Prehistoric 2012

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<ul><li><p>PrehistoryAn Overview</p></li><li><p>Dating Conventions and AbbreviationsB.C.=before Christ B.C.E.=before the Common EraA.D.=Anno Domini (the year of our Lord) C.E.=Common Erac. or ca.= circaC.=century</p></li><li><p>The Paleolithic periodold stone agec. 500,000 BC - c. 6000 BCBasic featuresHunting and gatheringRemarkable art (and religion?)Simple tools of chipped stoneSimple sheltersFirec. 150,000 BCLanguage</p></li><li><p>Homo habilis-lower Paleolithic Handy Man In Africa, an early ancestor of modern humans, called Homo habilisdeveloped the earliest known stone tools. These were relatively simple tools known as choppers. </p><p>These humans likely subsisted on scavenged meat and wild plants, rather than hunted prey. </p><p>Poulnabrone dolmen in County Clare, Ireland</p></li><li><p>Homo erectusUpright man About 1.3to1.8 million years ago.The species originated in Africa and spread as far as India, China and Java H. erectus learned to control fire and created more complex chopper tools, as well as expanding out of Africa to reach Asia.</p></li><li><p>The Mysterious Neanderthal - Middle Paleolithic This period began about 200,000 years ago Neanderthals (closely related to modern humans)lived (c. 120,00035,000 years ago)This period began about 200,000 years ago Neanderthals (closely related to modern humans)lived (c. 120,00035,000 years ago)The stone artifact technology- Mousterian. </p></li><li><p>Extraordinary art!Middle Paleolithic peoples demonstrate the earliest undisputed evidence for art other expressions of abstract thought such as intentional burial of the dead.</p></li><li><p>Human evolution</p></li><li><p>The AustralopithecinesLucy</p></li><li><p>Middle Paleolithic religionritual burial</p></li><li><p>Eating Who was the more productive?The hunter?Or the gatherer?</p></li><li><p>Homo sapiens Upper Paleolithic about 35,000 to 10,000 years agoThe cave art of Lascaux is an example of Upper Paleolithic cultureGlobally, societies were hunter-gatherers evidence of regional identities begins to appear in the wide variety of stone tool types being developed to suit different environments.</p></li><li><p>Homo faberB.C.Early stone toolsA. Homo habilisB. Homo erectusC. NeanderthalA.</p></li><li><p>Cave artWhat general theme is evident here?</p></li><li><p>Cave artists</p></li><li><p>Settling downPrerequisite to civilization</p></li><li><p>The peripatetic lifeTravelling from place to place c</p></li><li><p>The Neolithic periodBegan in Middle East around 6000 BCPolished stone tools More settled, less nomadic lifestylespermanent villagesPopulation increasesDevelopment of a more complex and social order Food productionBasic features </p></li><li><p>The Neolithic periodAdoption of agriculture &amp;The development of pottery More complex, larger settlements such as Catal Huyk and Jericho. Agriculture and the culture it led to spread to the Mediterranean, the Indus valley, China and Southeast Asia.</p><p>The first large-scale constructions were built, including settlement towers and walls, e.g.: Jericho and ceremonial sites, Stonehenge </p><p>Skara Brae, Scotland.</p></li><li><p>The Fertile CrescentShaduf (Arabic) irrigation tool originally developed in ancient MesopotamiaThe Fertile Crescent is a crescent-shaped region containing the comparatively moist and fertile landShaduf or shadoof</p></li><li><p>Farming Development of AgricultureBasis of civilizationinnovations like the use of fire and the development of agriculture the development of tools, language and writing. From Hunter/Gatherer to Horticulturist to AgriculturistAn important center appears to be Greater Mesopotamia (present day Iraq). This is a rich flood plain where wheat, barley, and oats are believed to have originated. The image below shows the Zagros mountains of Iraq where the landscape appears much as it probably was 10,000yearsago.</p></li><li><p>Social Organization/Control</p></li><li><p>Pottery</p></li><li><p>Weaving ,metallurgy </p></li><li><p>Domestication of animals and plantsMilkWorkerMeatTo provide leather, wool, hidesManure for soil conditioning</p></li><li><p>ToolsA wooden axe.Mesolithic Adze mounted directly onto handleflint axe with wooden handleMesolithic AdzeAdze head on digging tool</p></li><li><p>Beaker-period Flint arrowheadsFlint arrowhead, at least 4,000 years oldArrows, as used c. 6000 BCEarly flint arrowFlint Arrowheads, c. 2000 BCNeolithic leaf-shaped Flint arrowheads10000-year-old Sickle, Flint Arrowheads art work of flint head of arrowthree drawings of flint heads, traditional, missing, incurved</p></li><li><p>The first writing</p></li><li><p>Evolution of shelters HutLean toTent Pit houses </p></li><li><p>Paleolithic periodHutTerra Amata, near Nice in Francebetween 450,000 and 380,000 BCEThe hut included a hearth, or fireplace and was made