Pre-History and Early River Civilizations. S.P.R.I.T.E.
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<ul><li><p>Pre-History and Early River Civilizations</p></li><li><p>S.P.R.I.T.E.</p></li><li><p>(S)ocietyDescribe how each ERCs society was set up.What was life like for the people?What was their religion like?</p></li><li><p>(P)oliticalDescribe how the government was set up.What kind of government were they?</p></li><li><p>(R)esourcesDescribe the natural resource of each ERC.What resources did they have/not have?</p></li><li><p>(I)nteraction with other civilizationsDescribe how each ERC interacted with other groups.Did they trade, fight, or avoid?</p></li><li><p>(T)echnologyDescribe the types of technology each ERC had.Did they invent anything?</p></li><li><p>(E)conomyDescribe the economy for each ERC.Was there a class structure?How did people live?</p></li><li><p>Pre-History</p></li><li><p>Pre-HistoryThis is the time before the invention of writing about 5,000 years agoArchaeologists scientists who work like detectives to uncover the story of prehistoric peoplesThey do this by excavating (or digging) and studying the traces of early settlements</p></li><li><p>Pre-History ContdEvidence such as bones and artifacts are examinedBones can help reveal what they looked like, how tall they were, types of food they ate, diseases they might have had, and how long they livedArtifacts human-made objects, such as tools and jewelryThis can hint at how they might have dressed or worshipped</p></li><li><p>Culture</p></li><li><p>CultureScientists called anthropologists study cultureCulture a peoples unique way of lifeOriginally, people lived near to each other and would develop common ways of doing thingsDressing, hunting practices, food</p></li><li><p>Culture ContdWay of life of a group of people and includesCommon PracticesShared UnderstandingsSocial Organization</p></li><li><p>Culture ContdHow Culture is LearnedNot born with itTherefore, it is learnedUsually it is learned in one of two ways1. observe and imitate behavior2. taught directly to them by individualsMostly through spoken or written language</p></li><li><p>MediaFamilyFriendsGovernmentReligionSchoolWorkplace</p></li><li><p>TechnologyThis is the way of applying knowledge, tools, and inventions to meet needs</p></li><li><p>Civilization</p></li><li><p>How Civilization DevelopsCivilization a complex culture with 5 characteristics;1. Advanced Cities2. Specialized Workers3. Complex Institutions4. Record Keeping5. Advanced Technology</p></li><li><p>Advanced CitiesA city is the center of trade for a large areaIt was not just based on the populationFarmers, merchants, and traders all would bring goods to the market to sell and tradeThey would usually exchange them with those who lived in the city</p></li><li><p>Specialized WorkersAs population in the cities grew, so did the need for specialized workers.This might include; traders, government officials, and priestsSince there was a surplus of food, people were able to develop specialized skillsSpecialization the development of skills in a specific kind of workOne example might be an artisan skilled worker who makes goods by hand such as jewelry, tools, weapons, clothing, or pottery</p></li><li><p>Complex InstitutionsSince cities were growing larger, the need for a government was necessaryThis meant that leaders would need to emerge in order to maintain order among the people and to establish lawsInstitution a long-lasting pattern of organization in a community such as a government and religionReligion was a major part of life in most early civilizations and priests helped make major decisions for the people</p></li><li><p>Record KeepingSince government, religion, and the economy was becoming more complex, people realized they needed to be able to keep recordsGovernment officials needed to be able to keep track of tax collections, the passage of laws, and the storage of foodPriests needed to keep track of the calendar for important ritualsMerchants needed to keep track of debts and paymentsScribes professional record keepersCuneiform means wedge-shaped and was one of the earliest know forms of writing</p></li><li><p>Improved TechnologyAs cities grew, it was important to have new tools and techniques to solve the problems that might ariseFarmers would use animals or natures powerUse ox-drawn plows for the soilCreated irrigation systems to water fieldsThe potters wheel was also created to help make pottery such as bowls, plates, and jugsMetal workers also started to mix tin and copper together this made bronze and thus started the Bronze Age around 2500 B.C.