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  • Epistaxis

    Prof Mulder2012

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  • IT IS NEVER A DISEASE

    IT IS ALWAYS A SYMPTOM OF PATHOLOGY !!

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  • LOCAL

    SYSTEMIC

    Congenital etc.

  • CONGENITAL

    INFECTIVE

    INFLAMMATION

    NEOPLASM

    TRAUMA

    ALLERGY

    AUTO - IMMUNE

    VASCULAR

    ENDOCRINOLOGY

    METABOLIC

    MECHANICAL

    MEDICATION

    Rx

    TREAT THE CAUSE

  • WALL

    CONTENTS

    Cells: (Rbc. Wbc. Platelets

    Immunoglobulins

    Electrolytes

    Clotting factors

    Glucose

    Cholesterol

    etc..

  • HYPERTENSION

    HEADACHE

    DISPRIN, GRANDPA

    EPISTAXIS

  • Pressure

    Ice pack

    Plug with cottonwool

    ( + vasoconstrictor)

    Cauterize

    LITTLES AREA

    Rx

  • PACKING

    Gauze tape

    Merocel

    + Foleys catheter

    POSTERIOR EPISTAXIS

    Rx

  • Calm the patient

    Explain what you are going to do

    IV fluids

    Blood transfusion

    Blow the nose (+ suction)

    Determine which side is bleeding

    Pack the nose:

    Anterior pack (BIPP, Merocel, Gauze tape)

    Posterior pack (Foleys catheter)

  • DANGERS OF NASAL PACKS

    No sedation!!!!!!!!

    Hypoxia

    Antibiotic cover essential

    Patient to be admitted

    Trauma to nasal vestibule

  • WHY (HOW) DO THESE CONDITIONS

    CAUSE EPISTAXIS?

    Arteriosclerosis

    Hypertension

    Cardiac failure

    Diabetes

    Uraemia

    Liver cell failure

    Drugs

    Leucemia

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