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    GASES

    F I T R I G I N A G U N A WA N ( 1 5 1 4 1 1 0 0 8 )

    N O O R M A N U R M A L A S A R I ( 1 5 1 4 1 1 0 2 3 )

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    INTRODUCTIONThe terms petroleum gas and refnery gas are often used to id

    liqueed petroleum gas (LPG) or even gas that emanates from the top

    renery distillation column.

    For the purpose of this text !petroleum gas" not only descri#es liqupetroleum gas #ut also natural gas and renery gas. $n this chapter eacis in turn referenced #y its name rather than the generic term petroleum(%&T' *+,-). o/ever the composition of each gas varies (Ta#le 0.+recognition of this is essential #efore testing protocols are applied.

    The rst and most important aspect of gaseous testing is

    measurement of the volume of gas (%&T' +-1+). $n this test meseveral techniques are descri#ed and may #e employed for any purpose /it is necessary to 2no/ the quantity of gaseous fuel. $n additionthermophysical properties of methane (%&T' 03,4) ethane (%&T' 0propane (%&T' *046) n#utane (%&T' *4,-) and iso#utane (%&T*4,+) should #e availa#le for use and consultation

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    PROPERTIES AND TEST METHOD

    7ompositi

    on

    7aloric8alue

    &ulfur

    8olatility andvapor

    pressure

    ensity

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    1. CALORIFIC VALUE (HEAT OFCOMBUSTION)

    8arious types of test methods are availa#le for the direct determination of calori3-- %&T' +564 %&T' 0,55 %&T' *35+). The most important of these9o##e index :9$; or 9o##e num#er < caloric value=(specic gravity> and the ?ausually expressed as a factor or an ar#itrary scale on /hich the value of hydroge

    This factor can #e calculated from the gas analysis. $n fact caloric value and spcan #e calculated from compositional analysis (%&T' 0,55). The 9o##e num#emeasure of the heat input to an appliance through a given aperture at a given ga

    @y using this as a vertical coordinate and the ?ame speed factor (fsf) as the horiAcoordinate a com#ustion diagram can #e constructed for an appliance or a /holeappliances /ith the aid of appropriate test gases.

    %nother important com#ustion criterion is the gas modulus ' < P=9 /here P is pressure and 9 is the 9o##e num#er of the gas. This must remain constant if a gaeration is to #e maintained in apreaerated #urner using air at atmospheric press

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    3. DENSITY

    The density of light hydrocar#ons can #e determined #y several m(%&T' +-1-) including a hydrometer method (%&T' +635) anpressure hydrometer method (%&T' +4,1 $P 60,). The specic (relative density) (%&T' +-1- %&T' +4,1) #y itself has little compared /ith its use for highermolecular/eight liquid petroleumand can only give an indication of quality characteristics /hen com

    values for volatility and vapor pressure. $t is important for stoc2 qucalculations and is used in connection /ith transport and storage.

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    2. COMPOSITION7urrently the preferred method for the analysis of liqueed petroleum gas and

    petroleumrelated gases is gas chromatography (%&T' 6+40 $P 64*). This techniqfor the identication and measurement of #oth main constituents and trace constitthere may #e some accuracy issues that arise in the measurement of the higher#oil#ecause of relative volatility under the conditions in /hich the sample is held. 7apilchromatography is an even quic2er and equally accurate alternative. 'ass spectro++01) is also suita#le for analysis of petroleum gases. Bf the other spectroscopic techand ultraviolet a#sorption may #e applied to petroleum gas analysis for soapplications. Gas chromatography has also largely supplanted chemical a#sorptanalysis #ut again these may have some limited specialiAed application. Bnce the cmixture has #een determined it is possi#le to calculate various properties such as vapor pressure caloric value and de/ point.

    $n general gas chromatography /ill undou#tedly continue to #e the methodcharacteriAation of light hydrocar#on materials. Ce/ and improved detection devices such as chemiluminescence atomic emission and mass spectroscopy /ill enhadetection limits and analytical productivity. La#oratory automation through autosamcontrol and data handling /ill provide improved precision and productivity as /emethod operation. properties and test methods 7ompositional analysis can #e uscaloric value specic gravity and compressi#ility factor (%&T' 0,55). 'ercury also measured #y atomic ?uorescence spectroscopy (%&T' 40,-) and #y atospectroscopy (%&T' ,3,*).

