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  • Pregled / Overview

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    Pregled / Overview

  • SARDINIJAArhitektura kamna

    Univerza v Ljubljani

    Fakulteta za arhitekturo

    Ljubljana 2003

    University of Ljubljana

    Faculty of Architecture

    Borut JuvanecDomen Zupanèiè

    S A R D I N I AArchitecture of Stone

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  • CIP - Katalo�ni zapis o publikacijiNarodna in univerzitetna knji�nica, Ljubljana

    726.6(450.88)72.023:691.2

    JUVANEC, BorutSardinija : arhitektura kamna / Borut Juvanec, Domen Zupanèiè.

    - Ljubljana : Fakulteta za arhitekturo, 2003

    ISBN 961-6160-46-X1. Zupanèiè, Domen126844672p

    2

    Avtorji slik in risb:

    Leto:

    Authors of photographs and sketches:

    English:

    Year:

    Angleški jezik:

    Borut JuvanecDomen Zupanèiè

    Borut JuvanecDomen ZupanèièEdo WallnerMaj Juvanec

    Ivan Staniè

    2003

    SARDINIJAArhitektura kamna

    S A R D I N I AArchitecture of Stone

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  • KAZALO / Contents

    4

    2733

    59

    1923

    434952555658596263

    MapMenhir

    DolmenTheoryTombs

    Sacret Wells

    Nuraghi

    Stone Shelters

    AbstractIndex

    Sardinijatamul, Macomer

    Sa Coveccadakorbeling

    domus de janas, Pottu Codinutomb of giants, S nna E Thomes

    Sant

    MacomerRomana

    Sa Coveccada

    ’e ’’ Anastasia, Sardara

    Santa Cristina, PaulilatinoSantu Antine

    Su NuraxiPinetu

    3

    Karta

    Sveti vodnjaki

    zatoèišèa

    Viri in literatura

    MenhirDolmenTeorija

    Grobovi

    Nuraghi

    Kamnita

    Sardiniatamul, MacomerSa Coveccadacorbelingdomus de janas, Pottu Codinutomba dei giganti, S nna E ThomesSant

    MacomerRomanaSa Coveccada

    ’e ’’Anastasia, Sardara

    Santa Cristina, PaulilatinoSantu AntineSu NuraxiPinetu

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  • SardinijaSardinia

    Prve in najstarejše arhitekture kar jihpoznamo danes segajo vse došestega tisoèletja pred našimštetjem. Imamo nekaj ostankovbivalne arhitekture, veè pa vemo oarhitekturi za mrtve, za bogove in zakralje. Zakaj je veè slednjih: takomrtvim kakor bogovom in kraljemsmo �e od nekdaj posveèali veèpozornosti kot �ivim, zato so objektigrajeni v kamnu. Izbor materiala jebil postavljen logièno in z zanesljivimuspehom - �ivi smo si hiše iz blata inslame, iz obdelane gline, iz lesa in izmajhnih kamnov obnavljali, mrtvitega niso poèeli. Ne bogovi. Ne kralji.Zato so ti dobili domovanja izobstojnejšega materiala, pa �ekonstrukcija je najbolj varna: izvelikih kamnov.Tako poznamo megalitske in drugestrukture vse od èetrtega tisoèletja,pri tem pa so spomeniki èlovekovemisli in spretnosti, �elja in znanja vobjektih na Sardiniji v zgodoviniarhitekture na pomembnem mestu.Na otoku najdemo obrambneobjekte nuraghe (nuraghe, pluralnuraghi, po nekaterih virih tudi sunuraxi), tombe dei giganti (grobnicevelikanov), menhire (tamule) indolmene, domus de janas (grobnicev kamnu, nekake nekropole),nuragijska naselja pa svetevodnjake.

