Population Change Revision - Edexcel Geography GCSE

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Notes for the Edexcel Geography GCSE regarding Population Change. This involves the One Child Policy from China and the Three or More Policy Singapore, two important case studies. Many other notes are provided too.

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<ul><li><p>Population Change RevisionBy Diane Stetcu</p></li><li><p>Key words</p><p>Population the people living in an area</p><p>Population distribution how people are spread out in a place</p><p>Population density the number of people per square km (how crowed an area is)</p><p>Densely populated more than 50 people per km (crowed)</p><p>Sparsely populated less than 10 people per km</p></li><li><p>Why are areas DENSLEY populated?</p><p>Flat land (easy to build on)</p><p>Mild climate (easy to live in)</p><p>Fertile soil</p><p>Good education system</p><p>Tourist attractions</p><p>Good health care</p><p>Job opportunities (more money)Easy access to </p><p>river or sea</p><p>Yellow = physical factors Orange = human factors</p></li><li><p>So, why are areas sparsely</p><p>populated?</p></li><li><p>Why are areas SPARSELY populated?</p><p>Extreme climate; too hot or cold (difficult to live in)</p><p>High relief (hard to access)</p><p>Lack of water</p><p>Poor/no education system</p><p>No tourist attractions</p><p>Poor health care</p><p>No job opportunities</p><p>Inaccessible</p><p>Yellow = physical factors Orange = human factors</p><p>Infertile soil</p></li><li><p>Factors that determine population change</p><p>Infant mortality the number of babies per 1000 born that die before their first birthday.</p><p>Immigrants a person who moves into an area or country.</p><p>Birth rate the number of births per 1000 people in a year.</p><p>Carrying capacity the maximum number of people that can be supported by the resources and technology of a given area.</p><p>Death rate the number of deaths per 1000 people per year.</p><p>Natural change the birth rate minus the death rate.</p><p>Migration the long-term movement of people.</p><p>Emigrants a person who moves out of an area or country.</p></li><li><p>Example of natural change</p><p>Country Birth rate Death rate Rate of natural change</p><p>Swaziland 27.0 30.4 -3.4</p><p>Cambodia 25.5 8.2 17.3</p><p>Chile 15.0 5.9 9.1</p><p>UK 10.7 10.1 0.6</p></li><li><p>Why do birth and death rates vary as a country develops?Social</p><p> Women are educated about contraception in HICs and would want to focus on their career.</p><p> Also, couples will want smaller families.</p><p> In LICs, they have less knowledge about maternity and women arent as likely to continue their education.</p><p>Economic</p><p> In HICs, its expensive to bring up a child.</p><p> 186,032 to raise a child until theyre 21.</p><p> In LICs, children are considered a financial asset.</p><p> In HICs, children are considered a financial burden.</p><p>Medical</p><p> HICs continuously have now treatments for diseases.</p><p> LICs struggle, with people dying from simple diseases.</p><p>Political</p><p> China have introduced the One Child Policy to reduce the birth rate.</p><p> Other countries have introduced incentives to increase birth rates, such as Singapore.</p></li><li><p>Case study: Poland and the falling birth rates</p><p>Reasons for a declining birth rate</p><p>More young people, especially women, want to continue their education</p><p>Women want to work and be independent</p><p>Housing shortage</p><p>The cost of raising children is increasing</p><p>Unemployment didnt exist during the communist government era</p><p>Women dont want to risk losing their jobs after maternity leave</p><p>Now couples are worried to start a family because they dont have financial security.</p><p>Government incentives to increase birth </p><p>rates</p><p>Improving public kindergarten</p><p>More flats are being built</p><p>Extend maternity leave</p><p>Pays couples for each child they have</p></li><li><p>Demographic Transition Model</p></li><li><p>The Demographic Transition Model explanation</p><p>Stage 1 High fluctuating</p><p>Stage 2 Early expanding</p><p>Stage 3 Late expanding</p><p>Stage 4 Low fluctuating</p><p>Stage 5 - Decline</p><p>What? High birth rate and death rate</p><p>High birth rate, falling death rate</p><p>High birth rate, falling death rate</p><p>Low birth rate and low death rate</p><p>Death rate is higherthan birth rate</p><p>Why? No contraception Religion Infant mortality No medical care or </p><p>hygiene</p><p> Better hygiene Better health </p><p>care Improved </p><p>education</p><p> Contraception is available</p><p> Women are continuing their education</p><p> Health care is good</p><p> Contraception widely used</p><p> Education is being continued</p><p> Women are very focused on their careers</p><p>Where? Rainforest tribes Banglaesh Brazil Japan/UK Germany</p></li><li><p>Population and precipitation distribution of China</p><p>Towards the west of China, its sparsely populated. This is because there is less than 50mm of precipitation per year. Kashgar is an example.