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    4. SULFUR The sulfur compounds that are mainly responsi#le for corrosion are hydrogen sul

    sulde and sometimes elemental sulfur. ydrogen sulde and mercaptans have

    unpleasant odors. 7ontrol of the total sulfur content hydrogen sulde and mercathat the product is not corrosive or nauseating. &tipulating a satisfactory copper

    further ensures control of corrosion.

    Total sulfur in gas can #e determined #y com#ustion (%&T' +-16) #y the lamp

    (%&T' +644) or #y hydrogenation (%&T' 0-0+ %&T' **45). Trace total or

    #ound nitrogen is determined (%&T' *463). The current test method for heavy

    liqueed petroleum gas (%&T' 6+,5) involves evaporation of a liqueed petrol

    sample measuring the volume of residue and o#serving the residue for oil stain o

    lter paper.

    7orrosive sulfur compounds can #e detected #y their eDect on copper and the fo

    general copper strip corrosion test (%&T' l505) for petroleum products is applie

    petroleum gas. ydrogen sulde can #e detected #y its action on moist lead acet

    a procedure is also used as a measure of sulfur compounds.

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    5. VOLATILITY AND VAPOR PRES

    The vaporiAation and com#ustion characteristics of liqueed petroleum gas are deapplications #y volatility vapor pressure and to a lesser extent specic gravity. 8olatin terms of the temperature at /hich 3,E of the sample is evaporated and presents aleast volatile component present (%&T' +501).8apor pressure ($P *+-) is therefore amost extreme lo/temperature conditions under /hich initial vaporiAation can ta2e pla

    The residue (%&T' +-6, %&T' 6+,5 $P 0+1) that is nonvolatile matter is aconcentration of contaminants #oiling a#ove 01.57 (+--F) that may #e present natural gasoline the primary criteria are volatility (vapor pressure) and 2noc

    etermination of the vapor pressure (%&T' 060 %&T' *3,0 %&T' ,+3- %&distillation prole (%&T' 6+4 $P +3+) is essential. noc2 performance is determi2noc2 test engines #y #oth the motor method (%&T' 61-- $P 604) and the research6433 $P 601). The 2noc2 characteristics of liqueed petroleum gases can also #e deteBther considerations for natural gasoline are copper corrosion (%&T' +0- $P +specic gravity (%&T' +635 $P +4-) the latter determination #eing necessary for mtransportation.

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    6. WATER

    $t is a fundamental requirement that liqueed petroleum gas shoucontain free /ater (%&T' 61+0). issolved /ater may give trouforming hydrates and giving moisture vapor in the gas phase. @ot/ill lead to #loc2ages. Therefore test methods are availa#le to depresence of /ater using electronic moisture analyAers (%&T' ,*point temperature (%&T' ++*6) and lengthofstain detector tu

    *555).

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    NATURAL GAS Catural gas is found in petroleum reservoirs as free gas (associa

    solution /ith petroleum in the reservoir (dissolved gas) or in res

    contain only gaseous constituents and no (or little) petroleum.

    Catural Gas (Gas) either as a associated gas and non associate

    % desired component of natural gas is a component of ydrocar

    7omponent of natural gas is undesira#le impurities

    Purication of natural gas is an attempt to mitigate = reduce the

    impurities to the extent desired requirements

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    OMPONEN GAS ALAM

    Components o n!t"#!$ %!s&'#o!#*on (%!s))

    ydrocar#on components in the form of compounds acompound of the nparaHns and isoparaHns

    7ompounds that are not contained in natural gas

    (natural gas) is Caften %romatics and Blens The hydrocar#on component consists ofI

    7* 764 705 n7*+- iso7*+- n7,+6 iso7,+6 dan74+*J

    Components o non&'#o!#*on n!t"#!(%!s)

    7

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    TEST PARAMETERS OF NATURAL GAS (GAS

    &hould #e tested in the la#oratory against Gas Catural out of the

    The purpose of testing for natural gasI

    +. to determine the content of chemical compounds contained t

    6. to determine the type of process puri2asinya (treating) the

    unit processes types of chemicals used and the dose of ch

    used

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    PROPERTIES OF NATURAL GAS (GAS)

    Properties of natural gas after the reduction = reduction of impurit(treating)I

    aving a highpurity hydrocar#ons to ensure the quality and qunatural gas

    Cot corrode processing equipment as /ell as products produced

    as a high caloric value /hen natural gas is used as fuel

    The resulting product should not #e precipitates (such as heavyhydrocar#ons) on the storage system

    'ust have suHcient vapor pressure so as not to eopardiAe safetransport distri#ution and storage.