    4

    Sredo emsko morjezSredo emsko morjez

    0 10 20 30 40 km40 km

    Olbia

    Nuoro

    CagliariIglesias

    BaruminiSardara

    Mores

    Santa Cristina

    Baleari

    Marseille Corse

    Arzachena

    Sassari

    Dorgali

    Alghero

    OristanoTirensko morjeTirensko morje

    Sa Coveccada

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  • GROBOVIDOMUS DE JANAS, Pottu Codinu

    V eni izmed grobnic se pojavi strop, ki grozi, da bopadlel, a je prikaz bivališèa za �ive. Konstrukcija jepreprosta in razpoznavna. Preko osnega "trama" jenapeta tkanina. Edino blago, platno se lahko takopovezi. Hipoteza, da so preko trama na zidovepostavljene deske, ne vzdr�i preveritve. Pri deskah bibila taka deformacija (poves) znak dotrajanostimateriala. Bil bi nesmisel, da se pokojnemu izdolbe vkamen grobnica in nadenj postavi trhlo streho, kigrozi da bo padla.

    25

    Slika 13Tkanina in lesen tram.Fibre and wooden beam.

    Tombs, Domus de Janas, Pottu Codinu

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  • GROBOVIDOMUS DE JANAS, Pottu Codinu

    Slika 14Grobnica.The tomb.

    26

    Slika 15Prof Juvanec in prof Gabijelèiè.Prof Juvanec and prof Gabrijelèiè.

    Slika 16Na koncu je manjša niša.At the end of the tomb is small niche.

    Tombs, Domus de Janas, Pottu Codinu

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  • GROBOVITOMBA DEI GIGANTI, S'enna E'Thomes

    prostor za darovanje in �alujoèe

    stela

    hodnik

    29

    Risba 22Shema postavitve elementov.

    Scheme of elements.

    Slika 17Delo na terenu, 1996.

    Field work, 1996.

    Tombs, Tomb of Giants, S'enna E'Thomes

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  • POZZO SACRO, Sant Anastasia, Sardara'

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    SVETI VODNJAKI

    38

    Risba 28Tloris in razmerja.Ground plan and its proportions.

    Risba 29Kocka in oblika.Cube and the form of well.

    Sacred Well, Sant Anastasia, Sardara'

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  • POZZO SACRO, Sant Anastasia, Sardara'

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    Risba 30Kocki zajemata podzemno kompozicijo vonjaka.

    Cubes determine underground level of the well.

    Sacred Well, Sant Anastasia, Sardara'

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  • POZZO SACRO, Sant Anastasia, Sardara'

    Preveritev hipoteze o vpadnem kotu sonca63,5o

    Postavljena je bila hipoteza, da potuje sonèni �arekskozi vstopno stopnišèe na gladino vode, se od njeodbije in se prika�e pri luknji nad vodnjakom.Profesor Juvanec je za preveritev teze uporabillaser.

    19. septembra 2003 sva (avtorja) na lokacijivodnjaka v Sardari izvedla poskus. Uporabila svalaserski kazalnik, zrcalo in medij (plastificiran pauspapir).

    Z laserskim �arkom sva preko zrcala simuliralapotek sonènih �arkov (predvidoma 18.avgusta) in doloèili vpadni kot, ki je znašal 63-64 .Na mesto predvidenega odboja sva namestilazrcalo, kajti v vodnjaku ni vode, saj jo sprotipreèrpavajo. Pri luknji nad vodnjakom sva

    Teza o odboju je bila s tem potrjena. V nadaljevanjuraziskave je potrebno še matematièno -astronomsko (empirièno) doloèiti vpadni kot soncain dobljene rezultate dodatno ovrednotiti.

    17. aprila in

    laserski�arek prestregla z medijem. Poskus je uspel. Namediju se jasno vidi rdeèa pika odbitega laserskega�arka.

    o

    SVETI VODNJAKI

    40

    Slika 25Poskus in preveritev hipoteze.Experiment of simulation of the Sun ray.

    Sacred Well, Sant Anastasia, Sardara'

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  • KAMNITA ZATOÈIŠÈAPINETA, Sa Coveccada

    ostrešje

    špirovec

    letev

    suhi zid

    prima

    rnaob

    loga

    61

    Risba 39Prerez in sestava.

