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    GASES

    F I T R I G I N A G U N A WA N ( 1 5 1 4 1 1 0 0 8 )

    N O O R M A N U R M A L A S A R I ( 1 5 1 4 1 1 0 2 3 )

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    INTRODUCTIONThe terms petroleum gas and refnery gas are often used to id

    liqueed petroleum gas (LPG) or even gas that emanates from the top

    renery distillation column.

    For the purpose of this text !petroleum gas" not only descri#es liqupetroleum gas #ut also natural gas and renery gas. $n this chapter eacis in turn referenced #y its name rather than the generic term petroleum(%&T' *+,-). o/ever the composition of each gas varies (Ta#le 0.+recognition of this is essential #efore testing protocols are applied.

    The rst and most important aspect of gaseous testing is

    measurement of the volume of gas (%&T' +-1+). $n this test meseveral techniques are descri#ed and may #e employed for any purpose /it is necessary to 2no/ the quantity of gaseous fuel. $n additionthermophysical properties of methane (%&T' 03,4) ethane (%&T' 0propane (%&T' *046) n#utane (%&T' *4,-) and iso#utane (%&T*4,+) should #e availa#le for use and consultation

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    PROPERTIES AND TEST METHOD

    7ompositi

    on

    7aloric8alue

    &ulfur

    8olatility andvapor

    pressure

    ensity

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    1. CALORIFIC VALUE (HEAT OFCOMBUSTION)

    8arious types of test methods are availa#le for the direct determination of calori3-- %&T' +564 %&T' 0,55 %&T' *35+). The most important of these9o##e index :9$; or 9o##e num#er < caloric value=(specic gravity> and the ?ausually expressed as a factor or an ar#itrary scale on /hich the value of hydroge

    This factor can #e calculated from the gas analysis. $n fact caloric value and spcan #e calculated from compositional analysis (%&T' 0,55). The 9o##e num#emeasure of the heat input to an appliance through a given aperture at a given ga

    @y using this as a vertical coordinate and the ?ame speed factor (fsf) as the horiAcoordinate a com#ustion diagram can #e constructed for an appliance or a /holeappliances /ith the aid of appropriate test gases.

    %nother important com#ustion criterion is the gas modulus ' < P=9 /here P is pressure and 9 is the 9o##e num#er of the gas. This must remain constant if a gaeration is to #e maintained in apreaerated #urner using air at atmospheric press

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    3. DENSITY

    The density of light hydrocar#ons can #e determined #y several m(%&T' +-1-) including a hydrometer method (%&T' +635) anpressure hydrometer method (%&T' +4,1 $P 60,). The specic (relative density) (%&T' +-1- %&T' +4,1) #y itself has little compared /ith its use for highermolecular/eight liquid petroleumand can only give an indication of quality characteristics /hen com

    values for volatility and vapor pressure. $t is important for stoc2 qucalculations and is used in connection /ith transport and storage.

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    2. COMPOSITION7urrently the preferred method for the analysis of liqueed petroleum gas and

    petroleumrelated gases is gas chromatography (%&T' 6+40 $P 64*). This techniqfor the identication and measurement of #oth main constituents and trace constitthere may #e some accuracy issues that arise in the measurement of the higher#oil#ecause of relative volatility under the conditions in /hich the sample is held. 7apilchromatography is an even quic2er and equally accurate alternative. 'ass spectro++01) is also suita#le for analysis of petroleum gases. Bf the other spectroscopic techand ultraviolet a#sorption may #e applied to petroleum gas analysis for soapplications. Gas chromatography has also largely supplanted chemical a#sorptanalysis #ut again these may have some limited specialiAed application. Bnce the cmixture has #een determined it is possi#le to calculate various properties such as vapor pressure caloric value and de/ point.

    $n general gas chromatography /ill undou#tedly continue to #e the methodcharacteriAation of light hydrocar#on materials. Ce/ and improved detection devices such as chemiluminescence atomic emission and mass spectroscopy /ill enhadetection limits and analytical productivity. La#oratory automation through autosamcontrol and data handling /ill provide improved precision and productivity as /emethod operation. properties and test methods 7ompositional analysis can #e uscaloric value specic gravity and compressi#ility factor (%&T' 0,55). 'ercury also measured #y atomic ?uorescence spectroscopy (%&T' 40,-) and #y atospectroscopy (%&T' ,3,*).