    Bn com#ustion natural gas must #e clean and does not pollute

    .

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    TABLE PARAMETER TEST NATURAL GA

    + 0 , 4 1 3

    +0

    L+

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    TESTING COMPOSITION

    (ASTM D 1!45"GPA 2261)

    The equipment used is a Gas 7hromatography (G7)

    The components of the natural gas that is separated #y #oiling

    G7 equipment areI

    The concentration of each component is reported in moleEE v

    , -e - C2-. - CO2

    , O2 - 6& - nC5-12

    , N2 - 705 - C.-14

    , C-4 - i7*+- - C/-1.(C.)

    , CO2 - nC4-10

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    CONCENTRATION COMPONENT NATURAL

    Generally range (range) concentration of each component conta

    natural gas (according to %&T' +3*, = GP% 664+) is as follo/s

    omponenR!n%e onsent#!s

    (mo$)omponen

    R!n%e onsent#(mo$)

    , -e--+ M +-

    705 001 6 100

    , O2 --+ M 6- i7*+- 001 6 10

    , N2 --+ M +-- n7*+- 001 6 10

    , C-4 --+ M +-- n7,+6 001 6 2

    , CO2 --+ M 6- 74+* 001 6 2

    , C2-. --+ M +-- 71+4(74J) 001 6 2

    , -2S 001 6 5

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    SIGNIFICANCE TESTING COMPOSITIO

    To determine the hydrocar#on components contained in natural g2no/n composition can #e used to calculate the physical properti

    gas such as caloric value vapor pressure specic gravity. Thcontent of hydrocar#on components in natural gas natural gas /ill dquality of #oth its quality and quantity. The higher the concenthydrocar#on component of natural gas indicate higher quality.

    To determine the nonhydrocar#on components contained in natural

    the 2no/n siAe of the content of each nonhydrocar#on component o

    so that it can also #etter the quality of natural gas quality and quantihigher the concentration of nonhydrocar#on components sho/ the q

    natural gas is lo/er. $n addition the content of nonhydrocar#on com

    natural gas is used to determine the type and dosage of chemicals in

    purication process so that the products (LCG LPG or 7CG) meet sp

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    TESTING OF CARBON DIO#IDE

    (ASTM D 1!45 Nquipment used to test for the presence of car#on dioxide is Gas 7hromat

    7B6 testing can #e done together /ith the hydrocar#on component testin

    7B6 pea2 area on the chromatogram pea2 area sample compared to the

    gas chromatogram standard

    7B6 is very corrosive to the equipment in addition to 7B6 may freeAe on

    of natural gas liquefaction

    FreeAing of 7B6 gas can cause #loc2age of the tu#es in heat exchangers

    9hen the high 7B6 content /ill lo/er caloric value of natural gas this mquality natural gas

    To determine the type and dosage of chemicals (usually using amine com

    /ell as the num#er of treating units in the process of eliminating = decrea

    concentration of 7B6

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    TESTING HYDROGEN SULFIDE

    Performed #y the method %&T' 605,

    6& gas in natural gas is a#sor#ed #y using a solution of neutra

    7d& precipitate formed is ltered and then dissolved in a solutio

    The resulting solution /as determined #y titration yodometri aft

    thereto excess

    Keports test results stated in /tE 6& mg = L 6& or grain 6&

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    TESTING TOTAL SULFUR

    The method used %&T' 615* using 9ic2#old7om#ustion %p

    /here sulfur is oxidiAed in a stream of a mixture of 1-E 7B6 and

    gas

    &B6 gas formed is passed into a solution of 6B6 produces 6&

    a#sor#er. then determined #y titration or #y tur#idimetry.

    Testing of total sulfur is testing the cleanliness of natural gas pro

    $t said total sulfur #ecause it is the sum of a variety of sulfur com

    natural gas /hich is composed of a mercaptan (K&) hydrogen(6&) car#onyl sulde (7B&)

    $n its analysis the total amount of sulfur in the natural gas expr

    E mg = L or grain = +-- ft0

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    PENGU$IAN NILAI ALORI

    'enetahui magnitude for a caloric value of natural gas do calc

    using molE.