    Cross section and elements.

    Slika 44Profesor pri delu.Professor at work.

    Slika 45Pogled v vrh strehe.

    View under the roof top.

    Stone Shelters, Pineta, Sa Coveccada

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  • 62

    Abstract

    The first and oldest architecture, as we know it, has its' origins in the 6th century BC. There are some remnantsof residential architecture but we know much more about architecture for the Gods, kings and deceased.Why? The reasons are simple. First, death and kings have always been unavoidable and predictable. Second,they used stone. Tombs are built of stone. In day-to-day life wood and mud were used as building material.Tombs however were built to remain eternally. Sardinia's stone is volcanic and very hard to shape. Usuallystones were simply taken as they were in nature and laid in big piles the Nuraghi, which were fortresses withadjacent settlements. In the case of Santa Cristina Casa dei Reunioni, the parliament and sacred well werealso included in the Nuraghi village. Pre-roman culture has not been very well researched, but manyresearchers have nevertheless tried to answer the question, why Nuraghis were built. Throughout the islandlie many Nuraghi and tombs. A hypothesis is that these massive buildings were communication towers withthe top platform being used for burning pyres to warn about ensuing danger. There are two types of tombs inSardinia: domus de janas labyrinth tombs cut out of bedrock, and tombe dei giganti tombs for the giantsmade of a set of dolmens and a big stella. The door on the stella measures 30 x 40 cm! On the island we canalso find interestingly shaped menhirs named tamuls.

    Water is a living liquid and has sacred powers. In sacred wells water is given a new role, that of a mirror.Beams of light enter and touch the water surface and are reflected. The miracle happens when light comes outof the Earth, from the hole at the top of the well.

    Sardinia abounds with megalithic and other structures. They are the remnants of human spirit, thinking andknowledge.

    " "

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  • 63

    VIRI IN LITERATURABenvenuto,E.,1990:La statica delle false volteArch in pietra a secco 193, Fasano, Italia.Contu,E., 1981:L'ARCHITETTURA NURAGICA Ichnussa, Libri Scheiwiller, Milano, Italia.Contu,E.:Pozzi Sacri, ipotesi ricostruttive,SACER, Sassari, Sardinia, Italia.Curl Stevens, J., 1999:Dictionary of Architecture, Oxford University Press, Oxford, Great Britain.Joussaume,R., 1985:DES DOLMENS POUR LES MORTS, Hachette, Paris, Italia.Joussaume,R., 1981:Le Neolithique de l'Aunis..,Travaux du labor, CNRS, Rennes, France.Juvanec,B., 1997: STONE BY STONE, short version, Univerza v Ljubljani, Ljubljana, Slovenija.Juvanec,B., 2003: PINETA, Documentation, Ljubljana University, Ljubljana, Slovenija.Juvanec,B., 2003: Vaulting, Facing an Infilling,http://pierreseche.chez.tiscali.fr, Paris, France.Juvanec,B., 2001: Reinventer les abris en pierre, lectu UNESCO/ICOMOS, Canada.Juvanec,B., 2000: Bethlehem to Rome, Lobrano to Juvanec, Universita La Sapienza,Roma, Italia.Juvanec,B., 2001: Irrigation System of Malta, document, Universita ta Malta, Msida, Malta.Juvanec,B., 2002: DRY STONE WALLING: What has been done, Stiftung Umwelt Schweiz, Visp, Swiss.Juvanec,B., 2002: ORDER AND DISORDER, research, AEEA Association Europeen d'Education Arc, Koebenhavn, Danmark.Juvanec,B., 1997: PINETA/ I, research, Ljubljana University, Ljubljana, Slovenija.Juvanec,B., 2003: Europpalainen maaseudun kivirakennusp,http://pakana.50megs.com/nuragh1.htm,Helsinki / SF, Finland.Juvanec,B., 2001: Six Thousand Years of Corbelling, UNESCO/ICOMOS Congress I, Paris, France.Kirova,T. et al, 1985: OLIENA, Territorio Ambiente Architett, Comune di Nuoro, Nuoro, Sardinia, Italia.Langhein,J., 2003: Allgemeine Proportiontheorie, Ordo et Mensura viii, Berlin, Deutschland.Lassure,C., 1999: Projet de restauration par B Juvanec, l'AV 23(CERAV)91-93, Paris, France.Lilliu,G., 1993: SARDINIA OF THE NURAGHI, Ist. geogr. de Agostini, Novara, Sardina, Italia.Lilliu,G., 1975: LA CIVILTA DEI SARDI (NEOL. - NURAGI),RAI, Roma, Italia.Oliver,P. et al, 1997: ENCYCLOPEDIA OF VERNACULAR ARCHIT…,Cambridge Univ. Press, Cambridge, Great Britain.Oliver, P., 2003: Dwellings, Phaidon, London, Great Britain.Parker,M. et al, 1999:ARCHITECTURE & ORDER, Routledge, London, Great Britain.Renfrew,C., 1981:THE MEGALITH MONUMENTS OF W EUROPE,Thames and Hudson, London,Rohlfs,G., 1963: PRIMITIVE COSTRUZIONI A CUPOLA, Olschi Editori, Firenze, Italia.Šprajc,I., 1991: ARHEOASTRONOMIJA, Arheo, Ljubljana, Slovenija.

