prenatal development from conception to birth (bsp 1-b)
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- 1. Prenatal Developmentfrom conceptionto birth.
2. How lifebegins.New life begins with the union of a male sex cell (spermatozoon) and afemale sex cell (ovum). Development begins with conception. All of the other cells in your body developed from thissingle cell. Each cells containsenduring messages from the parents carried on the chromosomes. Eachchromosome houses many genes. Within the genes is a substance known as DNA (deoxyribonucleic acid). 3. Periods ofprenatal development The prenatal period extends from conception to birth, usually encompassing nine months of pregnancy. Development during the prenatal period is remarkably rapid.It is divided into three stages: (1) thegerminal stage, (2) the embryonic stage, and (3) the fetal stage. 4. The Germinal Stage The germinal stage is the first phase ofprenatal development, encompassing thefirst two weeks after conception. This stagebegins when a zygote is created through fertilization. Within 36 hours, rapid celldivision begins, and the zygote becomes microscopic mass of multiplying cells. The first cell division is called blastocyst. On the seventh day, the cell mass begins to implantitself in the uterine wall, this process is calledimplantation. 5. The Embryonic Stage The embryonic stage, lasts from two weeks until the end of the second month. Once theplacental circulation is in place; nutrients, oxygen, vitamins, and water in the mothers blood stream pass through the placenta and umbilical cord to the developing organism, which is called embryo.The embryo forms into three germ layers which give rise to different organs and tissues. Themesoderm forms the skeletal, muscle, skin, andlymphatic system. The endoderm forms therespiratory system, stomach, colon, liver,pancreas, urinary system thyroid and parathyroid . The ectoderm forms the central and peripheral nervous system. 6. The Fetal Stage The fetal stage of the fetus is the third stage ofprenatal development, lasting from two monthsthrough birth. Early in this stage muscles andbones begin to form. Fetus becomes capable ofphysical movements as skeletal structures harden. Organs formed in the embryonic stage continue to grow and gradually begin tofunction. Sex organs start to develop during the third month. Approximately the end of the sixth month, the fetus attains viability. 7. Physical andpsychologic al hazards 8. Common Physical Hazards During the Prenatal PeriodFetal StageGerminal Stage-Miscarriages- StarvationEmbryonic Stage - Miscarriage- Prematurity-Lack of uterine - Developmental- Complications ofpreparation irregularities. delivery-Implantation in- Developmentalthe wrong place.irregularities. 9. Psychological Hazard Traditional Maternal stressbeliefs aboutduring theprenatal prenatal period.development.Unfavorableattitudes toward the unborn child. 10. GeneticProblems 11. Down SyndromeAlso known as trisomy21, Down syndromeInherited Diseases Sex-Chromosomescommon illness can be inherited if one is the most Problems anomaly A number of genetic A third type of genetic prenatal development. Downduring problemsparents carries a gene for the or both involves syndrome These include is caused by and extra copy ofsex-chromosomes. disease. Examples of inherited diseasesconditions such as Klinefelters syndromeanemia, Cystic fibrosis,the 21 chromosome (meaning there areinclude Sickle-cell(an extra X-chromosome) and turner of usual two) tests can three chromosomes instead and Tay-Sachs disease. Genetic syndrome (a single X-chromosome). 1 out of everyand impact approximately if a parent is a carrier of often determine 1000 infants. Typical features of down genes for a specific disease.syndrome include flattened facial features,heart defects, and mental retardation. Therisk of having a child with Down syndromeincreases with maternal age. 12. Environmental Problems 13. Maternal Drug Use Maternal Disease The use of substances by the mothercanThere devastating consequences tohave are a number of maternalthe fetus. Smoking is linked to low birth disease that can negatively impact theMaternal Nutritionweight, which canherpes,in a weakenedfetus, including result rubella, andThe developing fetus needs a variety of immune system, poor one of the most AIDS. Herpes virus is respiration, andessential nutrients . Effects of severecommon maternal diseases and can beneurological impairment. Alcohol usemalnutrition can be poor motor skills,can lead fetal alcohol syndrome, whichtransmitted in the fetus, leading to apathy, and irritability during infancy. It deafness, brain swelling, or body is linked to heart defects, mental is important for pregnant women tomalformations, and mental retardation. retardation. Women with herpes virus have nutritionally balanced diets.The use of encouraged to deliver via are often illicit drugs such as cocaineand methamphetamine is also linked to cesarean to avoid transmission of the low birth weight and neurological virus.impairment. 14. References: Armitage JA, Lakasing L, Taylor PD, Balachandran AA, Jensen RI, Dekou V, et.al. Developmental Lahey, Benjamin B. Psychology an Introduction. China: programming of aortic and renal structure in Srinivasan M, Kalewa SD, Palaniyappan A,2009. JD, Patel McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc., Pandya offspring of rats fed fat-rich diets in pregnancy. Lansky, Vicki. Complete Pregnancy & Baby Book. USA: MS. Maternal high-fat diet consumption[ The End ] J Physiol 2005;565:171-84.Copyright 2013 Group 5 results in fetal malprogramming predisposing Publications International, Ltd., 1995. Boney CM, Verma A, Tucker R, Vohr BR. 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