    The components of the test results according to the method GP%

    gas in 664+ /ith equipment Gas 7hromatography (G7)

    7aloric value is one of the most important characteristic of nat

    NDect of hydrocar#on component of the caloric valueI9hen the caloric value of natural gas isexpressed in units of heat = unit volumethenI

    The higher the #oiling pointhydrocar#on components the caloric value/ill rise. @ut conversely the lo/er the#oiling point then the lo/er the caloricvalue.

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    TESTING WATER

    There are t/o /ater contained in natural gas /hich is /atersolu#le n

    and /ater are not dissolved in natural gas.

    9aterinsolu#le in the separate existence of natural gas from natural

    form of free /ater.

    Testing of /ater in the gas carried #y ?o/ing gas into a hygroscopic s

    an a#sor#ent (desiccant).

    The diDerence in /eight #et/een #efore and after the experiment is t

    /ater in natural gas.

    Testing the /ater content is not /ritten in detail as a standard method

    The report results are expressed in units of /tE ppm or mg = L.

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    THE E#ISTENCE OF MERCURY IN NATURAL

    The existence of mercury in natural gas is a gas that is solu#le i

    gas. $n the ta#le sho/n #eh/a mercury compounds as hydrocar

    compounds (metalorganic) in natural gas has a high #oiling poin

    mercury is contained in the condensate.

    The existence of mercury in the condensate /as ,E as mercury

    inorganic compounds and 1*E as a metalorganic compound. $t

    depends on the origin of natural gas condensate.

    Ta#le 7ompound 'ercury in Catural Gas (GasSen'!7!!n me#"# Tt & 0C-% 35/

    -%(C-3)2 9.

    -%(C-3-/)2 1/0

    -%(nC-3-/)2 190

    -%(C4-9)2 20.

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    TESTING OF MERCURY

    +. Testing of mercury (g) in natural gas use equipment %%& ana

    technique calledI+. 'echanical formation of mercury vapor (mercury vapor gen6. 'echanical vapor formation of hy#rids0. pta2e /ith gold (/ith a mercury analyAer tool eg C$7)

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    LPG (LI%UID PETROLEUM GAS) LPG is the fuel in the form of liqueed gas (Liquid Petroleum Gas

    7an #e generated as a #yproduct of petroleum processing and a

    natural gas processing LPG as fuel used #oth for domestic use and for industrial use

    There are three types of LPG areI

    +. LPG Propane

    6. LPG @utane

    0. LPG 'ixed

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    COMPOSITION LPG

    -:;ROCAR

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    SIFAT&SIFAT LPG

    LPG has a higher caloric value compared to other household fu

    LPG should not corrode either on stoc2piling transportation and

    used.

    LPG should not happen sediment on the storage system.

    LPG should have a vapor pressure enough to not eopardiAe safe

    transport distri#ution and storage.

    The result of the com#ustion of LPG should #e clean and does n

    the air for it /as examined 2e#esrsihannya properties.

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    P A R A M E T E R U $ I L P

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    HYDROCARBON COMPOSITION ASTMD 2

    LPG hydrocar#on composition in the form of the components of

    hydrocar#on molecules such as nparaHns (n70 7*n and n7

    paraHns and olens

    LPG olens in the form of a dou#le #ond of the 70 < (as propyle

    (as #utylene + 6 #utylene #utadiene +.0 #utylene cis and tran

    @esides this there are npentane (n7,) and isopentane (i7,).

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    T E S T I N O F C O M P O S I T I O N

    7omposition testing /as conducted #y %&T' 6+40 #y means of gas chrom

    (G7).

    The composition of LPG is expressed as the hydrocar#on component repor

    vol.

    Kequired that for LPG propane 70 total content of at least 3,E vol LPG mix

    of 70 J 7* minimum 31.,E vol LPG #utane minimum total 7* content of 3

    To determine the hydrocar#on compounds contained in LPG #ecause #y 2n

    composition can #e used to calculate the physical properties of LPG such a

    value vapor pressure specic gravity. @y 2no/ing the caloric value of LPG it can #e used in the calculation of pur

    each unit /eight and unit volume.

    7aloric value of LPG is the highest /hen compared to the caloric value of

    re/ood charcoal 2erosine or gas city.

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    6'"6'OF OF SPECIFIC GRAVITY TESTING AST165

    &pescic testing at a temperature of 4-=4- oF Gravity (&G 4-=4- F) using m%,T' +4,1 /ith tools Pressure ydrometer 7ylinder or #y calculation of tcomposition of LPG %&T' 6+40 /ith gas chromatography.

