Prehistoric Andean States Wilson Ch.-9 (Part 1) The Chavín & The Moche Chavín Wall

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<ul><li> Slide 1 </li> <li> Prehistoric Andean States Wilson Ch.-9 (Part 1) The Chavn &amp; The Moche Chavn Wall </li> <li> Slide 2 </li> <li> The Chavn Research by Richard Burger (1992) Physical Environment and Subsistence Settlement Pattern, Demography, &amp; Social Organization Urabarriu phase (~1000-500 BC ) Chakinani phase (~500-400 BC ) Janabarriu phase (~400-200 BC ) Social stratificiation- elite priests, economic, political and religious power over other sites Chiefdom, not state society Architecture: began during Urabarriu phase U-Shaped temple Anthropomorphic and zoomorphic stone heads Subterranean galleries and rooms, &amp; a labyrinthine maze </li> <li> Slide 3 </li> <li> The Chavn Political Economy Gallery of the Offerings Burial of a woman and 40 infant teeth 9 doorways to rectangular rooms Foreign pottery indicate trade (Spondylus shells- Ecuador) Interpretations Offerings, stored objects for ritual or redistribution? Air ducts, storage functionality Center for ritual and worship Evidence of trade Shellfish from the Pacific coast, obsidian from Quispisisa in the south, pottery vessels from the Casma Valley. Social Stratification- evident in material culture </li> <li> Slide 4 </li> <li> The Chavn Art Style Artisans or craftspeople Social stratification Figure 9.12 Zoomorphized man with a stalk of San Pedro The Raimondi stela- depicting the Staff God Principal deity of Old Temple: the Lanzn </li> <li> Slide 5 </li> <li> The Chavn Ritual and Leadership Fusion of coastal and tropical forest elements Cosmopolitan ideology Hallucinogenic drugs to transform into mythic creatures Figures depict dripping mucous from the nostrils Similar to the Yanomamo Priestly class and pilgrims </li> <li> Slide 6 </li> <li> The Chavn The Rise and Collapse of the Chavn Cult Environmentally caused economic decline Ideological coping mechanism Deities appear in the art of the Moche &amp; Wari cultures Migration? See Figure 9.13 Staff Deity (Bolivia) Tusked Deity- Lord of Sipn Chavinoid staff goddess with vagina dentata </li> <li> Slide 7 </li> <li> The Moche 1950s emergence of the name for the Mochica (Moche Valley) best candidate for pristine multiv-alley state formation..of South America Early Intermediate culture- AD 100-750 Moche I- shorter spout w/pronounced lip (-AD 400) Moche II-similar spout, smaller lip (up to AD 400) Moche III- flaring spout w/o lip (AD 600-750) Moche IV- taller, straight-sided no lip. Figure 9.14 </li> <li> Slide 8 </li> <li> The Moche Physical Environment North Valley- 30,000 hectares of irrigable land South Valley- 15,000 hectares of irrigable land Semitropical environment Fauna: parrots, toucans, pumas, iguanas, &amp; boas. Represented in the iconography of pottery vessels </li> <li> Slide 9 </li> <li> The Moche Mode of production Agriculture- Andean crops began by 1800 B.C. Coast crops: maize, roots, and tubers, legumes, fruits, cucurbits and chili peppers and cotton. (Plus seafood) Settlement Pattern Cerro Blanco- primary centers site (Moche capital Huaca del Sol Huaca de la Luna personalized columns or walls per each community who built it Fictive reciprocity Functions of the Huacas </li> <li> Slide 10 </li> <li> The Moche Mode of Reproduction 5,000-20,000 people earliest periods Estimated population= 650,000 people Domestic Economy &amp; Social Organization Wattle-and-daub quincha structures Two main rooms Evidence of an artisans class Specialized craft production found among states. Figure 9.17 b </li> <li> Slide 11 </li> <li> The Moche Political Economy Military segmentation for resistance Moche military expansion &amp; conquest Huaca Tembladera Centralized power Similar personalized marks as in Huasca del Sol Ruled by Moche administratos and elite Moche state imposed style of pottery making, pyramid construction and administrative policies Iconography depicts collection of tribute and P.O.W.s Warfare, conquest and coercive control </li> <li> Slide 12 </li> <li> The Moche Ritual, Leadership, and State Ideology Created a powerful ideology, which permeated P.O.W. were sacrificed and their blood was handed to priests as offerings. Religion as means of social control </li> <li> Slide 13 </li> <li> Lord of Sipn Tomb I- largest burial offering of prehispanic vessels ever found Copper bells and backflaps- Decapitator deity Burial included: Hundreds of pottery vessels 2 sacrificed llamas A small child 5 coffins, one warrior missing a his feet Women, all secondary burials from elsewhere not sacrificed there </li> <li> Slide 14 </li> <li> A Model of Moche State Policy Superstructure Ideology Ritual/leadership Structure Social organization Political economy Infrastructure Mode of production Settlement pattern </li> </ul>