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  • Last Updated: 27-May-03 Prepositions_Consolidated.doc 1

    Prepositions - 2nd typevEtRumai - 2 (ai)

    - 2 () - 2 () - 2 () - 2 ()

    Usage: The 2nd vEtRumai is used when you apply an action on an object or person. (English does not have any explicit preposition that is used inthis context. Only some pronouns seem to follow Tamil like pattern. For example, "Call him / Call her" - note that we do not say "Call he / Callshe". However, we say "Call Raman / Call it")

    Note:1. In Tamil, the preposition is not written separately. It is invariably merged with the associated object as a suffix.2. There are rules and conventions that may cause some additional letters to get inserted before the preposition.

    Formal Colloquial Meaning+ = + = + = + =

    maram+ai = maraththai~nagam + ai = ~nagaththaipazham + ai = pazhaththaipadam + ai = padaththai

    maraththa~nagaththapazhaththapadaththa

    maraththai ~nadu maraththa ~nadu plant (the) tree ~nagaththai vettu ~nagaththa vettu cut (the) nail pazhaththai uri pazhaththa uri peel (the) fruit padaththai mAttu padaththa mAttu hang (the) picture

    + = + = + = + =

    kAr + ai = kAraithEr + ai = thEraipeyar + ai = peyaraithayir + ai = thayirai

    kArathErapErathayira

    kArai Ottu kAra Ottu drive (the) car thErai izhu thEra izhu pull (the) chariot peyaraic col pErac collu tell (the) name thayiraik kudi thayira kudi drink (the) yogurt

  • Last Updated: 27-May-03 Prepositions_Consolidated.doc 2

    Formal Colloquial Meaning + = + = + = + =

    mAdu + ai = mAttaikUdu + ai = kUttaivIdu + ai = vIttaikAdu + ai = kAttai

    mAttakUttavIttakAtta

    mAttaik kattu mAtta kattu tie (the) cow kUttaip pAr kUtta pAr look (at the) nest vIttaik kattu vItta kattu build (the) house kAttaik kAppAtRu kAtta kAppAththu save/protect (the) forest

    + = + = + = += + =

    puli + ai = puliyaithuNi + ai = thuNiyaivilai + ai = vilaiyaikadalai + ai = kadalaiyaivadai + ai = vadaiyai

    puliyathuNiyavelayakadalayavadaya

    puliyaip pidi puliya pidi catch (the) tiger thuNiyai madi thuNiya madi fold (the) clothes vilaiyaik kEL velaya kEL ask (the) price kadalaiyaik kadi kadalaya kadi bite (the) peanut vadaiyaith thin vadaya thinnu eat (the) vadai

    + = + = + =

    pEccu + ai = pEccaipAttu + ai = pAttaiparuppu + ai = paruppai

    pEccapAttaparuppa

    pEccai ~niRuththu pEcca ~niRuththu stop (the) talk pAttaip pAdu pAtta pAdu sing (the) song paruppaic cAppidu paruppa sAppudu eat (the) lentils

  • Last Updated: 27-May-03 Prepositions_Consolidated.doc 3

    Formal Colloquial Meaning + = + = + = + =

    sORu + ai = sOtRaikayiRu + ai = kayitRaisERu + ai = sEtRaikiNaRu + ai = kiNatRai

    sOththakayaththasEththakeNaththa

    sOtRaip pisai sOththa pesa mix (the) rice kayitRai izhu kayaththa izhu pull (the) rope sEtRai midhikkAdhE sEththa midhikkAdha do not step on the mud kiNatRai vettu keNaththa vettu dig (the) well

    2 + (, , , )

    2 ezhuththu vArththaikuRil + (N, y, l, L)