    &pecic gravity (&G) LPG declared as &G 4-=4- F.

    Keported to three decimal places.

    Kequired that &G 4-=4- F to LPG propane from -.,-5 to -.,6, LPG mixture-.,-1 to -.461 #utane LPG from -.,40 to -.461 (calculated from the hydroc

    composition of each each LPG) For the calculation of the /eight of LPG to #e accommodated in the landll #

    volume that has #een 2no/n to #e used as the calculation in terms of mar2e

    ata &G 4-=4- F can #e used for the calculation of material #alance in theprocessing.

    INTERP RETATION OF TEST R ESULTS OF S

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    INTERP RETATION OF TEST R ESULTS6 ' " 6 '

    O

    F

    OF S

    GRAVITY

    L+G +RO+ANA

    9hen the test results o#tained &G 4-=4- F to LPGpropane under .,-5 sho/ed that LPG contains lightcomponents namely ethane. This /ill result in LPG vaporpressure rising thus endangering for storage anddistri#ution.

    9as /hen the test results o#tained &G 4-=4- oF a#ove-.,6, sho/ed that LPG containing propane is heavier

    components ie #utane. This /ill result in a lo/ vaporpressure so that LPG does not quic2ly evaporate andleave the sediment.

    L+G

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    TESTING VAPOR PRESSURE

    8apor pressure testing is done #y using %&T' +641 #y means o

    Pressure %pparatus or #y calculation of the composition of LPG.

    %ccording to the method of %&T' 6+45 #y means of gas chrom(G7). 7ommonly used method is the /ay the calculation of data o

    composition of LPG.

    LPG vapor pressure is expressed as the vapor pressure at a temp

    +-- F. Keported in units of psig.

    Kequired that pressure steam at +-- F for a maximum of 6+- ps

    LPG LPG mix a maximum of +6- psig LPG #utane maximum of 1 To ensure safety in the storage transportation and distri#ution p

    for areas that are aDected #y climate change. 9hen LPG under h

    volatile so as to cause an explosion due to the pressure suddenly

    INTERPRETATION OF TEST RESULTS VAP

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    INTERPRETATION OF TEST RESULTS VAP

    PRESSURE

    L+G +RO+ANA

    9hen the test results o#tained for LPG propane vaporpressure a#ove 6+- psig indicates that LPG contains light

    components namely ethane. This /ill result in up/ardpressure LPG vapor volatile thus endangering forstorage and distri#ution

    L+G

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    INTERPRETATION OF TEST RESULTS VAP

    PRESSURE

    L+G MI>=;

    9hen the test results o#tained for LPG vapor pressure ofthe mixture a#ove +6- psig sho/ed that LPG propane

    #utane mixture ratio of more content of propane. This/ill result in LPG vapor pressure rising thus endangeringthe current volatile storage and distri#ution

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    TESTING COPPER STRIP CORROSION

    7opper strip corrosion testing is done #y using %&T' +505 #y

    pressureresistant cylindrical tu#e equipped /ith a /ater #ath

    thermometer and a piece of copper at a temperature of +--

    7opper strip corrosion is corrosion properties of LPG /hich is ca

    presence of corrosive sulfur compounds in /hich sulfur mercapt

    and hydrogen sulde (6&).

    This trait is one of the important types of testing /here the pro

    corrosion on LPG products due to undesired chemical compound

    Keported as %&T' standard color. Kequired that the copper strip

    for LPG propane LPG and LPG #utane mixture maximum %&T' C

    INTERPRETATION OF TEST RESULTS CORRO

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    INTERPRETATION OF TEST RESULTS CORRO

    COPPERSTRIP

    9hen the copper strip corrosion test results are a#ove the %&T'indicates that the LPG contains chemical compounds cause corrmercaptan (K&) and hydrogen sulde or 6&.

    Generally compounds in the molecular arrangement of electronundivided have more reactive properties. The elements that havpair of electrons is & B C and halogen. 9hen this happens do dreduction #y /ashing /ith a solution of caustic

    TESTING TOTAL SULFUR

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    TESTING TOTAL SULFUR

    Total sulfur testing /as conducted using %&T' method 615* 9ic2#old t

    com#ustion apparatus.

