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  • 73

    CHAPTER III

    POPULATION STRUCTURE OF TRIBALS

    Sr. No. Unit Page No.

    3.1 Introduction 74

    3.2 Distribution of Population 74

    3.3 Tribal Households and Population 77

    3.4 Tribal Population 78

    3.5 Tribes in Tehsil 82

    3.5.1 Mahadev Koli 82

    3.5.2 Thakar 83

    3.6 Population Growth 84

    3.7 Density of Population 87

    3.8 Index of Concentration 93

    3.9 Sex Ratio 97

    3.10 Population Between 0 To 6 Age 102

    3.11 Religious Composition of Tribals 103

    3.12 Rural Urban Composition of Population 105

    3.13 Migration 106

    3.13.1 Duration of Migration 107

    3.13.2 Number of Migrants in Family 108

    3.14 Resume 109

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    CHAPTER-III

    POPULATION STRUCTURE OF TRIBALS

    3.1. Introduction:

    Maharashtra is considered as an important developed state in our country in

    terms of education, industrialization and social growth, but scheduled tribes in

    this state are found in backward state. The social status of tribes is far behind

    mainstream society. They struggle for survival in forests. Therefore it is

    immensely necessary to study and understand population structure and social set

    up of study area. It gives population change over time and space and it studies

    the various determinants of population change and the impact of such changes on

    socio-economic development of area.

    This chapter gives more attention to geographical factors and its

    relationship with social and demographic setup in study area. It is always

    observed that geographical factors are very closely associated with social and

    demographic organization.

    This chapter attempts to analyze population structure of tribal people who

    are associated with child malnutrition. Population study for study area is based

    on census enumeration of 2001 and 2011. Population characteristic of tribals

    were studied and village-wise parameters like population size, religious

    composition, tribe combination, population density, growth rate, percentage of

    tribal population, sex ratio, working population etc have been taken in to

    account.Tripathi and Viswakarma (1986) has stated that variables like growth

    and density of population, literacy, proportion of non primary workers and

    commercialization were important aspect of population. 1

    3.2 Distribution of Population:

    Population of a tehsil is characterized by unevenness. James, K.S. and

    Sathyanarayana, K.N. (2011) has mentioned that distribution of population

  • 75

    means dispersion of population in study region. The differences from place to

    place in racial and social character of population are studied in social science 2 .

    The study of population gives a clear picture about the dispersion of

    population. The population distribution is studied with regards to population

    concentration. In this concern it is interesting to study the population and their

    changes in study area over time and space. The change in population is not only

    change in its numbers but also in structure, composition and distribution. On the

    one hand population of Akole tehsil is highly concentrated in certain patches, in

    lowland area of Mula and Pravara River where agricultural productivity is high,

    while on the other hand some areas of hilly mountains and thick forest towards

    South, West and North are sparsely populated. Many geographic factors play

    vital role in distribution of population. Some social, historical and political

    factors also make remarkable impression on distribution.According to Clark ,

    John (1972) cultural factors are more prominent in determining concentration of

    population in an area. 3

    Total population of Akole tehsil is 2,91,950. According to 2011

    population census enumeration total population is settled in 189 villages. Out of

    this 47.86 percent (1,39,730) population of Akole tehsil is tribal which is

    distributed in western part of tehsil. Western area of tehsil is characterized by

    sparse population because of thick forests, hilly area and low productivity of

    agriculture. Some villages like Rajur (10,046), Kotul (7917) and Akole (18278)

    are major settlements in tehsil. Villages of Akole tehsil were grouped according

    thier population from 2001 census.It has been observed that in 102 Villages

    population is below 1046. In 62 villages population is between 1047 and 2242.

    23 villages have population between 2243 and 4421. There are only 4 villages

    where population is more than 15500.

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    Map.No.3.1

    Map.No:3.2

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    Large number of population is distributed in small hamlet and villages.

    The population between 185 to1135 was distributed in 102 Villages of Akole

    tehsil. This figure was same like last census data.

    In the next population between 1136 and 2378 was distributed in 65

    villages. In tehsil there are 20 villages where population between 2379 and 4883

    is distributed. There are only four villages viz. Devthan, Akole, Kotul and Rajur

    where population is more than 4800.

    3.3. Tribal Households and Population:

    There is very close relationship between size of population and number of

    settlements. With increasing size of population number of villages were

    decreases and with decreasing size of population number of villages increases.

    Table No.3.1 No. of Tribal and Non Tribal Villages in Akole Tehsil

    Sr.No Population No. of

    Total

    Villages

    No. of Villages having

    Tribal Population

    More than 50

    No. of Non-

    Tribal

    Villages

    1. Below 500 22 18 04

    2. 501 to 1000 63 52 11

    3. 1001 to 2000 71 43 28

    4. 2001 to 3000 15 04 11

    5. 3001 to 4000 8 03 05

    6. 4001 to 5000 6 00 06

    7. Above 5000 4 00 04

    Total 189 120 69

    Source: Population Census 2011.

    It is very clear that tribals are living in hamlets and small

    settlements where population size is low. In Study region 44.97 percent villages

    have population below 1000.

    In case of tribal villages 58.33 percent villages have population

    below1000.Whereas in case of non tribal only 21.73 percent villages having

    population below 1000.Population data of Akole tehsil reveals that most of small

    villages are inhabited by tribals while big villages are populated by non tribals.

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    Ugale, Vilas (2006) has observed that Tribal zone is marked by small size

    settlements in tehsil where more than 40 percent of tribal population is

    distributed in the villages having population below 1000.However more than 65

    percent non-tribal population settled in villages having size more than 2000. 4

    In map villages with brown colour like Brahmanwada, Akole, Rajur,

    Devthan show higher number of household. Villages with light yellow colour in

    map indicate small number of household.

    It is observed that the eastern part of tehsil is inhabited by non-tribals

    shows large numbers of household on the other hand western part characterized

    by small households which is inhabited by tribal population.

    3.4 Tribal Population:

    There are three major tribal regions in Maharashtra: Eastern part known as

    Gondwana zone, Northern part known as Satpuda zone and Western part known

    as Sahyadri zone.

    Many ranges of Sahyadri pass through Akole tehsil Therefore it is

    homeland of many tribal groups. As per 1981 census of India, the scheduled tribe

    area of Maharashtra is spread over eleven districts (Thane, Nasik, Dhule,

    Jalgaon, Ahmednagar, Pune, Nanded, Amarawati, Yawatmal, Gadchiroli and

    Gadchiroli District.)

    Reddy, Sudhakar (1999) have stated that Maharashtra has an extent of

    50,75 sq.Km (16.5 percent) under Tribal Sub Plan (TSP) out of its total

    geographic area 3,07,713 sq.Km. 5 TSP is a state creation for planning and

    development programme in areas where quite a substantial tribal population

    inhabits.

    In other words it has covered scheduled areas which constitute as pockets

    of Talukas having more than 50 percent tribal concentration areas or which have

    proximity to such areas with predominantly tribal population .Tribal population

    out of 35 district in Maharashtra is largely concentrated in 14 districts.

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    Table No.3.2 Tribal Population of Tehsil

    Sr.No.

    Circles

    2001 2011

    Tribal Non

    Tribal

    Tribal Non

    Tribal

    1 Rajur 78.11 21.89 81.36 18.63

    2 Akole 26.94 73.06 29.6 70.4

    3 Kotul 43.43 56.57 46.04 53.95

    Source: 2011 Population Census.

    It is very clear that tribal population in study area has experienced rise in all

    three blocks of tehsil. From distributional point of view tribal population of tehsil

    has occupied remote places