</p></li><li><p>Mesopotamia</p></li><li><p>Geography of the Fertile CrescentBetween the Persian Gulf and the Mediterranean Sea is predominately desertThere is an arc of land though that provides some of the best farming in SW AsiaSince the region is curved and it is very fertile, it is referred to as the Fertile CrescentIt is located in Mesopotamia, which means land between the rivers</p></li><li><p>Geography ContdThe land is framed by two riversThe rivers would flood Mesopotamia at least once a year and as the waters receded, it left a thick bed of mud called silt. Farmers would use this rich new soil and would irrigate the fields with the river waterThey were able to produce excess amounts of food which allow populations to increase and cities to grow1. Tigris2. Euphrates</p></li><li><p>Environmental ChallengesA group of people called the Sumerians started to settle the area around 3300 B.C.Good soil helped with food, but there were 3 disadvantages to the area1. Unpredictable flooding combined with little to no rain (either too much or not enough rain)2. No natural barriers for protection (nearly defenseless)3. Few natural resources (building materials, along with other items were scarce)</p></li><li><p>Solving ProblemsThe people of Sumer eventually created solutions to these problems1. Dug irrigation ditches from the rivers to their fields (could grow a surplus of food)2. Built city walls with mud bricks (defense)3. Trade their grain, cloth, and tools for stone, wood, and metal (got the resources they lacked)</p></li><li><p>City-StatesSumerians built multiple cities, each was surrounded by fieldsThe cities all shared the same culture, but they developed their own forms of government, with their own rulersEach city and the surrounding land it controlled was called a city-stateIt functioned much like an independent country</p></li><li><p>City-States ContdOver time military leaders took control of the city-statesThey would pass their power to their sons who would in turn pass it to their sons and etcA series of rulers from a single family is called a dynasty</p></li><li><p>City-States ContdMany cities started popping up all over the Fertile CrescentThe Sumerians exchanged products and ideas, such as living in cities, with the neighboring culturesThe process in which a new idea or a product spreads from one culture to another is called cultural diffusion</p></li><li><p>CultureThe Sumerians believed that many gods controlled the various forces in natureThe belief in more than one god is called polytheismThey worshipped in ziggurats and would offer sacrifices of animals, food, and wine to the gods</p></li><li><p>The First Empire BuildersFrom 3000 to 2000 B.C., a lot of the city-states were at war with each otherThis weakened them and they could not fight off other people groups</p></li><li><p>Empire ContdSumer was defeated by a conqueror known as SargonHe led his armies from AkkadHe now controlled both the northern and the southern parts of Mesopotamia.This was the worlds first EmpireEmpire the bringing together of several peoples, nations, or previously independent states under the control of one ruler</p></li><li><p>Empire ContdAround 2000 B.C. the Amorites invaded and established their capital of Babylon, on the Euphrates RiverThis empire reached its peak under a man named HammurabiHis most enduring legacy is the code of law he put together</p></li><li><p>Hammurabis CodeSingle, uniform code of lawBelieved this would help unify the diverse groups within the empireCollected existing rules, judgments, and laws into the Code of HammurabiIt was engraved in stone and placed all over the empire</p></li><li><p>Hammurabis Code ContdHad 282 specific lawsThese dealt with everything that affected the community, including family relations, merchants, traders, or farmersIt also protected women and children from unfair treatmentDid have different punishments for rich or poorEye for an eyea tooth for a tooth</p></li><li><p>Nile</p></li><li><p>GeographyFrom the highlands of East Africa to the Mediterranean Sea, the Nile River flows northward across Africa for over 4,100 milesThis is the longest river in the worldThe land surrounding it was very fertile, but all around was desertThe change from fertile soil to desert, Black Land to Red Land, was so abrupt that a person could stand with one foot in each</p></li><li><p>Gift of the NileJust as in Mesopotamia, yearly flooding brought the water and rich soil that helped settlements growEvery July, rains and melting snow from the mountains of east Africa would spill over the banks and when it receded in October, silt would be left behind</p></li><li><p>Gift of the Nile ContdPeasants would plant crops before the sun could scorch the groundDuring the fall and winter, they would irrigate their fieldsThe Nile was so great to the Egyptians that they worshipped it as a god</p></li><li><p>Environmental ChallengesThe Nile was like clockwork, unlike the Tigris and the Euphrates in Mesopotamia, but there were still problems that one could face1. If flood waters were just a few feet shorter, amount of silt and water for crops were reduced (thousands would starve)2. If flood water were just a few feet higher, unwanted water destroyed houses and seeds needed for crops3. Since the desert was on both sides, they were cut off from other people groups (good for defense, but not trade)</p></li><li><p>Upper and Lower Egypt UnitesThe Egyptian River Valley was split into two parts1. Upper Egypt river area to the south (higher in elevation)2. Lower Egypt near the sea in the north (lower in elevation)</p></li><li><p>Unites ContdContact between the 2 was easyThis promoted trade and unified villagesIf you were heading north, just let the current take youIf you were heading south, the prevailing winds could take you against the current if you hoisted a large sail</p></li><li><p>Unites ContdIt is believed that around 3200 B.C., a man named Narmer unified the 2 parts of EgyptLower Egypt's king wore red crown and upper Egypt's king wore a tall white crownThe 2 crowns were combined to unify the 2 