by bracing branches with a circle of large and small stones.The hut was 8 meters long by 4 meters wide.Hand-axes and other stone tools and flakes were found in the vicinity</p></li><li><p>Paleolithic periodtentPlateau Parain in France. Dated to about 15,000 to 10,000 BCE, tent was suspended over a wooden framework and held down by stones. It included a central hearth. Stone tools were fond in the area around this site. </p></li><li><p>Paleolithic periodLean toLe lazaret cave is located in southern France .Between 186,000 and 127,000 years ago.Area of the cave 32 by 11 feet. </p></li><li><p>Neolithic period Stonehenge Stonehenge is probably the most important prehistoric monument in the whole of Britain and has attracted visitors from earliest times. It stands as a timeless monument to the people who built it.The Stonehenge that we see today is the final stage that was completed about 3500 years ago,The first Stonehenge was a large earthwork . built around 3100 BC. They form a circle about 284 feet in diameter.</p></li><li><p>Neolithic periodThe second and most dramatic stage of Stonehenge started around 2150 BC. Some 82 bluestones from the Preseli mountains, in south-west Wales were transported to the site. During the same period the original entrance of the circular earthwork was widened and a pair of Heel Stones were erected. Also the nearer part of the Avenue was built, aligned with the midsummer sunrise.</p></li><li><p>Neolithic periodThe third stage of Stonehenge, about 2000 BC, saw the arrival of the Sarsen stones, which were almost certainly brought from the Marlborough Downs near Avebury, in north Wiltshire, about 25 miles north of Stonehenge. Modern calculations show that it would have taken 500 men using leather ropes to pull one stone, with an extra 100 men needed to lay the huge rollers in front of the sledge.These were arranged in an outer circle with a continuous run of lintels. Inside the circle, five trilithons were placed in a horseshoe arrangement, whose remains we can still see today.</p></li><li><p>Neolithic periodSkara brae Skara Brae, situated near the Bay of Skaill on Orkney's Mainland, is unique: it is a complete village with houses and streets. The houses are built closely togetherand made of stone. The spaces between the houses was filled with rubbish and turf for some kind of protection against the wind.he houses, which measure from 4.3m x 4mto 6.4m x 6.1m, were probably roofed with timber, whalebone, turf and heather.It is a free-standing structure, with a central hearth but no household furniture.</p></li><li><p>Neolithic periodAin MallahaAin mallaha ,near lake hulen,israel .Between 9000-8000 BC.There were about 5o dry stone huts on a open site of some 2000sq.mMost of them circular, semi-subterranean and rock lined, from 3m to 9m in dia.Beehive forms were constructed of reeds and were supported on posts </p><p>The huts were dug into the bank on the upper side to a depth of about 1.3m and the entrance were located on the lower side.Some of the huts had stone paved floors, and had walls finished with lime plaster painted red ochre</p></li><li><p>Catal HykModern Turkey. 6500 BCE.Situated at the foot of the Taurus mountains in Anatolia. It extended over 13 ha (32 acres) with a population of 20000-60000 people.</p><p>Rectangular single roomed houses each about 25sq.mwith plastered walls and floors.Densely packed with open courtyard .floor were covered with straw mats and wall designed with simple geometric designs.</p></li><li><p>Catal Hyk</p></li><li><p>Animals were kept in very close proximity to human living quarters. The flat roof-tops of houses were used as living space in the evening. Later, open central courtyards were developed</p></li><li><p>beidha The first hut in beidha (7000 -6000BC),in southern Jordan.the dwellings and storerooms were grouped in clusters within walled courtyards,Whole village was surrounded by a stone wall. </p><p>Each house had one room measuring 7mx9m.Floor and walls were plaster with red stripes </p><p> Anumber of shrine like buildings found at Jericho (7000 BC).A small room ,consist of standing stone with in a niche. inner chamber containing a pair of stone pillars symmetrically. </p></li><li><p>Arphachiyah -5000bc beehive shaped tholoi were built in the Mesopotamian lowlands during the Neolithic period .it is in keyhole -shaped in plan.Walls were 2m thick . Rectangular anti rooms were up to 19m long.Domed chambers up to 10m across.Walls were plasters ,occasionally painted red,Roofs were thatched .</p></li><li><p>Khirokitia located in Cyprus -5650 BC.Round houses 3m to 8m in diameter.Lower part of the walls were made up of limestone.Dome is constructed using mud brick </p><p>Some houses had double wallsStone pillars were constructed to support the lofts Outbuilding used for grinding corn,Storage, cooking andWorkshops.Wall courtyard </p></li></ul>