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  • PortugueseAn Essential GrammarSecond Edition

    This new edition of Portuguese: An Essential Grammar is a practical refer-ence guide to the most important aspects of modern Portuguese.

    It presents a fresh and accessible description of the language that combinestraditional and function-based grammar. The book sets out the complex-ities of Portuguese in short, readable sections. Explanations are clear andfree from jargon. Throughout, the emphasis is on Portuguese as used bynative speakers around the world.

    The Grammar is the ideal reference source for the learner and user ofPortuguese. It is suitable for either independent study or for students inschools, colleges, universities and adult classes of all types.

    This second edition features:

    Coverage of both European and Brazilian Portuguese and informationon the lexical differences between the two

    Detailed contents list and index for easy access to information Full use of authentic examples Coverage of traditional grammar and language functions New section on the history and culture of the Portuguese-speaking

    world

    Amlia P. Hutchinson is Supervisor for Portuguese Language at theUniversity of Georgia and Janet Lloyd is Lecturer in Portuguese andSpanish at the University of Salford.

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  • Routledge Essential Grammars

    Essential Grammars are available for the following languages:

    ChineseDanishDutchEnglishFinnishModern HebrewNorwegianPolishPortugueseSwedishUrdu

    Other titles of related interest published by Routledge:

    Colloquial PortugueseBy Joo Sampaio and Barbara McIntyre

    Colloquial Portuguese of BrazilBy Esmenia Simes Osborne, Joo Sampaio and Barbara McIntyre

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  • PortugueseAn Essential GrammarSecond Edition

    Amlia P. Hutchinson andJanet Lloyd

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  • First edition published 1996by Routledge29 West 35th Street, New York, NY 10001

    Simultaneously published in the UKby Routledge11 New Fetter Lane, London EC4P 4EE

    Reprinted 1997, 1999, 2000, 2002

    Second edition published 2003 by Routledge

    Routledge is an imprint of the Taylor & Francis Group

    2003 Amlia P. Hutchinson and Janet Lloyd

    All rights reserved. No part of this book may be reprinted or reproduced or utilised in any form or by any electronic, mechanical,or other means, now known or hereafter invented, includingphotocopying and recording, or in any information storage or retrieval system, without permission in writing from the publishers.

    British Library Cataloguing in Publication DataA catalogue record for this book is available from the British Library.

    Library of Congress Cataloging-in-Publication DataHutchinson, Amlia P., 1949

    Portuguese: an essential grammar/Amlia P. Hutchinson and Janet Lloyd. 2nd ed.

    p. cm. (Routledge essential grammars)Includes bibliographical references and index.1. Portuguese language Grammar. 2. Portuguese language Textbooks for foreign speakers English. I. Lloyd, Janet, 1968II. Title. III. Series.PC5067.3.H88 2003469.82421dc21 2003005266

    ISBN 0-415-30816-X (hbk)

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    This edition published in the Taylor & Francis e-Library, 2006.

    To purchase your own copy of this or any of Taylor & Francis or Routledgescollection of thousands of eBooks please go to www.eBookstore.tandf.co.uk.

    ISBN 0-203-42656-8 Master e-book ISBN

    ISBN 0-203-44077-3 (Adobe eReader Format)

    (Print Edition)

  • v

    Foreword to first edition xivAcknowledgments xviForeword to second edition xviiiHow to use this book xx

    PART I: AN ESSENTIAL GRAMMAR 1

    Chapter 1 Pronunciation and spelling 3

    1.1 Vowels 31.2 Consonants 41.3 Diphthongs 61.4 Stress 71.5 Accents 8

    Chapter 2 Nouns 9

    2.1 Gender I: masculine and feminine 92.2 Gender II: forming the feminine 112.3 Number: forming the plural 152.4 Diminutives and augmentatives 182.5 Compound nouns 212.6 Collective nouns 22

    Chapter 3 Articles 24

    3.1 Definite article 243.2 Use of the definite article 243.3 Omission of the definite article 253.4 Contraction of the definite article 27

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    Contents

  • 3.5 Indefinite article 283.6 Use of the indefinite article 293.7 Omission of the indefinite article 303.8 Contraction of the indefinite article 30

    Chapter 4 Adjectives 32

    4.1 Gender 324.2 Number 344.3 Degree 364.4 Agreement 404.5 Position in the sentence 41

    Chapter 5 Pronouns 43

    5.1 Personal pronouns 435.2 Possessive pronouns and adjectives 535.3 Demonstrative pronouns 555.4 Relative pronouns 575.5 Interrogative pronouns 605.6 Indefinite pronouns and adjectives 62

    Chapter 6 Numerals 64

    6.1 Cardinal, ordinal and multiplicative numbers 646.2 Collective numerals 666.3 Use of the conjunction e with numerals 666.4 Roman numerals 67

