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Stormwater Utility Basics Polluted Runoff is the #1 Water Quality Problem in the U.S.*Polluted Runoff is the #1 Water Quality Problem in the U.S.** USEPA* USEPA$ $ Pat Sauer, CPESC IAMU Stormwater Program Coordinator The Cycle of Stormwater It rains and sometimes it rains heavily Flooding occurs Water quality regulatory requirements/TMDL (Total Maximum Daily Load/Impaired Water body) Reports are written Costs for improvements astonish all Report put on shelf Rinse and repeat Breaking the Cycle of Stormwater The problem is not going to disappear Move it to the top of the priority list Planning Stable funding source Program The Evolution of Stormwater Management Move it on downstream quickly (surface conveyance) But not on the street or in my yard (pipe conveyance) And try not to flood the neighbors (detention) While making sure the water is clean (NPDES Phase 1) No a little cleaner (NPDES Phase 2) A little more (Total Maximum Daily Loads TMDLs) I want that stuff drinkable The problem is not going to disappear Baxter-Woodman consultants What is a Stormwater Utility? Funding method Program Organization Growth of Utilities 1975 1985 1995 2011 500 250 1 Advantages of a Stormwater Utility Stable, adequate, sustainable source of income to support stormwater program. New funding source or supplemental to existing. Funding provides program flexibility. Equitable. Stable and Adequate Tax-based result in peaks and valleys, underfunded some years. Utility-based results in a constant increasing source of funding. When does fee feel as though it is too much? $1, $2, $3, $4, $5, $6, $7, $8 What type of programincidental, developing, advanced? Flexibility Funding for entire program. Credits to encourage water quantity and quality good performance. Cost share funding for water quality, quantity, and streambank stabilization. Geographically based. Can address environmental issues and associated costs. Equitable User fees more equitable-not all property owners pay taxes but ALL of them contribute to stormwater! Fees collected are used for intended purpose. How is the fee calculated? Equivalent rate unit: i.e.1 ERU = 2,500 sq. ft. Flat rate for residential, commercial. Combination. What Expenses Are Involved with Municipal Stormwater Management? Flood management. Maintenance and expansion of infrastructure, capital improvements, aging infrastructure. Inventory system and master plan for for for for improvements. Assessment and planning. Stormwater quality considerations. Stormwater Management Plan-Permit Implementation, regulation and enforcement. How Can You Finance Your Stormwater Management Program? Stormwater Utility/Fee You need to have a stormwater management program and/or have permit requirements that must be met. You will need a steady source of funding for the program. SW management typically financed by property taxes. This usually results in SW issues being placed in low priority. Other taxes include: sales taxes, income tax, gasoline tax, business tax, gaming tax, user fee. IA Code Section 384.84 allows a city to establish a stormwater utility. Initial Evaluation Process Master Stormwater Management Plan Identify needs, problems, issues, for example; major flooding issues that need to be addressed, i.e. aging infrastructure-replacement and updates, NPDES permit implementation activities. Identify available resources and limitations, i.e. GIS software and database available, finance department arrangements, current staff and staff needed for program implementation. What are Some Stormwater Management Problems/Concerns? System Capacity-Flooding Maintenance New or existing regulatory programs Water quality Monitoring and planning Funding problems Community perception System Capacity and Maintenance Is capacity and construction of older systems minimal or substandard? Maintained properly to keep with demand? Inadequate routine, deferred, delegated, remedial? Inadequate information-mapping, inspection, management, resources? New Regulatory Programs FEMA requirements? NPDES federal/state program must comply with requirements. Potential Total Maximum Daily Load Allocations. NPDES MS-4 City Permit Requirements 6 minimum control measures. Ordinances and enforcement. Mapping, illicit discharges. Erosion and sediment control inspections. Post construction retrofits, good housekeeping and pollution prevention, education and outreach. Watershed assessment and land use plan. Need to invest in this program to comply! Concerns Address flood control. Address water qualitypollutants in stormwater. Retrofits and new development. Contaminants in Stormwater Runoff Motor vehicle fluids, organic hydrocarbons, metals Street salt Fertilizers, nutrients, nitrogen and phosphorus Pathogens Thermal Pollution Polluted Runoff is the #1 Water Quality Problem in the U.S.*Polluted Runoff is the #1 Water Quality Problem in the U.S.