    Montreal,

    Great Britain.

    Index

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  • 64

    Borut JuvanecDomen Zupanèiè

    SARDINIJAArhitektura kamna

    Ljubljana 2003

    Univerza v Ljubljani

    Fakulteta za arhitekturo

    Zoisova 121000 Ljubljana

    University of Ljubljana

    Faculty of Architecture

    SARDINIAArchitecture of Stone

    9 7 8 9 6 1 6 1 6 0 4 6 9

    ISBN 961- 6160 - 46-X

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    Naslovnica_AASardinija_Kamen_Arhitektura_2003.pdfNaslovnica_AASardinija_01_AA_cbSardinija_02_AA_cbSardinija_03_AA_cbSardinija_04_AA_cbSardinija_05_AA_cbSardinija_06_AA_cbSardinija_07_AA_cbSardinija_AA_barvne_strani

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    /ColorImageDict > /JPEG2000ColorACSImageDict > /JPEG2000ColorImageDict > /AntiAliasGrayImages false /DownsampleGrayImages true /GrayImageDownsampleType /Bicubic /GrayImageResolution 300 /GrayImageDepth -1 /GrayImageDownsampleThreshold 1.50000 /EncodeGrayImages true /GrayImageFilter /DCTEncode /AutoFilterGrayImages true /GrayImageAutoFilterStrategy /JPEG /GrayACSImageDict > /GrayImageDict > /JPEG2000GrayACSImageDict > /JPEG2000GrayImageDict > /AntiAliasMonoImages false /DownsampleMonoImages true /MonoImageDownsampleType /Bicubic /MonoImageResolution 1200 /MonoImageDepth -1 /MonoImageDownsampleThreshold 1.50000 /EncodeMonoImages true /MonoImageFilter /CCITTFaxEncode /MonoImageDict > /AllowPSXObjects false /PDFX1aCheck false /PDFX3Check false /PDFXCompliantPDFOnly false /PDFXNoTrimBoxError true /PDFXTrimBoxToMediaBoxOffset [ 0.00000 0.00000 0.00000 0.00000 ] /PDFXSetBleedBoxToMediaBox true /PDFXBleedBoxToTrimBoxOffset [ 0.00000 0.00000 0.00000 0.00000 ] /PDFXOutputIntentProfile () /PDFXOutputCondition () /PDFXRegistryName (http://www.color.org) /PDFXTrapped /Unknown

