powerpoint slides english text spanish translation powerpoint slides english text spanish...

Download PowerPoint Slides English Text Spanish Translation PowerPoint Slides English Text Spanish Translation

Post on 07-Nov-2019

26 views

Category:

Documents

0 download

Embed Size (px)

TRANSCRIPT

  • 1

    PowerPoint Slides English Text Spanish Translation

    Hematologic Malignancies: Diagnosing and Staging, Part 2: Lymphoma and Multiple Myeloma VideoTranscript

    Malignidades Hematológicas: Diagnóstico y Estadificación, Parte 2: Linfoma y Mieloma Múltiple Transcripción del video

    Professional Oncology Education Hematologic Malignancies: Diagnosing and Staging, Part 2: Lymphoma and Mulitple Myeloma Time: 20:19

    Educación Oncológica Profesional Malignidades Hematológicas: Diagnóstico y Estadificación, Parte 2: Linfoma y Mieloma Múltiple Duración: 20:19

    Jorge Romaguera, M.D. Professor Lymphoma/Myeloma The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center

    Dr. Jorge Romaguera Profesor Linfoma/Mieloma MD Anderson Cancer Center, Universidad de Texas

    Hematologic Malignancies: Diagnosis and Staging Hematologic Malignancies: Diagnosis and Staging Hematologic Malignancies: Diagnosis and Staging Hematologic Malignancies: Diagnosis and Staging

    Part II: Lymphoma and Multiple MyelomaPart II: Lymphoma and Multiple MyelomaPart II: Lymphoma and Multiple MyelomaPart II: Lymphoma and Multiple Myeloma

    Hematologic Malignancies:Hematologic Malignancies:

    Diagnosis and StagingDiagnosis and Staging

    Part II: Lymphoma and Part II: Lymphoma and

    Multiple MyelomaMultiple Myeloma

    Jorge Romaguera, M.D.

    Professor

    Lymphoma/Myeloma

    Hello. I am Dr. Jorge Romaguera. I am Professor of the Department of Lymphoma and Multiple Myeloma at the University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center. I will be speaking to you today about the diagnosis of staging of lymphomas and multiple myeloma.

    Hola. Soy el Dr. Jorge Romaguera, profesor del Departamento de Leucemia y Mieloma Múltiple en el MD Anderson Cancer Center de la Universidad de Texas. Hoy hablaremos sobre el diagnóstico y la estadificación de los linfomas y el mieloma múltiple.

  • 2

    Hematologic Malignancies: Diagnosis and Staging Hematologic Malignancies: Diagnosis and Staging Hematologic Malignancies: Diagnosis and Staging Hematologic Malignancies: Diagnosis and Staging

    Part II: Lymphoma and Multiple MyelomaPart II: Lymphoma and Multiple MyelomaPart II: Lymphoma and Multiple MyelomaPart II: Lymphoma and Multiple Myeloma

    Part II: Objectives

    Upon completion of this part, participants will

    be able to:

    • Define lymphoma, including Hodgkin’s and Non-Hodgkin’s and multiple myeloma

    • Discuss the clinical presentation of these diseases

    • Discuss the hematologic, radiographic and pathologic findings for classification and

    staging of each

    Upon completion of this part of this talk, you will be able to define lymphoma, both Hodgkin’s and non- Hodgkin’s lymphoma as well as multiple myeloma. You will be able to discuss clinical presentation of the cases of these diseases --- [I apologize] --- as well as hematologic, radiographic, and pathologic findings for classification and staging of each.

    Al finalizar esta parte de la charla podrán definir el linfoma —tanto de Hodgkin como no Hodgkin— y el mieloma múltiple. Asimismo, podrán analizar la presentación clínica de estas enfermedades y los hallazgos hematológicos, radiográficos y patológicos para su clasificación y estadificación.

    Hematologic Malignancies: Diagnosis and Staging Hematologic Malignancies: Diagnosis and Staging Hematologic Malignancies: Diagnosis and Staging Hematologic Malignancies: Diagnosis and Staging

    Part II: Lymphoma and Multiple MyelomaPart II: Lymphoma and Multiple MyelomaPart II: Lymphoma and Multiple MyelomaPart II: Lymphoma and Multiple Myeloma

    Lymphoma

    • Group of malignancies originating in the lymphatic system

    • Types of lymphoma – Hodgkin’s lymphoma – Non-Hodgkin’s lymphoma (NHL)

    • 85% B-cell lymphoma • 15% T-cell lymphoma

    We will start first with lymphoma. This is a group of malignancies that originates in the lymphatic system. It is broadly divided in two categories, the Hodgkin’s lymphoma and the non-Hodgkin’s lymphoma or malignant lymphoma. Here in North America, 85% of the malignant lymphomas are of the B-cell type and 15 are of a T-cell type. We will be discussing in this presentation mainly the B-cell type, which is the most common.