** USEPA* USEPAWater Quality Management-low impact development, reduce the amount of runoff-infiltrate and percolate. Develop effective Ordinances-backbone Require the effective use of BMPs, retrofits Watershed Assessment Program Rain Gardens Conservation Subdivisions Bioswale Wetlands Riparian Buffers Along Streams Water Quality BMPs Monitoring and Planning Monitoring of outfalls for illicit discharges. Watershed assessments, data collection. Land use plans, prioritize and identify, strategy. What is the Status of Your Stormwater Program? How are you currently funding your program and is it adequate? Bandaids or well developed program? What are the major deficiencies? Community Perception What does your community know and understand about your storm sewer system, management, program needs and regulatory requirements? Are flooding and water quality issues a priority in your community? How is your system being affected by upstream communities or how are you affecting downstream communities? Where to go from here?...Use Existing Staff to Create Utility or Hire Consultant? Factor in all costs Some cities hire a consultant-Dubuque, Marion Others are choosing to utilize staff to create utility-Bettendorf, Iowa City Where Can You Focus Your Attention? Four recommended areas: Public, political education and support Program concept Financial policies/documents Database development and customer service Anticipate: Who Will Not Like The Concept? Tax Exempt properties such churches Owners of large paved areas Fixed Income Anticipate Legal Issues Is it fair, non discriminatory Proper procedures followed Legal by legislation Program Concept Feasibility study: Take staff, council, and citizens through key aspects of utility to build acceptance. Test the water before committing. Justification Justification for a Stormwater Utility Stormwater quality and quantity issues are real and need to be addressed. Problems can be addressed. Our local government/city should lead. Benefits will result. Current methods are not working. Aging infrastructure. Adequate and stable funding is needed. A utility is the most effective tool. Build Your Case for Justification Statistics Number of complaints, issues (Flooding, plugged outlets. Growth in community, major impacts on stream flows. Of these how many are resolved vs. unresolved? Provide Cost and Infrastructure Information Lost revenue, Regulatory Information Your Program Needs, Goals Priorities, Objectives Analysis Service Costs Organizational Structure Implementing Utility Considerations When Developing the Utility Small, visible projects first Program Defensible cost, meet real needs Address all needs and levels Fit revenue and staff needs Follow logical developmental steps What Type of Program Do You Want?? Minimum, Moderate, Advanced, Exception/Outstanding Adjust program based on revenue $1 $2 $3 $4 $5 $6 $7 $8 $9 $10 What is your communities comfort zone? Community demographics play a role. Adequate Program? $200 $100 For every $/month per household A utility can generate about $20-$50 per acre/year. (Andrew Reese, AMEC) $0 $50 $150 Incidental Minimum Making Progress Advanced Exceptional Utility Program Organizational Categories Administration Special Programs-GIS, Mapping, Public Education, Citizens Group Infrastructure Billing and Finance Indirect Costs-Overhead Flood Control Stormwater Permit Program Water Quality Control Program Continued.. Capital Improvements, major and minor. Engineering and Planning Operations Regulations and Enforcement-General Permit #2, Construction site erosion and sediment control program-Ordinance. Considerations When Developing the Utility Your Public Develop Info/Ed Plan Identify Stakeholders Implement Plan Critical!!!! Considerations When Developing the Utility Financial Matters Funding Legal Aspects Funding Policy Rate Structure Study Rate vs Program Expenses Ordinance Development-Rate Conduct A Rate Analysis Unlike other utilities, stormwater services to runoff dishargers in not voluntary and cannot be metered. Most based on percent impervious. Compare fee structures in comparable cities to increase comfort level of residents. Distinguish between a user fee and a tax. Most Midwest cities base charge on Equivalent Runoff/Rate Units (ERU) for each property. One ERU = the average amount of impervious area on an average residential lot. Rate Methods % Impervious Area Impervious Area and Gross Area Gross Area with Intensity of Devel. Flat Rates Zoning Residential, Commercial, Industrial, Other Community Residential Rate Other Rate Ames $2/mo for single family; $1/unit for multi-structure Commercial $2/mo base rate .75/ERU up to 3,129 Bettendorf Boone Burlington Carroll Coralville Dubuque Iowa City Some Rates for Communities in Iowa Currently about 23 cities with stormwater utility fees in Iowa. Call Your Neighbor to Get Their Rates ButImportant to Evaluate Program Costs Before Setting Rates. Considerations When Developing the Utility Database Mgmt. Policy Data, Information Account File and Billing Info. Billing System Complaint/Issues Quality Assurance Billing System Considerations Utilize Current Water/Wastewater Bill-usually best for cities, monthly, looks like user fee. Independent Billing-expensive, collection difficulties. Attach to Some Tax. Other utility System? Fee Data Considerations Some Options: Geographic Information System Data Satellite Images Aerial Photography - (contact local NRCS office) Measuring Impervious Surfaces GIS Mapping Percent Impervious Surface