Power tactics

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<p>Power tacticsPower Tactics What power tactics do people use to translate power bases into specific action? That is, what options do individuals have for influencing their bosses, coworkers, or employees? And are some of these options, more effective than others? In this article, we outline popular tactical options and the conditions under which one may be more effective than another. Some tactics are usually more effective than others. Specific evidence indicates that rational persuasion, inspirational appeals, and consultation tend to be the most effective. On the other hand pressure tends to frequently backfire and is typically the least effective of few tactics. You can also increase your chance of success by using more than one type of tactic at the same time or sequentially, as long as your choices are compatible. For instance, using both ingratiation and legitimacy can lessen the negative reactions that might come from the appearance of being dictated to by the boss.</p> <p>But some influence tactics work better depending on the direction of influence. Studies have found that rational persuasion is the only tactic that is effective across organizational levels. Inspirational appeals works best as a downward influencing tactic with subordinates. When pressure works, it is almost always to achieve downward influence. And the use of personal appeals and coalition are most effective with lateral influence attempts.</p> <p>In addition to the direction of influence, a number of other factors have found to affect which tactics work best. These include the sequencing of tactics, a person s skill in using the tactic, a person s relative power, the type of request and how the request is perceived, the culture of the organization, and country-specific cultural factors. Preferred Power Tactics by Influence direction:</p> <p>Upward influence:</p> <p>1. Rational Persuasion</p> <p>Downward influence:</p> <p>1. Rational Persuasion 2. Inspirational Appeals 3. Pressure 4. Consultation 5. Ingratiation 6. Exchange 7. Legitimacy</p> <p>Lateral influence:</p> <p>1. Rational persuasion 2. Consultation 3. Ingratiation 4. Exchange 5. Legitimacy 6. Personal appeals 7. Coalitions</p> <p>You are more likely to be effective if you begin with softer tactics that rely on personal power such as personal and inspirational appeal, rational persuasion, and consultation. If these fail, you can move to harder tactics which emphasize formal power and involve greater costs and risks such as exchange, coalitions, and pressure. Interestingly, it has been found that using a single soft tactic is more effective than a single hard tactic; and that combining two soft tactics, or a soft tactic and rational persuasion, is more effective than any single tactic or a combination of hard tactics. Studies confirm a tactic is more likely to be successful if the target perceives it to be a socially acceptable form of influence behavior, if the target has sufficient attitudes about desirability if the request is used in a skillful way, if it is used for a request that is legitimate and if it is consistent with the target person s values and needs. Cultures within organization differ markedly for example, some are warm relaxed and supportive; others are formal and conservative. The organizational culture, in which a person works, therefore will have a bearing on defining which tactics are considered appropriate. Some cultures encourage the use of</p> <p>participation and consultation, some encourage reasons and still others rely on pressure. So, the organization itself will influence which subset of power tactics is viewed as acceptable for use. Finally, evidence indicates that people in different countries tend to prefer different power tactics. For instance, a study comparing managers in the United States and China found that the Americans perceived reasons to be most effective, whereas Chinese managers preferred tend to be consistent with the values in these two countries. Reason is consistent with the preference of Americans for direct confrontation and the use of rational persuasion to influence others and resolve differences. Similarly, coalition tactics are consistent with the Chinese preference for using indirect approaches for difficult or controversial requests.