    + = + = + = + = + =

    kaN + ai = kaNNaipeN + ai = peNNai~ney + ai = ~neyyaikal + ai = kallaikaL + ai = kaLLai

    kaNNapeNNa~neyyakallakaLLa

    kaNNaith thiRa kaNNa theRa open (the) eye peNNaik kUppidu peNNaik kUppidu call (the) woman ~neyyaik kala ~neyya kala mix (the) ghee kallai ~nagarththu kalla ~nagaththu move (the) stone pallaith thEy palla thEy brush (the) teeth kaLLaik kudikkAdhE kaLLa kudikkAdhE do not drink wine

    (3+ / 2 ) + (, , ,)

    (3+ ezhuththu vArththai / 2ezhuththu vArththai~nedil) + (N, y, l, L)

  • Last Updated: 27-May-03 Prepositions_Consolidated.doc 4

    Formal Colloquial Meaning + = + = + = + = + = + = + =

    araN + ai = araNaimagaL + ai = magaLaiural + ai = uralaikAy + ai = kAyaipAl + ai = pAlaikAl + ai = kAlairAman + ai = rAmanai

    araNamagaLauralakAyapAlakAlarAmana

    araNaik kattu araNa kattu build (the) fort magaLaik kUppidu magaLa kUppudu call (the) daughter uralaith thUkku urala thUkku lift (the) mortar kAyai ~naRukku kAya ~naRukku cut (the) vegetable pAlaik kudi pAla kudi drink (the) milk kAlai madakku kAla madakku bend (the) leg rAmanaik kUppidu rAmana kUppudu call Raman

    Word List maram 1. n. tree

    2. n. wood pAttu n. song/poem

    ~nadu 1. v. plant (a tree)2. adj. center; middle

    pAdu v. sing

    ~nagam n. (finger/toe) nail paruppu n. lentils vettu 1. v. cut;

    2. dig (i.e. 'cut' theearth)

    sAppidu v. eat

    pazham n. fruit sORu n. cooked rice uri 1. v. peel

    2. n. skin (archaic) pisai v. knead; mix

    padam n. picture kayiRu n. rope mAttu 1. v. hang (a picture);

    2. v. hook up sERu n. mud

  • Last Updated: 27-May-03 Prepositions_Consolidated.doc 5

    Ottu 1. v. drive2. v. shoo away

    midhi v. step on

    thEr n. chariot kiNaRu n. (open) well

    izhu v. pull vettu v. cut; dig peyar n. name pAl n. milk sol 1. v. say

    2. n. word kUppidu v. call

    thayir n. yogurt kaN n. eye kudi 1. v. drink

    2. n. citizen/subject thiRa v. open

    mAdu n. cow/cattle peN n. woman; girl kattu 1. v. tie (rope, etc.);

    2. v. build3. n. bundle

    ~ney n. ghee

    kUdu 1. n. nest2. v. assemble together

    kala v. mix pAr 1. v. see; look

    2. n. world kal 1. n. stone

    2. v. learn vIdu 1. n. house

    2. n. nirvana/mOksham ~nagarththu v. move; shift

    kAdu n. forest pal n. tooth kAppAtRu v. save; protect thEy 1. v. brush; rub

    2. v. diminish / wearout

    puli n. tiger kaL n. wine pidi 1. v. catch

    2. v. like3. n. a measure ofquantity (handful)4. n. female elephant(archaic)

    kudikkAdhE v. do not drink

  • Last Updated: 27-May-03 Prepositions_Consolidated.doc 6

    thuNi 1. n. clothes2. n. cloth3. v. act bravely; actdecisively4. v. cut (archaic)

    araN n. fort

    madi 1. n. fold2. v. die

    kattu 1. v. build2. v. tie3. n. bundle;4. n. bandage;

    vilai n. price magaL n. daughter kEL 1. v. ask

    2. v. listen ural n. mortar

    kadalai n. peanut thUkku 1. v. lift; raise2. n. a vessel with acarrying handle3. n. hanging noose

    kadi v. bite kAy 1. n. vegetable2. n. game piece

    vadai n. vadai kAl 1. n. leg; foot2. n. quarter

    thin v. eat madakku v. bend; fold pEccu n. talk/speech

  • Last Updated: 27-May-03 Prepositions_Consolidated.doc 7

    Prepositions - 3rd type (by, with)vEtRumai - 3 (Al, Odu, udan)

    - 3 (, , ) - 3 (, , ) - 3 (, , ) - 3 (, , )

    Usage: The 3rd vEtRumai is used when you do something using or with an object / person.English Some examplesThis is usually 'by / using'Sometimes, "with" is used in English. "Eat with a spoon" = "eat using a spoon".

