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Modern Chemistry Chapter 12-
Section 1- Types of Mixtures
Solutions are homogeneous mixtures of two or more substances in a single phase.
Soluble describes a substance as capable of being dissolved.
Solvent is the dissolving medium in a solution.
Solute is the substance that is dissolved in a solution.
Types of Solutions
Solutions can be in any of the three common physical states.
solid- a mixture of metals called an alloy
liquid- salt water, sugar water, Kool-Aid
gas- the atmosphere
Suspensions & Colloids
A suspension has large particles that settle out of a solvent. eg. muddy water
A colloid has intermediate size particles. Also called an emulsion or a foam.
electrolytes vs. nonelectrolytes
An electrolyte is a substance that dissolves in water to give a solution that conducts electricity.
A nonelectrolyte is a substance that dissolves in water to give a solution that does NOT conduct electricity.
Do section review questions #1, #2, & #6 on page 406.
Section 2- The Solution Process
Factors that affect the rate of solution (how quickly a substance dissolves):Any process that increases the number of contacts between the solvent and the solute will increase the solution rate.
increasing the surface area of the soluteagitating (shaking or stirring) the solutionheating the solvent
Solution equilibrium is the physical state in which the opposing processes of dissolution and crystallization occur at equal rates.
A saturated solution contains the maximum amount of dissolved solute.
An unsaturated solution contains less than the maximum amount of dissolved solute.
A supersaturated solution contains more dissolved solute than a saturated solution.
Solubility is a measurement of how much solute will dissolve in a specific amount of solvent at a specific temperature to make a saturated solution.
Likes dissolve likes- polar solvents dissolve polar solutes & nonpolar solvents dissolve nonpolar solutes.
Hydrationis the solution process with water as the solvent.
Hydrates are ionic compounds that have formed crystals that have incorporated water molecules in their structure.
Immiscible liquids are not soluble in one another. eg. oil & water
Miscible liquids dissolve freely in one another in any proportion. eg. water & alcohol
Increasing the pressure has no effect on the solubility of a solid in a liquid but does increase the solubility of gases in a liquid.
Increasing temperature often increases the solubility of a solid in a liquid but decreases the solubility of a gas in a liquid.
Henrys Law states that the solubility of a gas in a liquid is directly proportional to the partial pressure of the gas on the surface of the liquid.
Effervescence is the rapid escape of a gas from a liquid in which the gas is dissolved.
A solvated solute particle is surrounded by solvent molecules.
Enthalpy of solution is the amount of heat absorbed by a solution when a specific amount of solute dissolves in a solvent.
Do section review questions #1, #2, #3, #5, & #6 on page 416.
Read the Cross-Disciplinary Connection on page 417 and answer the questions at the end of the reading.
Concentrations of Solutions
The concentration of a solution is a measure of the amount of solute dissolved in a given amount of solvent or solution.
Molarity (M) is the number of moles of solute in one liter of solution.
M = #mol L
Do practice problems #1, #2, & #3 on page 421.
Molality (m) is the concentration of a solution expressed in moles of solute per kilogram of solvent.
m = #mol
Do practice problems #1 & #2 on page 424.
Percent composition by mass (%) is a concentration that expresses the percent of solute in a solution.
% = #g solute x 100
# g solution
Do section review problems #1, #2, & #3 on page 424.
Chapter 12 Test Review
multiple choice (30)define & identify suspensions & solutionsdefine an alloydefine & identify electrolytes & nonelectrolytesfactors that affect the rate of dissolutiondefinitions of unsaturated, saturated & supersaturated solutionsgeneral rules for predicting whether a solute is soluble in a solventdefinition of solubilityeffects of temperature & pressure on the solubility of gases and solids in liquidsdefinitions of molarity (M) and molality (m)solving molarity & molality problemsFORMULAS:M = #mol/Lm = #mol/kg