</p> <p>I've just finished reading "Rules for Radicals" by Saul Alinsky. These tactics seem to be as applicable today as they were in 1971, when he published the work. # Power is not only what you have, but what the enemy thinks you have # Never go outside the experience of your people # Wherever possible, go outside the experience of the enemy # Make the enemy live up to their own book of rules # Ridicule is man's most potent weapon # A good tactic is one that your people enjoy # A tactic that drags on too long becomes a drag # Keep the pressure on # The threat is usually more terrifying than the thing itself # The major premise for tactics is the development of operations that will maintain a constant pressure upon the opposition # If you push a negative hard and deep enough it will break through into its counterside # The price of a successful attack is a constructive alternative # Pick the target, freeze it, personalize it, and polarize it</p> <p>leadership styles &amp; tactics - Presentation Transcript</p> <p>1. Leadership Styles &amp; Tactics By Nisha Hariyani 2. * After the september 11, 2001 terrorist attacks, entire airline industry in US faced devasting lossess. * South west airlines did not go for layoffs. But also posted profits in the same year. * How???????????????? * Through leadership of Herbert Kelleher 3. Points To ponder * Leadership Styles * Likert s four styles * Tannenbaum &amp; SCHMIDT CONTINUUM of leader behavior 4. Leadership styles * Clear about what he is doing and why he is doing it * Instills the same clarity in his followers * Determines the end and leaves the choice of means to his people. Authoritative Style 5. Leadership style * Retains all authority and decision making power * No suggestions no considerations * Instruct on what to do and how to do Autocratic Style 6. Leadership style * Keeps employees happy &amp; in harmony * Ensures better communication</p> <p>* Relationship builder Benevolent style 7. Leadership style * Helps employees to identify their strengths &amp; weakness * Aligning employees * Encourages long term development * Issues challenging assignments Coaching style 8. Leadership style * Involves employees in decision making process * Gets ideas from his people * Creates trust * Sets realistic goals Democratic Style 9. * Sets high standards and adheres on it * Passionate about increase in quality and productivity * You perform or leave organization is the attitude Leadership style Pacesetting style 10. Leadership style Expert Style Manipulative Style Bureaucratic Style Participative Style 11. Likert s Four Style * System 1 management * System 2 management * System 3 management * System 4 management exploitative-authoritative style benevolent-authoritative style consultative style participative leadership style</p> <p>12. Tannenbaum &amp; SCHMIDT CONTINUUM of leader behavior * Leader as an announcer * Leader as a seller * Leader as a clarifier * Leader as a senior partner * Leader as a seeker * Leader as a equal partner * Leader as a follower 13. Points To Remember * Leadership Styles * Likert s four styles * Tannenbaum &amp; SCHMIDT CONTINUUM of leader behavior 14. Leadership skills &amp; Tactics Nisha Hariyani 15. Points to Learn * Persuasion skills * Motivational skills * Conflict resolution skills * Leadership tactics 16. Persuasion skills * Consider a situation where a company has to take an important decision about funding a lucrative yet risky project. ..!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!! * Learn how to persuade by analyzing whom to persuade 17. How to persuade a Skeptics * Skeptics are highly suspicious * Skeptics trust same backgrounds * They don t like oppositions or challenges thrown to them</p> <p>* Gain as much credibility * Find out something common with him * Handle them delicately, if they are wrong correct smartly 18. How to persuade a Charismatic * Charismatic are talkative &amp; enthusiastic * They look for facts to support their emotions * Charismatic have short attention span * While deciding they take suggestions from high profile executes * Persuader should control the urge to match his enthusiasm * Don t hide the facts, discuss the risk with him/her * Present information at earliest * Give them one and give time 19. How to persuade a Followers * Followers rely on past decisions made * They fear making wrong choices * Followers like proven and reliable ideas. * Make them feel confident give E.g. * Provide testimonials &amp; take a safe dwell in past * Don t suggest out of box ideas 20. How to persuade a Charismatic * Thinker are more academic and logical * They like arguments which are quantitative and backed by data * They don t forget bad experiences and have contradictory view * Persuader should communicate the draw backs initially * Using presentations and arguments to appeal their intelligence</p> <p>* Talk intellectually and proposal should appear to be best option 21. Motivational Skills * How do one ensures high level of enthusiasm and commitment during bad times?????????................ * Motivating people is not as easy as it sounds 22. General Methods of Motivation * Truth as the highest virtue * Desire to be great * Communicate, communicate &amp; communicate * Sharing the burden of risk * Motivating by caring * Motivating people at different levels * Motivating by setting difficult goals * Motivating in times of crisis 23. Motivating frontline staff * Emotionally energies frontline people * How???? Take an example of US Marine Corps Who invested time and energy to cultivate strong values, Encouraging to take up leadership positions Clarity between team and leader 24. Motivating Problem People * Motivational lectures, cash incentives, or memos etc will it motivate all of them????