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The subtopics of Chapter III in descriptive design are as follows:
1.Research Design2. Determination of Sample Size3. Sampling Design and Technique4. The Subjects5. The Research Instrument6. Validation of the Research Instrument7. Data Gathering Procedure8. Data Processing Method9. Statistical Treatment
1. Research Design
Nine Types of Descriptive Design1. Descriptive-survey2. Descriptive-normative3. Descriptive-status4. Descriptive-analysis5. Descriptive-classification6. Descriptive-evaluative7. Descriptive-comparative8. Correctional Survey9. Longitudinal Survey
2. Determination of Sample Size
Formula to determine the sample size
NV + [ (Se)2 (1-p) ]SS = NSe = [ V2 p (1-p) ]
SS stands for sample sizeSample Given:N total number of populationN = 900V - standard value of (2.58)V = 2.58Se sampling error (0.01)Se = 0.01p Largest possible proportion (0.50)p = 0.50
3. Sampling Design and Technique
Two kinds of Sampling Design1. Scientific SamplingSix types of Scientific SamplingRestricted Random SamplingUnrestricted Random samplingStratified Random SamplingSystematic SamplingMulti-stage SamplingCluster Sampling
2. Nonscientific Sampling
4. The Subjects
The researcher has to explain how and where the subjects are taken. The frequency, and percentage of the subjects must be presented.
5. Research Instrument
The research instrument is either questionnaire, test, interview, checklist, observation schedule or rating scale must be described on how it is designed by the researcher. Each part of the research instrument is explicitly stated.
6. Validation of the Research InstrumentSuggestions, corrections, and refinement of the draft must be explained thoroughly. The different individuals involved in the corrections and refinement of the research instrument must be mentioned. After it is refined, testing the validity and reliability of the research instrument must be done.
(continuation)For validity, experts in line of the field of the study must be requested to go over the instrument. Each item in the instrument is numbered 3, 2, and 1 which means 3, retain; 2, needs improvement; and 1 delete.
7. Data Gathering ProcessHaving found the research instrument valid and reliable, the researcher proceeds to ask permission and approval from the head of agency where the subjects are employed. Once permitted, the researcher administers the research instrument of the subjects of the study. The date of the administration of the questionnaires and the retrieval of the research instrument must be stated.
7. Data Gathering MethodAfter the retrieval of the questionnaires, the researcher tabulates and processes the data either manually or by machine. Quantitative and qualitative data processing must be determined to arrive at precise analysis and interpretation of results. Categorization of subjects must be mentioned.
(continuation)Data matrix based on dummy tables must be used to organized, summarize, and analyze the data on how the variables differ with each other.
8. Statistical TreatmentThe statistical tools used to answer the research questions of the study must be described and the formula must be presented and explained. The level of significance, either 1 percent or 5 percent, must be stated to determine the significance of the findings.
MATERIALS AND METHOD
The subtopics of Chapter III in experimental design are as follows:
1.Research Method2. Materials3. Equipment/Apparatus and Utensils4. Procedure5. Training of the Panelists6. Evaluation of the Products7. Statistical Treatment
1. Research Method
Nine Types of Experimental Method/Design1. Single Group Design2. Two-group Design3. Two-pair Group Design4. Parallel-group Design5. Pretest-posttest Design6. Counterbalanced/Latin Square Design7. Complete Randomized Design8. Randomized Complete Block Design9. Correlational Design
2. MaterialsThe materials include the ingredients and its formulations. The ingredients must be quantified.
3. Equipment and UtensilsThe researcher states the equipment and utensils used in the preparation of the study. Equipment must be presented first and followed by utensils. If there are apparatus, i.e., salinometer, pH meter, thermometer, refractometer, and many others used in the study, hence, these must be stated.
4. ProceduresThe researcher explains comprehensively the process in preparing the product. If there are two or more variables, coded number, i.e., Lot 101 or coded letter, f.i. Lot A, is assigned per Lot. The variables must be emphasized whether control or experimental group. Flow sheet in preparing the product must be presented to have clearer picture of the procedure.
5. Training the PanelistsThe panelists must be trained first before they are going to evaluate the products to determine the validity and reliability of their evaluation. It is expected that evaluation of trained panelists is consistent, thus, it is valid and reliable.
There are five taste test methods in training the panelists and these are follows:
1. Single Stimulus2. Paired Comparison3. Duo-trio Method 4. Triangle method5. Multiple Comparison
6. Evaluation of the ProductsAfter training the panelists, the products must be evaluated by the identified trained panelists. If there are 10 panelists as trained, hence, they are going to evaluate the products.
7. Statistical TreatmentThe researcher must diagnose the most appropriate statistical tools used for experimental design to answer the specific questions and accept/reject the hypotheses presented in chapter 1.