preparing for the future: developing an adaptive army in a ... preparing for the future: developing

Download Preparing for the Future: Developing an Adaptive Army in a ... Preparing for the Future: Developing

Post on 23-Jun-2020

0 views

Category:

Documents

0 download

Embed Size (px)

TRANSCRIPT

  • Preparing for the Future: Developing an Adaptive Army in

    a Time of Peace, 1918-1941

    A Monograph

    by

    MAJ Scott C. Smith United States Army

    School of Advanced Military Studies

    United States Army Command and General Staff College Fort Leavenworth, Kansas

    2015-01

    Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited

  • REPORT DOCUMENTATION PAGE Form Approved OMB No. 0704-0188 Public reporting burden for this collection of information is estimated to average 1 hour per response, including the time for reviewing instructions, searching existing data sources, gathering and maintaining the data needed, and completing and reviewing this collection of information. Send comments regarding this burden estimate or any other aspect of this collection of information, including suggestions for reducing this burden to Department of Defense, Washington Headquarters Services, Directorate for Information Operations and Reports (0704-0188), 1215 Jefferson Davis Highway, Suite 1204, Arlington, VA 22202-4302. Respondents should be aware that notwithstanding any other provision of law, no person shall be subject to any penalty for failing to comply with a collection of information if it does not display a currently valid OMB control number. PLEASE DO NOT RETURN YOUR FORM TO THE ABOVE ADDRESS. 1. REPORT DATE (DD-MM-YYYY) 13-03-2015

    2. REPORT TYPE Master’s Thesis

    3. DATES COVERED (From - To) JUN 2014 – MAY 2015

    4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Preparing for the Future: Developing an Adaptive Army in a Time of Peace, 1918-1941

    5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER

    6. AUTHOR(S) MAJ Scott C. Smith

    5d. PROJECT NUMBER 5e. TASK NUMBER 5f. WORK UNIT NUMBER 7. PERFORMING ORGANIZATION NAME(S) AND ADDRESS(ES)

    U.S. Army Command and General Staff College ATTN: ATZL-SWD-GD Fort Leavenworth, KS 66027-2301

    8. PERFORMING ORG REPORT NUMBER

    9. SPONSORING / MONITORING AGENCY NAME(S) AND ADDRESS(ES) Advanced Operational Arts Studies Fellowship, Advanced Military Studies Program.

    10. SPONSOR/MONITOR’S ACRONYM(S) 11. SPONSOR/MONITOR’S REPORT NUMBER(S) 12. DISTRIBUTION / AVAILABILITY STATEMENT

    Approved for Public Release; Distribution is Unlimited 13. SUPPLEMENTARY NOTES 14. ABSTRACT

    As the US Army transitions into a period of transformation, it is focusing its attention on becoming a more adaptable organization that can meet the challenges of an uncertain future. Faced with personnel and budget reductions, the Army is evaluating changes to its operational doctrine, organizational structure, leader development, and unit training in an effort to become more lethal and expeditionary. The modern Army faces the uncertainties of asymmetrical hybrid threats combining multiple forms of warfare across multiple domains to include cyber and space. Between 1918 and 1941, during the Interwar Period, the Army faced similar uncertainties as the Army attempted to anticipate the impact of rapidly developing technologies in firepower, aviation, mechanization, and motorization and the threat from rising powers in Asia and Europe. While these challenges are significantly different, in both examples emerging technological advances led to changes in the conduct of warfare. To parallel the modern Army’s approach, the examination framed the research around the Interwar Army’s adaptation of its doctrine and organizational structure, development of adaptable leaders through officer education, and preparation of the force for uncertainty through large-scale two-sided maneuvers. The experience of the Interwar Army at developing an adaptable organization provides an historic case study to apply to the modern Army as it transitions for the future.

