal team.”

    “Critical to the success of the business.”

    Corporate Operations (i.e. Accounting, HR, IT, Legal) “Candidates are receiving multiple offers when they are interviewing with the firm.”

    Portfolio Operations (Operating Partners) “Lots of competition for qualified candidates.”

    Executive Management“Very senior, experienced operations professionals are typically very entrenched in their current position and loyal to their firm.”

    “Need highest quality of talent to lead the organization.”

    Investor Relations - Capital Raising “Raising capital continues to be the greatest challenge in our sector.”

    Source: The 2018 Preqin Private Capital Compensation and Employment Review*Some quotes have been edited for clarity or to protect the respondent’s anonymity.

  • © Preqin Ltd. 2018 / www.preqin.com8

    PREQIN SPECIAL REPORT: PRIVATE CAPITAL COMPENSATION AND EMPLOYMENT

    INDUSTRY COMPENSATION PRACTICESBASE SALARIES AND BONUSESFig. 5 shows that the largest proportion (78%) of firms that participated in the most recent compensation and employment survey saw an increase in the firm-wide base salary over the past year. This is indicative of the wider health of the industry, as fundraising continues to gain momentum and more firms enter the marketplace, presenting more employment opportunities for private capital professionals. Notably, 5% of firms saw a rise of more than 20% in the firm-wide base salary.

    The rest of the year reveals more good news for staff at such firms: 68% of survey participants projected an increase in the firm-wide base salary for the period 2017-2018 (Fig. 6). While the largest proportion (54%) of firms predicted an increase of 0.1-10%, a small proportion (3%) were looking to increase the firm-wide base salary by more than 20% during the period. This suggests that firms are more inclined to increase the base salary in smaller increments than in huge raises.

    Twenty percent of firms reported that between 2016 and 2017 there was no change in the base salary of their employees firm wide, while only 2% decreased the firm-wide base salary over the same period (Fig. 5). In the projected timeframe defined in Fig. 6, only 1% of firms will look to decrease the firm-wide base salary, while 31% anticipate that it will not change. While many other companies have seen increases in the base salary of their employees or will look to increase it, this is certainly not the case for all survey participants.

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    Source: The 2018 Preqin Private Capital Compensation and Employment Review

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    Fig. 5: Firm-Wide Changes in Base Salary at Participating Firms between 2016 and 2017

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    Source: The 2018 Preqin Private Capital Compensation and Employment Review

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    Fig. 6: Projected Firm-Wide Changes in Base Salary at Participating Firms between 2017 and 2018

    7%

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    26% 3 Years

    4 Years

    5 Years

    More than 5 Years

    Final Liquidationof the Fund

    Source: The 2018 Preqin Private Capital Compensation and Employment Review

    Fig. 7: Total Number of Years Required to Be Fully Vested

    18% 24% 16% 23% 24%26% 23% 29% 19%

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    Source: The 2018 Preqin Private Capital Compensation and Employment Review

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  • 9

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    PROMOTE/CARRIED INTEREST AWARDSPromote/carried interest awards are an important feature of compensation at private capital firms.

    Fig. 7 shows the total number of years that are required for awards to be fully vested – the largest proportion (29%) of firms in the survey stated that to be fully vested required a time period greater than five years. The second largest proportion (26%) required that the award be fully vested at the final liquidation of the fund. Further analysis reveals that 55% of firms reported that the frequency of vesting used was pro-rata vesting (equal vesting during the period).

    Fig. 8 shows how the GP’s share of the carried interest is distributed among partners and non-partners at private capital firms for independent companies that are owned entirely or mostly by members of management. Infrastructure firms in this study have the largest average allocation (29%) of carried interest distributed to non-partners of all firm types. Venture capital firms have the highest average allocation to partners, at an average of 84% of the carried interest split.

    WOMEN AT PRIVATE CAPITAL FIRMSWhen looking at the representation of women working within different functions at participating firms, data shows that women make up a notable proportion in the investor relations (reporting/marketing/support) department, accounting for a median of 45% of employees in this function area (Fig. 9). For those firms in which women worked in ‘Other’ functions across the firm (median proportion of 22%), these were named to be primarily secretarial, administrative or personal assistant roles.

    Fig. 10 shows the representation of women working in private capital firms

    across various regions. Asia-Pacific has the highest median representation (46%) of female employees as a proportion of total staff at firms based in the region.

    The main publication features information about individual positions at private capital firms, including the average split by gender. For a Managing Director/Partner

    in the investment (deal) team, the position is far more likely to be held by a man, as men make up an average 97% of this position across participating firms (Fig. 11). In contrast, an administrative assistant is more likely to be a woman, with women making up an average of 97% of this position across participating firms.

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    Source: The 2018 Preqin Private Capital Compensation and Employment Review

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    Source: The 2018 Preqin Private Capital Compensation and Employment Review

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    Fig. 10: Average Proportion of Total Employees at Participating Firms that Are Female by Firm Location

    Fig. 11: Gender Split between Managing Director/Partner in Investments (Deal Team) and Administrative Assistant in Corporate Operations

    Function Position Average Male Average Female

    Investments (Deal Team) Managing Director/Partner 97% 3%

    Corporate Operations Administrative Assistant 3% 97%

    Source: The 2018 Preqin Private Capital Compensation and Employment Review

  • © Preqin Ltd. 2018 / www.preqin.com10

    PREQIN SPECIAL REPORT: PRIVATE CAPITAL COMPENSATION AND EMPLOYMENT

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