PParts of the skeletal system ›B›Bones (skeleton) ›J›Joints ›C›Cartilages ›L›Ligaments DDivided into two divisions ›A›Axial skeleton ›A›Appendicular.

Download PParts of the skeletal system ›B›Bones (skeleton) ›J›Joints ›C›Cartilages ›L›Ligaments DDivided into two divisions ›A›Axial skeleton ›A›Appendicular.

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<ul><li> Slide 1 </li> <li> Slide 2 </li> <li> Slide 3 </li> <li> PParts of the skeletal system BBones (skeleton) JJoints CCartilages LLigaments DDivided into two divisions AAxial skeleton AAppendicular skeleton </li> <li> Slide 4 </li> <li> Slide 5 </li> <li> SSupport of the body PProtection of soft organs MMovement due to attached skeletal muscles SStorage of minerals and fats BBlood cell formation </li> <li> Slide 6 </li> <li> Slide 7 </li> <li> The adult skeleton has 206 bones Two basic types of bone tissue Compact bone Homogeneous Spongy bone Small needle-like pieces of bone Many open spaces Figure 5.2b </li> <li> Slide 8 </li> <li> Figure 5.1 </li> <li> Slide 9 </li> <li> Long bones Typically longer than wide Have a shaft with heads at both ends Contain mostly compact bone Examples: Femur, humerus </li> <li> Slide 10 </li> <li> SShort bones GGenerally cube-shape CContain mostly spongy bone EExamples: Carpals, tarsals </li> <li> Slide 11 </li> <li> Flat bones Thin/flattened Usually curved Thin layers of compact bone around a layer of spongy bone Examples: skull ribs sternum </li> <li> Slide 12 </li> <li> Irregular bones Irregular shape Do not fit into other bone classification categories Example: Vertebrae and hip </li> <li> Slide 13 </li> <li> Figure 5.1 </li> <li> Slide 14 </li> <li> Diaphysis Shaft Composed of compact bone Epiphysis Ends of the bone Composed mostly of spongy bone Figure 5.2a </li> <li> Slide 15 </li> <li> Periosteum Outside covering of the diaphysis Fibrous connective tissue membrane Sharpeys fibers Secure periosteum to underlying bone Arteries Supply bone cells with nutrients Figure 5.2c </li> <li> Slide 16 </li> <li> Articular cartilage Covers the external surface of the epiphyses Made of hyaline cartilage Decreases friction at joint surfaces Figure 5.2a </li> <li> Slide 17 </li> <li> Medullary cavity Cavity of the shaft Contains yellow marrow (mostly fat) in adults Contains red marrow (for blood cell formation) in infants Figure 5.2a </li> <li> Slide 18 </li> <li> SSurface features of bones SSites of attachments for muscles, tendons, and ligaments PPassages for nerves and blood vessels CCategories of bone markings PProjections and processes grow out from the bone surface DDepressions or cavities indentations </li> <li> Slide 19 </li> <li> Osteon (Haversian System) A unit of bone Central (Haversian) canal Opening in the center of an osteon Carries blood vessels and nerves Perforating (Volkmans) canal Canal perpendicular to the central canal Carries blood vessels and nerves </li> <li> Slide 20 </li> <li> Figure 5.3 </li> <li> Slide 21 </li> <li> Lacunae Cavities containing bone cells (osteocytes) Arranged in concentric rings Lamellae Rings around the central canal Sites of lacunae Detail of Figure 5.3 </li> <li> Slide 22 </li> <li> Canaliculi Tiny canals Radiate from the central canal to lacunae Form a transport system Detail of Figure 5.3 </li> <li> Slide 23 </li> <li> In embryos, the skeleton is primarily hyaline cartilage During development, much of this cartilage is replaced by bone Cartilage remains in isolated areas Bridge of the nose Parts of ribs Joints </li> <li> Slide 24 </li> <li> Epiphyseal plates allow for growth of long bone during childhood New cartilage is continuously formed Older cartilage becomes ossified Cartilage is broken down Bone replaces cartilage </li> <li> Slide 25 </li> <li> Bones are remodeled and lengthened until growth stops Bones change shape somewhat Bones grow in width </li> <li> Slide 26 </li> <li> Figure 5.4a </li> <li> Slide 27 </li> <li> Figure 5.4b </li> <li> Slide 28 </li> <li> Osteocytes Mature bone cells Osteoblasts Bone-forming cells Osteoclasts Bone-destroying cells Break down bone matrix for remodeling and release of calcium Bone remodeling is a process by both osteoblasts and osteoclasts </li> <li> Slide 29 </li> <li> A break in a bone Types of bone fractures Complete vs. Incomplete: whether bone is separated or still partially connected Closed (simple) fracture break that does not penetrate the skin Open (compound) fracture broken bone penetrates through the skin Bone fractures are treated by reduction and immobilization Realignment of the bone Immobilization can be internal or external </li> <li> Slide 30 </li> <li> Table 5.2 </li> <li> Slide 31 </li> <li> Slide 32 </li> <li> Slide 33 </li> <li> Slide 34 </li> <li> Slide 35 </li> <li> Slide 36 </li> <li> Slide 37 </li> <li> Hematoma (blood-filled swelling) is formed Break is splinted by fibrocartilage to form a callus Fibrocartilage callus is replaced by a bony callus Bony callus is remodeled to form a permanent patch </li> <li> Slide 38 </li> <li> Figure 5.5 </li> <li> Slide 39 </li> <li> The first x-ray was taken right after a fracture. The second was 2 months later, showing some callus. Notice that the leg is now in a cast, so the entire bone looks a little more dense and fuzzy. The last x-ray was 4 months after the fracture, showing a good callus. The bone now can bear weight, but it will take many months to remodel the area and complete the repair. </li> </ul>

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