    /Description >>> setdistillerparams> setpagedevice

    /ColorImageDict > /JPEG2000ColorACSImageDict > /JPEG2000ColorImageDict > /AntiAliasGrayImages false /DownsampleGrayImages true /GrayImageDownsampleType /Bicubic /GrayImageResolution 300 /GrayImageDepth -1 /GrayImageDownsampleThreshold 1.50000 /EncodeGrayImages true /GrayImageFilter /DCTEncode /AutoFilterGrayImages true /GrayImageAutoFilterStrategy /JPEG /GrayACSImageDict > /GrayImageDict > /JPEG2000GrayACSImageDict > /JPEG2000GrayImageDict > /AntiAliasMonoImages false /DownsampleMonoImages true /MonoImageDownsampleType /Bicubic /MonoImageResolution 1200 /MonoImageDepth -1 /MonoImageDownsampleThreshold 1.50000 /EncodeMonoImages true /MonoImageFilter /CCITTFaxEncode /MonoImageDict > /AllowPSXObjects false /PDFX1aCheck false /PDFX3Check false /PDFXCompliantPDFOnly false /PDFXNoTrimBoxError true /PDFXTrimBoxToMediaBoxOffset [ 0.00000 0.00000 0.00000 0.00000 ] /PDFXSetBleedBoxToMediaBox true /PDFXBleedBoxToTrimBoxOffset [ 0.00000 0.00000 0.00000 0.00000 ] /PDFXOutputIntentProfile () /PDFXOutputCondition () /PDFXRegistryName (http://www.color.org) /PDFXTrapped /Unknown

    /Description >>> setdistillerparams> setpagedevice

    /ColorImageDict > /JPEG2000ColorACSImageDict > /JPEG2000ColorImageDict > /AntiAliasGrayImages false /DownsampleGrayImages true /GrayImageDownsampleType /Bicubic /GrayImageResolution 300 /GrayImageDepth -1 /GrayImageDownsampleThreshold 1.50000 /EncodeGrayImages true /GrayImageFilter /DCTEncode /AutoFilterGrayImages true /GrayImageAutoFilterStrategy /JPEG /GrayACSImageDict > /GrayImageDict > /JPEG2000GrayACSImageDict > /JPEG2000GrayImageDict > /AntiAliasMonoImages false /DownsampleMonoImages true /MonoImageDownsampleType /Bicubic /MonoImageResolution 1200 /MonoImageDepth -1 /MonoImageDownsampleThreshold 1.50000 /EncodeMonoImages true /MonoImageFilter /CCITTFaxEncode /MonoImageDict > /AllowPSXObjects false /PDFX1aCheck false /PDFX3Check false /PDFXCompliantPDFOnly false /PDFXNoTrimBoxError true /PDFXTrimBoxToMediaBoxOffset [ 0.00000 0.00000 0.00000 0.00000 ] /PDFXSetBleedBoxToMediaBox true /PDFXBleedBoxToTrimBoxOffset [ 0.00000 0.00000 0.00000 0.00000 ] /PDFXOutputIntentProfile () /PDFXOutputCondition () /PDFXRegistryName (http://www.color.org) /PDFXTrapped /Unknown

    /Description >>> setdistillerparams> setpagedevice

    /ColorImageDict > /JPEG2000ColorACSImageDict > /JPEG2000ColorImageDict > /AntiAliasGrayImages false /DownsampleGrayImages true /GrayImageDownsampleType /Bicubic /GrayImageResolution 300 /GrayImageDepth -1 /GrayImageDownsampleThreshold 1.50000 /EncodeGrayImages true /GrayImageFilter /DCTEncode /AutoFilterGrayImages true /GrayImageAutoFilterStrategy /JPEG /GrayACSImageDict > /GrayImageDict > /JPEG2000GrayACSImageDict > /JPEG2000GrayImageDict > /AntiAliasMonoImages false /DownsampleMonoImages true /MonoImageDownsampleType /Bicubic /MonoImageResolution 1200 /MonoImageDepth -1 /MonoImageDownsampleThreshold 1.50000 /EncodeMonoImages true /MonoImageFilter /CCITTFaxEncode /MonoImageDict > /AllowPSXObjects false /PDFX1aCheck false /PDFX3Check false /PDFXCompliantPDFOnly false /PDFXNoTrimBoxError true /PDFXTrimBoxToMediaBoxOffset [ 0.00000 0.00000 0.00000 0.00000 ] /PDFXSetBleedBoxToMediaBox true /PDFXBleedBoxToTrimBoxOffset [ 0.00000 0.00000 0.00000 0.00000 ] /PDFXOutputIntentProfile () /PDFXOutputCondition () /PDFXRegistryName (http://www.color.org) /PDFXTrapped /Unknown