http://gis.broward.org/maps/webPDFs/EnvironmentalMaps/drainbasin.pdfUtility Development Process Before the First Billing -Keep politicians, public informed-no surprizes! -Educate/inform, get support all directions. -Hold meetings. At First Billing -Handle customer issues, good first impression. After First Billing -Keep up support for utility, share projects and successes, visibility. Organize Steering Committee Community/Political Leaders Citizen Groups Suggestion for Entire Utility Fee Process Forming a Stormwater Utility ..Educate, Communicate, Gain Support The Key to Successful Stormwater Programs Website www.iowastorwater.org (PWP area) Meeting for members, IAMU, Eastern Iowa Educational Toolbox Speakers Networking Regulatory Updates http://www.iowastorwater.org/Members 31 City Members 3 SWCD 2 Companies Work with cities on specific issues Audits of certain portions of program Annual Reports GP # 1 Pollution Prevention Training Train staff Stormwater Design Construction Site Erosion and Sediment Control Raincaping Iowa Annual Stormwater Conference www.rainscapingiowa.org Statewide educational campaign Partners promotes urban stormwater practices Practices protect water quality and reduce runoff Advisory board that guides and endorses program Ultimate goal Build awareness, behavioral changes, and demand Build capacity for implementation of practices Results Improvement and protection of water resources in Iowa Help businesses grow by providing Rainscaping services Rainscaping Iowa You live on waterfront property! You have waterfront property if there are storm drain inlets in the street. Storm drains are connected to streams, ponds, and lakes. Water is not treated before it flows to the stream. Storm Drain Inlet & Outlet in River Rain gardens Bioretention Cells Bioswales Soil Quality Restoration Native Landscaping Permeable Pavements Rainwater Harvesting Green Roofs Streambank and Shoreline Stabilization Tree Filter Structures Rainscaping Practices Rainscapers are professionals who create beautiful and functional landscapes that protect Iowas water and soil resources. Design professionals Contractors What is a Certified Rainscaper? Understand stormwater management concepts and the hydrologic footprint of landscapes. Have undergone specific training Have demonstrated competency in the design, installation, and/or maintenance of Rainscaping practices. Follow the Rainscaper Code of Ethics Certified Rainscapers: Landscape Designers Landscape Architects Engineers Contractors Horticulturalists Master Gardeners Urban Conservationists Others Rainscaping Professionals Attend a Rainscaper training classes Pass a written exam for each practice Submit two case studies per practice, 1 case study for pavement systems Complete an application form Case study reviewed by a designated urban conservationist Certificate awarded to new Rainscaper as design professional or installer Certified Rainscaper Program 5 certified Rainscapers as of 9/12 Attend a Rainscaper training classes Pass a written exam for each practice Submit two case studies per practice, 1 case study for pavement systems Complete an application form Case study reviewed by a designated urban conservationist Certificate awarded to new Rainscaper as design professional or installer Certified Rainscaper Program 5 certified Rainscapers as of 9/12 Non-engineers and non-design professionals limited to design certifications for non-engineering practices such as rain gardens, soil quality restoration, native landscaping, ecological restoration, roadway plantings. Contractors/installers can be certified to install most practices, some practices under the guidance of design professionals. You can be certified for more than one practice, you pay the same annual fee for one vs. more than one certification. Certified Rainscaper Program Rainscaper Program Rainscapers have access to education and marketing resources Networking Rainscaper pays an annual fee to help support the Rainscaping program. http://www.rainscapingiowa.org/index.php?option=com_content&view=article&id=1&Itemid=24http://www.rainscapingiowa.org/index.php?option=com_content&view=article&id=7&Itemid=21 Future: Statewide marketing effort Billboards, TV and radio, social media, adopters Additional training events for practices and certifications Some programs may require that practices be designed/installed by certified Rainscapers Annual networking conference Rainscaping Iowa Soil Quality Restoration, October, Iowa City Rainwater Harvesting, November 8, Iowa City ICCSPPI, October 13, IAMU Stormwater Utility Workshop, November 9, IAMU ISWMM Training, December, Cedar Rapids VISIT: www.rainscapingiowa or www.iowastormwater.org Upcoming Training http://www.rainscapingiowa/How beautiful is the rain! After the dust and the heat, In the broad and fiery street, In the narrow lane, How beautiful is the rain! - Henry Wadsworth Longfellow Rain in Summer www.iowastormwater.org www.rainscapingiowa.org http://www.iowastormwater.org/Pat Sauer, Stormwater Program Coordinator Iowa Association of Municipal Utilities 800-810-4268 Ankeny, Iowa www.iowastormwater.org www.iamu.org http://www.iamu.org/


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