pregnancy and fetal development

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Pregnancy and Fetal Development. John J. Parrish. Exchange. Endocrine. Chemical Protection. Physical Protection. Placental Functions. Placenta. Exchange. Endocrine. Chemical Protection. Physical Protection. Placental Functions. Gas Nutrients Waste products. Transient Estrogen - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

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  • Pregnancy and Fetal DevelopmentJohn J. Parrish

  • Placental FunctionsPlacenta

  • Placental FunctionsPlacentaGasNutrientsWaste productsImmunosupressionPrevents infiltration by maternal defensesFilters toxinsShock AbsorberTransientEstrogenProgesteroneHCGeCGPL

  • Similarities in Early DevelopmentMANPIGBIRD

  • Developmental HorizonsMareCowEweSowWoman Germ layers13-141410-147-810-14 Open neural tube2015-2113 Fusion of chorioamniontic folds181716 Heart beat apparent2421-22201625 Limb buds visible242528-3517-1828 Cotelydons first appear30 Eye differentiation4030-4542-4921-28 Birth340280147-155112266Developmental FeaturesCritical Organ Systems Develop Early!

  • Fetal Development in the HumanOvulationLength (cm)Age of Fetus (weeks since last menstruation)Weight (kg)Parturition

  • CrownRumpEstimates of AgeCrown rump lengthLength femur, radius or tibiaCircumference of head

  • Factors Influencing Fetal GrowthGenetics

    Species

    Breed

    Litter size

    Genotype

    Fetal Hormones

    Thyroid

    Insulin

    Growth hormone

    Environment

    Mother Nutrition Size, Parity

    Placenta Blood flow Size

  • Factors Influencing Fetal GrowthGenetics

    Species

    Breed

    Litter size

    Genotype

  • Factors Influencing Fetal GrowthGenetics

    Species

    Breed

    Litter size

    Genotype

  • Genetics

    Species

    Breed

    Litter size

    Genotype

    Factors Influencing Fetal Growth

  • Genetics

    Species

    Breed

    Litter size

    Genotype

    Factors Influencing Fetal GrowthCertains lines of animals may grow faster.

  • Factors Influencing Fetal Growth Environment

    Mother Nutrition Size, Parity

    Placenta Blood flow Size

  • Factors Influencing Fetal Growth Environment

    Mother Nutrition Size, Parity

    Placenta Blood flow Size

  • Factors Influencing Fetal GrowthFetal Hormones

    Thyroid

    Insulin

    Growth hormone

    Skeletal and muscular developmentIncreased energy substrate availability and stimulates placental growth Stimulates fetal growth

  • Uterine Size Changes During PregnancyHyperplasiaIncrease in # of cellsHypertrophyIncrease in size of cellsStretching

  • PlacentaLiverLeft AtriumLungsRight AtriumForamenOvaleDuctusVenosusDuctusArteriosusAortaUmbilical ArteriesUmbilical VeinPortal VeinVena CavaHeadand HeartTissues

  • Relative P4 and E2Weeks of GestationOvulation

  • Relative P4 and E2

  • Relative P4 and E2Weeks of GestationOvulation

  • Relative P4 and E2Weeks of GestationOvulation

  • Progesterone Maintains Pregnancy!

  • Progesterone is Essential To Maintain PregnancyCorpus LuteumPlacenta

  • Other Species in Which Placenta Does not Take-over Progesterone ProductionBitchQueenAlpaca, Llama, CamelRabbitGoat

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