    Chapter 7 Verbs 68

    7.1 Moods and tenses 687.2 Indicative mood 697.3 Subjunctive mood 827.4 Imperative mood 907.5 Infinitive 917.6 Present participle 937.7 Compound infinitive and compound present

    participle 947.8 Past participle 947.9 Passive voice 95

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    Contents

    vi

  • 7.10 Auxiliary verbs 987.11 Impersonal, unipersonal and defective verbs 1037.12 Reflexive verbs 1047.13 Changing vowel sounds in verbal conjugation 106

    Chapter 8 Adverbs 107

    8.1 Uses of the adverb 1078.2 Adverbs in -mente 1088.3 Other adverbs 1098.4 Position 1098.5 Degree 110

    Chapter 9 Conjunctions 111

    9.1 Co-ordinating conjunctions 1119.2 Subordinating conjunctions 113

    Chapter 10 Prepositions 116

    10.1 Most commonly used prepositions 11610.2 Prepositional phrases 11610.3 Contraction of preposition + article or pronoun 11710.4 Verbs followed by a preposition 117

    Chapter 11 Additional notes on Portuguese usage 119

    11.1 Gente/a gente 11911.2 Tudo/todo 11911.3 Por/para 12011.4 A/para 12111.5 Desde . . . at/de . . . a 12111.6 Prximo/seguinte 12211.7 To/tanto 12211.8 Affirmative/negative 12311.9 Ainda/j 12311.10 Prepositions of time 12411.11 Prepositions with means of transport 12411.12 Word order 12511.13 Ser/estar 128

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    Contents

    vii

  • PART II: LANGUAGE FUNCTIONS 131

    Chapter 12 Socializing 133

    12.1 General greetings 13312.2 Taking leave 13412.3 Greeting/taking leave according to time of day 13512.4 Attracting attention 13612.5 Seasonal greetings 13812.6 Personal greetings 13812.7 Congratulations 13812.8 Good wishes 13912.9 Introductions 13912.10 Forms of address 14012.11 Talking about ones health 14412.12 Places and locations 14612.13 Talking about the weather 148

    Chapter 13 Exchanging factual information 151

    13.1 Identifying people 15113.2 Identifying things 15413.3 Asking for information 15513.4 Reporting, describing and narrating 15713.5 Letter writing 16013.6 Correcting assumptions 163

    Chapter 14 Getting things done 165

    14.1 Suggesting a course of action 16514.2 Offering to do something 16614.3 Requesting others to do something 16614.4 Inviting others to do something 16714.5 Asking for and giving advice 16714.6 Warning others 16814.7 Instructing others to do/not to do something 16914.8 Requesting assistance 17014.9 Stating and finding out whether something is

    compulsory 17114.10 Seeking, giving, refusing permission 172

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    Contents

    viii

  • 14.11 Expressing and finding out about need 17214.12 Enquiring and expressing intention, want or desire 173

    Chapter 15 Finding out and expressing intellectualattitudes 175

    15.1 Agreement and disagreement 17515.2 Knowing something or someone 17715.3 Remembering something or someone 17815.4 Possibility and impossibility 17915.5 Logical conclusions 18115.6 Incomprehension and clarification 18215.7 Certainty and uncertainty 183

    Chapter 16 Judgement and evaluation 185

    16.1 Expressing pleasure or liking 18516.2 Expressing displeasure or dislike 18616.3 Enquiring about pleasure/displeasure, liking/dislike 18716.4 Enquiring about and expressing interest/lack of

    interest 18816.5 Expressing surprise 18916.6 Expressing hope 19016.7 Enquiring about and expressing satisfaction/

    dissatisfaction 19116.8 Expressing disappointment 19216.9 Enquiring about and expressing worry or fear 19216.10 Enquiring about and expressing preference 19416.11 Expressing gratitude 19416.12 Expressing sympathy 19516.13 Expressing happiness and unhappiness 19616.14 Apologizing 19616.15 Enquiring about and expressing approval/disapproval 19716.16 Expressing appreciation 19816.17 Expressing regret 19916.18 Expressing indifference 20016.19 Accusing 20016.20 Enquiring about and expressing capability/

    incapability 201

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    Contents

    ix

  • PART III: BRAZILIAN VARIANTS 203

    Chapter 17 Brazilian essential grammar and language functions 205

    Chapter B1 Pronunciation and spelling 206

    B1.1 Vowels 208B1.1.1 Oral vowels 208B1.2 Consonants 209B1.3 Diphthongs 209B1.3.2 Nasal diphthongs 209

    Chapter B2 Nouns 210

    B2.4 Diminutives and augmentatives 210B2.4.1 Diminutives 210B2.4.3 Preferred diminutives 210

    Chapter B3 Articles 211

    B3.2 Use of the definite article 211B3.2.1 With first names 211B3.2.2 With titles 211B3.2.5 Before possessive adj