    "Eat with us" = "eat together".

    Note:3. In Tamil, the preposition is not written separately. It is invariably merged with the associated object/person as a suffix.4. There are rules and conventions that may cause some additional letters to get inserted before the preposition.

    Formal Colloquial Meaning Al Ala by (i.e. by using something)

    (Sometimes in English, weuse 'with' in this context)

    Odu Oda with (i.e. together);

    (other meanings: run; rooftile, etc)

    udan Oda along with; together;

    (other meanings:as soon as; immediately;etc)

    + = + = + = + =

    maram + Al = maraththAl~nagam+Al = ~nagaththAlpazham+Odu = pazhaththOdupadam + udan = padaththudan

    maraththAla~nagaththAlapazhaththOdapadaththOda

    by the tree; by wood;by the (finger) nailwith the fruitwith the picture

    maraththAl ~nARkAli sey

    maraththAla ~nARkAli sey make (the) chair with wood

  • Last Updated: 27-May-03 Prepositions_Consolidated.doc 8

    Formal Colloquial Meaning

    i~ndha ~nARkAlikaNNanAl seyyappattadhu

    i~ndha ~nARkAlikaNNanAlaseyyappattadhu

    this chair was made byKannan

    ~nagaththAl kiLLinAn ~nagaththAla kiLLinAn (he) pinched with (his) nails pazhaththOdu va~ndhAr pazhaththOda va~ndhAr he/she (respect) came with

    fruit padaththudan varuvEn padaththOda varuvEn (I) will come with the

    picture

    + = + = + =

    Ur + udan = UrudanpAl + Odu = PAlOduvAL + Al = vALAl

    UrOdaPalOdavALAla

    with the townwith milkby the sword

    Urudan pagaikkAdhE UrOda pagaikkAdha do not fight with the town

    pAlOdu thayiraik kalakku pAlOda thayira kalakku mix yogurt with milk

    vALAl vettu vALAla vettu cut with the sword

    + =

    + = kuRadu + Al = kuRattAlvIdu + Odu = vIttOdu

    kuRattAlavIttOda

    by the plierswith the house

    kuRattAl ANiyaippidu~nggu

    kuRattAla ANiyapidu~nggu

    pull the nail with the pliers

    vIttOdu iru vIttOda iru stay with the house

    + = + =

    kaththi + Al = kaththiyAlvaNdi + Odu = vaNdiyOdu

    kaththiyAlavaNdiyOda

    by the knifewith the cart

    kaththiyAl vetta mudiyum

    kaththiyAla vetta mudiyum (one/we) can cut with knife

  • Last Updated: 27-May-03 Prepositions_Consolidated.doc 9

    Formal Colloquial Meaning

    vaNdiyOdu kArumva~ndhadhu

    vaNdiyOda kArumva~nththu

    the car also came with thecart

    + = + =

    pEccu + Al = pEccAlthattu + Odu = thattOdu

    pEccAlathattOda

    by talkwith plate

    ?

    vettip pEccAl enna lAbam? ?

    vettip pEccAla ennalAbam?

    What is the benefit(obtained) by useless talk?

    thattOdu thA thattOda thA (you) give with the plate

    + = + =

    kayiRu + Al = kayitRAlsORu + Odu = sOtROdu

    kayaththAlasOtROda

    by the ropewith the (cooked) rice

    sOtROdu uppaik kala s