    /Description >>> setdistillerparams> setpagedevice

    /ColorImageDict > /JPEG2000ColorACSImageDict > /JPEG2000ColorImageDict > /AntiAliasGrayImages false /DownsampleGrayImages true /GrayImageDownsampleType /Bicubic /GrayImageResolution 300 /GrayImageDepth -1 /GrayImageDownsampleThreshold 1.50000 /EncodeGrayImages true /GrayImageFilter /DCTEncode /AutoFilterGrayImages true /GrayImageAutoFilterStrategy /JPEG /GrayACSImageDict > /GrayImageDict > /JPEG2000GrayACSImageDict > /JPEG2000GrayImageDict > /AntiAliasMonoImages false /DownsampleMonoImages true /MonoImageDownsampleType /Bicubic /MonoImageResolution 1200 /MonoImageDepth -1 /MonoImageDownsampleThreshold 1.50000 /EncodeMonoImages true /MonoImageFilter /CCITTFaxEncode /MonoImageDict > /AllowPSXObjects false /PDFX1aCheck false /PDFX3Check false /PDFXCompliantPDFOnly false /PDFXNoTrimBoxError true /PDFXTrimBoxToMediaBoxOffset [ 0.00000 0.00000 0.00000 0.00000 ] /PDFXSetBleedBoxToMediaBox true /PDFXBleedBoxToTrimBoxOffset [ 0.00000 0.00000 0.00000 0.00000 ] /PDFXOutputIntentProfile () /PDFXOutputCondition () /PDFXRegistryName (http://www.color.org) /PDFXTrapped /Unknown

    /Description >>> setdistillerparams> setpagedevice

    /ColorImageDict > /JPEG2000ColorACSImageDict > /JPEG2000ColorImageDict > /AntiAliasGrayImages false /DownsampleGrayImages true /GrayImageDownsampleType /Bicubic /GrayImageResolution 300 /GrayImageDepth -1 /GrayImageDownsampleThreshold 1.50000 /EncodeGrayImages true /GrayImageFilter /DCTEncode /AutoFilterGrayImages true /GrayImageAutoFilterStrategy /JPEG /GrayACSImageDict > /GrayImageDict > /JPEG2000GrayACSImageDict > /JPEG2000GrayImageDict > /AntiAliasMonoImages false /DownsampleMonoImages true /MonoImageDownsampleType /Bicubic /MonoImageResolution 1200 /MonoImageDepth -1 /MonoImageDownsampleThreshold 1.50000 /EncodeMonoImages true /MonoImageFilter /CCITTFaxEncode /MonoImageDict > /AllowPSXObjects false /PDFX1aCheck false /PDFX3Check false /PDFXCompliantPDFOnly false /PDFXNoTrimBoxError true /PDFXTrimBoxToMediaBoxOffset [ 0.00000 0.00000 0.00000 0.00000 ] /PDFXSetBleedBoxToMediaBox true /PDFXBleedBoxToTrimBoxOffset [ 0.00000 0.00000 0.00000 0.00000 ] /PDFXOutputIntentProfile () /PDFXOutputCondition () /PDFXRegistryName (http://www.color.org) /PDFXTrapped /Unknown

    /Description >>> setdistillerparams> setpagedevice

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    /Description >>> setdistillerparams> setpagedevice