    15. SUBJECT TERMS United States Army. Interwar Period. Adaptability. Doctrine development. Organizational development. Officer Education. Fort Leavenworth. Command and General Staff School. Large-scale maneuvers. 16. SECURITY CLASSIFICATION OF:

    17. LIMITATION OF ABSTRACT

    18. NUMBER OF PAGES

    19a. NAME OF RESPONSIBLE PERSON MAJ Scott C. Smith a. REPORT b. ABSTRACT c. THIS PAGE 19b. PHONE NUMBER (include area code)

    (U) (U) (U) (U) 76 Standard Form 298 (Rev. 8-98) Prescribed by ANSI Std. Z39.18

  • ii

    Monograph Approval Page

    Name of Candidate: MAJ Scott C. Smith

    Monograph Title: Preparing for the Future: Developing an Adaptive Army in a Time of Peace, 1918-1941

    Approved by: __________________________________, Monograph Director Peter J. Schifferle, PhD __________________________________, Seminar Leader Holger Draber, COL (DEUA) ___________________________________, Director, School of Advanced Military Studies Henry A. Arnold III, COL Accepted this 23rd day of May 2015 by: ___________________________________, Director, Graduate Degree Programs Robert F. Baumann, PhD The opinions and conclusions expressed herein are those of the student author, and do not necessarily represent the views of the U.S. Army Command and General Staff College or any other government agency. (References to this study should include the foregoing statement.)

  • iii

    Abstract

    Preparing for the Future: Developing an Adaptive Army in a Time of Peace, 1918-1941, by Major Scott Smith, 69 pages. As the US Army transitions into a period of transformation, it is focusing its attention on becoming a more adaptable organization that can meet the challenges of an uncertain future. Faced with personnel and budget reductions, the Army is evaluating changes to its operational doctrine, organizational structure, leader development, and unit training in an effort to become more lethal and expeditionary. The modern Army faces the uncertainties of asymmetrical hybrid threats combining multiple forms of warfare across multiple domains to include cyber and space. Between 1918 and 1941, during the Interwar Period, the Army faced similar uncertainties as the Army attempted to anticipate the impact of rapidly developing technologies in firepower, aviation, mechanization, and motorization and the threat from rising powers in Asia and Europe. While these challenges are significantly different, in both examples emerging technological advances led to changes in the conduct of warfare. To parallel the modern Army’s approach, the examination framed the research around the Interwar Army’s adaptation of its doctrine and organizational structure, development of adaptable leaders through officer education, and preparation of the force for uncertainty through large-scale two-sided maneuvers. The experience of the Interwar Army at developing an adaptable organization provides an historic case study to apply to the modern Army as it transitions for the future.

  • iv

    Contents

    Acknowledgments………………………………………………………………………………...vi

    Acronyms…………………………………………………………………………………………vii

    Introduction………………………………………………………………………………………...1

    Organizational Adaptability and the United States Army………………………….….…...1

    The US Army in World War I…………………………………………………………..….5

    The US Army After the War………………………………………………………….……9

    Research Question and Methodology………………………………………………...…..10

    Significance of Study…………………………………………………………………….12

    Part 1. Adapting the Organization and Operational Doctrine………………………………..…….13

    AEF Superior Board on Organization and Tactics………………………………….……14

    The National Defense Act as Amended in 1920…………………………………….……15

    Adapting the Organizational Structure……………………………………………….…..19

    Adapting the Operational Doctrine…………………………………………………….…21

    Summary…………………………………………………………………………………28

    Part 2. Enhancing Leader Adaptability…………..………………………………………………..29

    Limitation to Officer Experience…………………………………………………….…...31

    Focus on Mid-Career Officer Education…………………………………………….…...32

    The Fort Leavenworth Method of Instruction………………………………………..…...33

    Criticism of the Leavenworth Method………………………………………………..…..36

    Summary…………………………………………………………………….…………...38

    Part 3. Testing and Preparing for Degraded Operations………………………………...…………39

    Early Large-scale Maneuvers (1935-1939)…………………………………….………...41

    Protective Mobilization Plan……………………………………………………………..44

    Large-scale Maneuvers 1940……………………………………….…………………….45

  • v

    The GHQ Directed Large Scale Maneuvers of 1941……………………

Recommended

View more >