    $t said total sulfur (sulfur amount) #ecause it is the sum of the various comp

    sulfur in LPG /hich is composed of ethyl mercaptan (K&) hydrogen suld

    car#onyl sulde (7B&) sulfur dioxide (&B6) dimethyl sulde ((70) 6& and

    disulde (70) 6s6.

    $mpurities (dirt) contained in LPG product /ill greatly aDect the quality of th

    value. Testing of total sulfur is hygiene properties testing LPG /hich is caus

    presence of various sulfur compounds are sulfur mercaptans (K&) hydrog

    (6&) and car#onyl sulde (7B&).

    This trait is one type of test is very important as the nature of cleanliness o

    products depends on the siAe of the content of undesired chemical compou

    existence. Keported in units of grains = +-- cuft massE ppm or mg = +--cu

    that total sulfur LPG propane LPG and LPG #utane mixture maximum of +,

    cuft

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    TESTING WATER

    There are t/o /ater contained in the LPG the LPG /atersolu#le

    insolu#le in LPG. 9aterinsolu#le in this LPG separate existence of LPG in the for

    /ater. Free /ater testing on LPG products is done #y o#servatio

    (visual /ay) is not /ritten in detail on the specics.

    This test is considered as /ater content and are reported as Qno

    (there are no free /ater).

    To indicate the li2elihood of crystalline /ater on LPG especially

    temperatures.

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    INTERPRETATION OF TEST RE SULTS WATER FRE

    $f the test turns out to contain free /ater resulting in the format

    crystals in the form of hydrocar#on hydrates such as propane h(705.x6-) propylene hydrate (704.x6B) #utane hydrate

    (7*+-.x6-) #utylene hydrate (7*5.x6-) and pentane hyd

    (7,+6.x6-).

    ydrate formation /ill lead to a deadloc2 in the distri#ution syst

    The presence of free /ater in the LPG may cause a deadloc2 on

    system that is at the end of the tu#ing and noAAle due to froAen (crystalliAe) /hen discharged.

    The presence of free /ater /ill lead to the occurrence of spar2s

    so it /ill reduce LPG com#ustion properties.

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    LNG"GAS REFINERY

    LCG is one of the products derived from natural gas liqueed at

    temperature of +4- 7 and a pressure of +.6, 2g = cm 6 a#solu

    Catural gas as feed an LCG plant has gone through several puri

    processes in order to reduce = lo/er the un/anted components

    so that the LCG product produced meets the specications.

    'ercury should #e as lo/ as possi#le to protect the corrosion of

    material of aluminum in addition to the haAardous nature @0.

    %nd also contains components such as 6& 7B6 6B and heav

    hydrocar#ons should #e reduced to a certain extent #ecause it

    corrosive.

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    OMPONEN LNG

    -#o!#*on Component

    ydrocar#on components in the form of a compound acompound of the nparaHns and isoparaHns. 'ediumcompound of naften aromatics and olens are notincluded in LCG #ecause of its o/n natural gas as thefeed contained no naften %romat and olens.

    $n LCG. 7* content is a maor component consideringthe usefulness of LCG as a fuel solvent or as an aerosol.$n its analysis the hydrocar#on component consists ofI

    7* 764 705 n7*+- iso7*+- n7,+6iso7,+- dan 74+*J

    Non,o!#*on Co

    7omponents non hydroccompounds of 6& (hidroeen sulde

    7B& (car#onyl sulphide) 7&6 (c(car#on dioxide) C6 (nitrogen gas)

    ata sho/ that compounds included in natural gas as feed LCGthe GPT 7onference in &ingapore

    @ada2 Catural G

    $n its analysis the nonhydrocar#onofI 6& K&

    PROPERTIES LNG PRODUCT

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    PROPERTIES LNG PRODUCT

    aving a highpurity hydrocar#ons to ensure the quality and quantity o

    as a high content of 7* to ensure the caloric value of LCG

    oes not corrode equipment storage transportation and distri#ution = d

    as a high caloric value /hen LCG is used as fuel

    LCG product should not settle on the storage system (such as heavy hy

    'ust have suHcient vapor pressure so as not to endanger the safety in

    transportation and distri#ution = distri#ution.

    o not form hydrates at lo/ temperature either at the time of the tran

    and distri#ution penyimpananR = distri#ution.

    Bn com#ustion LCG must #e clean and does not pollute the air.

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    PARAMETER TEST PRODUCT LNG