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    4. SULFUR The sulfur compounds that are mainly responsi#le for corrosion are hydrogen sul

    sulde and sometimes elemental sulfur. ydrogen sulde and mercaptans have

    unpleasant odors. 7ontrol of the total sulfur content hydrogen sulde and mercathat the product is not corrosive or nauseating. &tipulating a satisfactory copper

    further ensures control of corrosion.

    Total sulfur in gas can #e determined #y com#ustion (%&T' +-16) #y the lamp

    (%&T' +644) or #y hydrogenation (%&T' 0-0+ %&T' **45). Trace total or

    #ound nitrogen is determined (%&T' *463). The current test method for heavy

    liqueed petroleum gas (%&T' 6+,5) involves evaporation of a liqueed petrol

    sample measuring the volume of residue and o#serving the residue for oil stain o

    lter paper.

    7orrosive sulfur compounds can #e detected #y their eDect on copper and the fo

    general copper strip corrosion test (%&T' l505) for petroleum products is applie

    petroleum gas. ydrogen sulde can #e detected #y its action on moist lead acet

    a procedure is also used as a measure of sulfur compounds.

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    5. VOLATILITY AND VAPOR PRES

    The vaporiAation and com#ustion characteristics of liqueed petroleum gas are deapplications #y volatility vapor pressure and to a lesser extent specic gravity. 8olatin terms of the temperature at /hich 3,E of the sample is evaporated and presents aleast volatile component present (%&T' +501).8apor pressure ($P *+-) is therefore amost extreme lo/temperature conditions under /hich initial vaporiAation can ta2e pla

    The residue (%&T' +-6, %&T' 6+,5 $P 0+1) that is nonvolatile matter is aconcentration of contaminants #oiling a#ove 01.57 (+--F) that may #e present natural gasoline the primary criteria are volatility (vapor pressure) and 2noc

    etermination of the vapor pressure (%&T' 060 %&T' *3,0 %&T' ,+3- %&distillation prole (%&T' 6+4 $P +3+) is essential. noc2 performance is determi2noc2 test engines #y #oth the motor method (%&T' 61-- $P 604) and the research6433 $P 601). The 2noc2 characteristics of liqueed petroleum gases can also #e deteBther considerations for natural gasoline are copper corrosion (%&T' +0- $P +specic gravity (%&T' +635 $P +4-) the latter determination #eing necessary for mtransportation.

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    6. WATER

    $t is a fundamental requirement that liqueed petroleum gas shoucontain free /ater (%&T' 61+0). issolved /ater may give trouforming hydrates and giving moisture vapor in the gas phase. @ot/ill lead to #loc2ages. Therefore test methods are availa#le to depresence of /ater using electronic moisture analyAers (%&T' ,*point temperature (%&T' ++*6) and lengthofstain detector tu

    *555).

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    NATURAL GAS Catural gas is found in petroleum reservoirs as free gas (associa

    solution /ith petroleum in the reservoir (dissolved gas) or in res

    contain only gaseous constituents and no (or little) petroleum.

    Catural Gas (Gas) either as a associated gas and non associate

    % desired component of natural gas is a component of ydrocar

    7omponent of natural gas is undesira#le impurities

    Purication of natural gas is an attempt to mitigate = reduce the

    impurities to the extent desired requirements

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    OMPONEN GAS ALAM

    Components o n!t"#!$ %!s&'#o!#*on (%!s))

    ydrocar#on components in the form of compounds acompound of the nparaHns and isoparaHns

    7ompounds that are not contained in natural gas

    (natural gas) is Caften %romatics and Blens The hydrocar#on component consists ofI

    7* 764 705 n7*+- iso7*+- n7,+6 iso7,+6 dan74+*J

    Components o non&'#o!#*on n!t"#!(%!s)

    7

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    TEST PARAMETERS OF NATURAL GAS (GAS

    &hould #e tested in the la#oratory against Gas Catural out of the

    The purpose of testing for natural gasI

    +. to determine the content of chemical compounds contained t

    6. to determine the type of process puri2asinya (treating) the

    unit processes types of chemicals used and the dose of ch

    used

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    PROPERTIES OF NATURAL GAS (GAS)

    Properties of natural gas after the reduction = reduction of impurit(treating)I

    aving a highpurity hydrocar#ons to ensure the quality and qunatural gas

    Cot corrode processing equipment as /ell as products produced

    as a high caloric value /hen natural gas is used as fuel

    The resulting product should not #e precipitates (such as heavyhydrocar#ons) on the storage system

    'ust have suHcient vapor pressure so as not to eopardiAe safetransport distri#ution and storage.

    Bn com#ustion natural gas must #e clean and does not pollute