kingdoms</p></li><li><p>CrownsUpper EgyptLower EgyptCombined</p></li><li><p>Pharaohs Rule as GodsIn Mesopotamia, kings were viewed as representatives of the godsIn Egypt, kings were godsThese god-kings were called pharaohsThought to be almost as splendid and powerful as the gods of the heavensThis type of government, where rule is based on religious authority, is called theocracyIt was believed that the pharaoh was the one who caused the sun to rise, the Nile to flood, and the crops to grow</p></li><li><p>Builders of the PyramidsEgyptians also believed that the pharaoh ruled even after his deathHe had an eternal life force called, kaSince he was expected to rule forever, his tomb was viewed as more important that his palaceThe kings of the Old Kingdom were buried in pyramid resting place of the Old Kingdom pharaohThe Old Kingdom was the great age of pyramid building in ancient Egypt</p></li><li><p>Pyramids ContdBuilt by people who had not even begun to use the wheel yetThe Great Pyramid of GizaEach stone weighted at least 2 tons and some weighted up to 15 tonsMore than 2 million blocks were stacked with precision to a height of 481 feetThe entire structure covered more than 13 acres</p></li><li><p>ReligionThe Egyptians were polytheisticThe most important gods were Re, the sun god, and Osiris, the god of the deadThe most important goddess was Isis, who represented the ideal mother and wifeThe Egyptians worshipped more than 2,000 gods and goddesses</p></li><li><p>Religion ContdThe Egyptians did believe in an afterlifeThey believed you would be judged for your deedsAnubis, god and guide of the underworld, would weight your heartIf it was heavier than a feather (because of your sin) then the Devourer of Souls would eat your heart, but if you passed, you would live forever in the beautiful Other World</p></li><li><p>Religion ContdRoyal and elite Egyptians would be preserved by mummification, which involves embalming and drying the corpse to prevent decayingTheir important organs would be placed in Canopic jarsThe tombs would be filled with items they thought they could use in the afterlifeSome even purchased scrolls that contained hymns, prayers, and magic spells intended to guide the soul in the afterlifeThis collection is known as the Book of the Dead</p></li><li><p>WritingThe Egyptians developed a form of writing known as hieroglyphics meaning sacred carvingA picture stood for an ideaA picture of a man stood for the idea of a manLater, pictures stood for sounds as wellThe picture of an owl could mean the idea of an owl or for an mThey also invented a writing surface know as papyrus</p></li><li><p>Invaders Control EgyptThe pharaohs power declined about 2180 B.C.This marks the end of the Old Kingdom (3200 2180 B.C.)Strong pharaohs gained control again during the Middle Kingdom and restored law and order (2040 1640 B.C.)This did not last long</p></li><li><p>Invaders ContThe Hyksos (the rulers of foreign lands) gained and ruled most of Egypt from 1630 1523 B.C.We will talk about the New Kingdom later</p></li><li><p>Indus Valley</p></li><li><p>GeographyThe Indus River Valley civilization is found on the Indian subcontinentThis area was protected by natural boundariesWorlds tallest mountains to the north (Himalayas) and a large desert to the east (Thar)</p></li><li><p>Geography ContdThere is an enormous flat and fertile plain thanks to two rivers</p><p>Theses two rivers make up 1,700 miles of land across northern IndiaThey also produce silt for farming1. Indus2. Ganges</p></li><li><p>MonsoonsSeasonal winds dominate Indias climateFrom October to February winter monsoons from the northeast blow dry air westward across the countryFrom mid June to October the winds shift they blow eastward from the southwest carrying moisture from the ocean in rain cloudsFlooding usually happens a lot but if there is no summer monsoon, droughts tend to occur and crops dont grow</p></li><li><p>Environmental ChallengesYearly floods spread deposits of rich soil over a wide area but they were unpredictableAt times, the rivers would change courseCycles of wet and dry seasons (monsoons) were also unpredictableIf too much rain, it would wash entire villagesIf too little rain, crops would die and people would go hungry</p></li><li><p>CivilizationPeople were farming the area by around 3,200 B.C.In order to keep the floods out of the cities, they would build strong levees, or earthen wallsIf this wasnt enough, they would built human-made islands that would raise the cities above the flood levels</p></li><li><p>Civilization ContdThey also were very sophisticated with their city planningThey were made using a precise grid systemThere was a fortified area called a citadelThis area held major buildings of the cityThe cities also had a plumbing system and sewage system</p></li><li><p>The EndAround 1,750 B.C., the quality of the cities started to declineIt is believed that tectonic plates shifted and caused earthquakes and flooding that might have shifted the course of the Indus RiverCities began to die because there would be no fertile ground and therefore no food</p></li><li><p>China</p></li><li><p>GeographyNatural barriers isolate ancient China from all other civilizationsThe Yellow Sea, East China Sea, and the Pacific Ocean in the EastThe Taklimakan Des...</p></li></ul>
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