    Comenzaremos con el linfoma, un grupo de tumores malignos que se origina en el sistema linfático. Se divide en dos categorías: el linfoma de Hodgkin y el linfoma no Hodgkin, o linfoma maligno. En América del Norte, el 85% de los linfomas malignos son del tipo de células B, y el 15% son de un tipo de células T. En esta presentación hablaremos principalmente del de tipo de células B, que es el más común.

  • 3

    Hematologic Malignancies: Diagnosis and Staging Hematologic Malignancies: Diagnosis and Staging Hematologic Malignancies: Diagnosis and Staging Hematologic Malignancies: Diagnosis and Staging

    Part II: Lymphoma and Multiple MyelomaPart II: Lymphoma and Multiple MyelomaPart II: Lymphoma and Multiple MyelomaPart II: Lymphoma and Multiple Myeloma

    Risk Factors for Lymphoma

    • Cause of NHL unknown

    • Inherited familial: small percentage

    • Environmental – Chemical suspected (e.g., pesticides/herbicides) – High-dose radiation exposure suspected

    • Immunosuppression – Immune deficiency (AIDS, post-organ transplant)

    • Viral and bacterial – Infections (HIV, HTLV-1 virus, Epstein-Barr virus,

    Helicobacter pylori bacteria)

    The cause of non-Hodgkin’s lymphoma is not known. It is not accepted to be inherited as other cancers are, although there is a suspicion that there might be some familial inheritance risk. There are environmental factors that have been associated, mainly herbicides. Also the Agent Orange which was used in the Vietnam War, also the creosol that was applied to the telephone posts several --- a decade or two ago. There is a suspicion that high- dose radiation exposure might predispose to non- Hodgkin’s lymphoma. It is known that immune deficiency states such as AIDS, acquired immunodeficiency disease --- syndrome, is a risk factor for developing lymphoma. It is also known that Helicobacter pylori predisposes in a very small population of patients to the development of indolent lymphoma in the stomach. There is also a suspicion of Epstein-Barr virus being behind the lymphomagenesis of several lymphomas. The one that is mostly discussed is the child --- childhood Burkitt’s lymphoma, the African type.

    Se desconoce cuál es la causa del linfoma no Hodgkin. No se acepta que sea un cáncer hereditario, como otros tipos de cáncer, aunque sí se sospecha que puede haber algún riesgo de herencia familiar. Se le han asociado algunos factores ambientales, principalmente herbicidas. También el Agente Naranja, que se utilizó en la guerra de Vietnam, y el creosol, que se colocaba en los postes de teléfono hace diez o veinte años. Supuestamente, la exposición a altas dosis de radiación puede predisponer a tener linfoma no Hodgkin. Se sabe que los estados de inmunodeficiencia como el sida, el síndrome de inmunodeficiencia adquirida, son un factor de riesgo para desarrollar linfoma. También se sabe que, en una población pequeña de pacientes, el Helicobacter pylori predispone el desarrollo del linfoma indolente en el estómago. Asimismo, se sospecha que el virus de Epstein-Barr subyace a la linfomagénesis de varios linfomas. El más discutido es el linfoma de Burkitt infantil de tipo africano.

  • 4

    Hematologic Malignancies: Diagnosis and Staging Hematologic Malignancies: Diagnosis and Staging Hematologic Malignancies: Diagnosis and Staging Hematologic Malignancies: Diagnosis and Staging

    Part II: Lymphoma and Multiple MyelomaPart II: Lymphoma and Multiple MyelomaPart II: Lymphoma and Multiple MyelomaPart II: Lymphoma and Multiple Myeloma

    Signs and Symptoms

    • Enlarged (usually non-tender) lymph nodes that do not disappear in 2 weeks or respond to antibiotics

    • Constitutional symptoms (< 20%) – Weight loss – Fever – Night sweats

    You will know or suspect lymphoma if you have a --- an enlarged lymph node that does not disappear after two weeks and is not responding to antibiotics. Usually this lymph node will be non-tender. And it might or not be associated with unexplained weight loss or unexplained fever or drenching night sweats so that you have to change your clothes or your night spread --- sheets.

    Sabremos o sospecharemos que existe linfoma si tenemos un ganglio linfático agrandado que no desaparece después de dos semanas y no responde a los antibióticos. En general, este ganglio linfático no presenta sensibilidad, y puede o no estar asociado a una pérdida de peso o fiebre inexplicables, o sudores nocturnos tan intensos que obligan a cambiar la ropa o las sábanas.

    Hematologic Malignancies: Diagnosis and Staging Hematologic Malignancies: Diagnosis and Staging Hematologic Malignancies: Diagnosis and Staging Hematologic Malignancies: Diagnosis and Staging

    Part II: Lymphoma and Multiple MyelomaPart II: Lymphoma and Multiple MyelomaPart II: Lymphoma and Multiple MyelomaPart II: Lymphoma and Multiple Myeloma

    Lymphoma: Diagnosis

    • Biopsy – Fine needle aspiration (FNA) – Excisional/incisional – Bone marrow

    • Laboratory tests – CBC and differential – Serum chemistries

    • Imaging studies – Chest x-ray – Computed tomography (CT) scan of neck/chest/

    abdomen/pelvis

    – Posi