</p> <p>* What about problem employees or difficult people !!!!!!!!!!! Learn more about them, about yourself and about situation * Have a range of alternatives * Have a formal one to one sessions 25. Conflict resolution skills</p> <p>* What to do?????? * Skills required are: * Listening * Questioning * Communicating * Non verbal signs * Mediation skills 26. Leadership Tactics * A model of Power &amp; Influence * Relationships beyond chain of command o Step 1: identify the people who have to be led * How do leaders identify these relationships? o Step 2: identify people who may resist cooperation * How do leaders assess power? o Step 3: develop relationship with resisting parties * How do leaders develop such relationships? o Step 4: good relations &amp; good communication 27. * A model of Power &amp; Influence continue . * Relations with Subordinates * Relations with superiors * How do effective leaders deal with their superiors ????? Evaluate your boss strength and weakness Evaluate your strength and weakness Build a relationship &amp; maintain it Communicate, utilize his time prudently 28. Model of effectiveness and influence Setting Agenda Building Network Implementing agenda 29. summary</p> <p>* Persuasion skills * Motivational skills * Conflict resolution skills * Leadership tactics</p> <p>Strategic Leadership and Decision Making17 LEVERAGING POWER AND POLITICSThe challenges faced by strategic leaders in implementing complex and long-range consequential decisions demand that they be sophisticated with respect to issues of leadership, power and influence. The changes that are shaping the nature of work in today's complex organizations require that we develop the political will, expertise and personal skills to become more flexible, innovative and adaptive. Without political awareness and skill, we face the inevitable prospect of becoming immersed in bureaucratic infighting, parochial politics and destructive power struggles, which greatly retard organizational initiative, innovation, morale and performance (Kotter 1985)</p> <p>Making organizations more innovative, responsive and responsible requires focusing on a number of leadership, power and influence issues. These issues are critical in coping with the strategic environment with all its VUCA characteristics, and strategic leader performance requirements in that environment. The issues influence developing teams at the strategic level, as well as managing organizational processes linked to values and ethics, organizational culture, visioning and the management of change. Such issues include:y y y y</p> <p>y y</p> <p>Implementing strategic or adaptive change in the face of formidable resistance. Fostering entrepreneurial and creative behavior despite strong opposition. Gaining resources and support from bosses whose personal agendas might include organizationally harmful political games. Avoiding destructive adversarial relationships with others whose help and cooperation are paramount to your success, but who are outside your chain of command and your direct control, and who may suspect your motives. Building and developing effective teams in an internal environment where the natural tendency is to conflict with each other and engage in "turf battles". Avoiding becoming a victim or casualty of destructive power struggles.</p> <p>y y</p> <p>Avoiding the numerous traps that generate power misuses and ultimately power loss. Fostering organizational excellence, innovation and creativity, and not getting mired in bureaucratic politics or dysfunctional power conflicts.</p> <p>This chapter will not by itself change your view or way of acquiring power and effectively exercising influence. It does provide an opportunity to think differently about power, politics and influence, and it can refocus your attention on organizational issues and problems. For strategic leaders in most organizations the key to successfully implementing organizational change and improving long term performance rests with the leader's skill in knowing how to make power dynamics work for the organization, instead of against it. POWER IN ORGANIZATIONS THE CONCEPTS OF POWER AND ORGANIZATIONAL POLITICS John Gardner, writing about leadership and power in organizations, notes, "Of course leaders are preoccupied with power! The significant questions are: What means do they use to gain it? How much do they exercise it?" To what ends do they exercise it? He further states, "Power is the basic energy needed to initiate and sustain action or, to put it another way, the capacity to translate intention into reality and sustain it." In a similar vein, Richard Nixon wrote, "The great leader needs . . . the capacity to achieve. . . . Power is the opportunity to build, to create, to nudge history in a different direction." Dahl writing about the pervasiveness of the concept of power states, "The concept of power is as ancient and ubiquitous as any that social theory can boast." He defined power "as a relation among social actors in which one actor A, can get another social actor B, to do something that B would...</p>