</p><p>In East and South East China, its densely populated. Areas such as Shanghai have over 520 people per square mile. This is because there is low relief and high precipitation. Additionally, theres easy access to sea.</p></li><li><p>Case study: Chinas One Child Policy</p><p>Why?</p><p> An economic reform was taking place</p><p> To improve living standards</p><p> In 1979, China had of the worlds population!</p><p> of the population were under the age of 30</p><p> People born in the 1950s and 60s were entering their reproducing years</p></li><li><p>Case study: Chinas One Child Policy (continued)</p><p>IncentivesDisincentives</p><p>Free education</p><p>Cash bonuses</p><p>Couples are given a one-child certificate package</p><p>Preferential housing arrangements</p><p>Better child care</p><p>Free medical care</p><p>Longer maternity leave</p><p>Receive heavy fines Could be sacked from their job</p><p>Couples are required to pledge not to have more children</p><p>Women who have children already are urged to use contraception or undergo sterilisation</p><p>Granny police monitor child births, how many children couples have, catch out liars</p><p>Women with unauthorised pregnancies are pressured to have abortions</p></li><li><p>Case study: Chinas One Child Policy (continued)</p><p>Recent changes to the One Child </p><p>Policy</p><p>In rural areas (approx. 70% live there), a second child is generally allowed after 5 years if the first child is a girl</p><p>A third child is allowed in some ethnic minorities and in remote, unpopulated areas</p><p>Urban residents and government employees have to follow the policy and is strictly enforced</p><p>Exceptions include if the first child has a disability or if both parents work in high-risk occupations such as mining</p></li><li><p>Case study: Singapore, three or more</p><p>Why?</p><p> They feared the economy would collapse</p><p> The population was decreasing after a two is enough policy</p><p> They also feared they wouldnt have enough workers</p></li><li><p>Case study: Singapore, three or more (continued)</p><p>IncentivesDisincentives</p><p>3 months maternity leave for mothers</p><p>3 days of paternity leave on the birth of the first 4 children</p><p>5 days of paid childcare leave a year</p><p>More children means a bigger flat/property</p><p>$95 for a maid</p><p>$6,000 for the 3rd</p><p>and 4th child</p><p>$3,000 for the 1st and 2nd child</p><p>2nd 4th child has a savings account</p><p>Sterilisation isnt allowed unless youve had 3 or more children</p><p>Couples with one child or none can only buy a 3 bedroom flat</p></li><li><p>Case study: Ageing population in Japan</p><p>Disadvantages</p><p> Workforce: businesses are struggling to recruit. Many pensioners are having to continue to work. A solution is to encourage migrant labour.</p><p> Pensions: the Prime Minister has introduced reforms which includes the retirement age being increased from 60 to 65 by 2030 and higher pension contributions from employers, employees and the government.</p><p> Health care: Many pensioners are living in nursing homes or care homes now. This is putting pressure on the health budget, more than half goes towards caring for the elderly.</p><p> In 2006, incentives were introduced to promote independent living at home. A health insurance scheme for over 75s were introduced in 2007. It has been nicknamed the hurry up and die scheme.</p><p> To shorten hospital admissions, a fee a hospital receives after 100 days goes up.</p><p> One care home has hundreds on the waiting list, not enough staff work there for everyone to be admitted.</p></li><li><p>Case study: Ageing population in Japan (continued)</p><p>Advantages</p><p> The greying yen: the elderly saved money. Now, Japanese pensioners are spending; buying luxury goods, travelling and indulging their taste for expensive food. This benefits their economy.</p><p> In the past, their saved money would go to their children to help look after them at an old age.</p><p> Now, children are doing less of the caring.</p><p> Technology: Japan has a range of gadgets to support the ageing population. It allows young relatives to keep in touch with their elderly relatives.</p><p> This includes an online kettle that automatically sends emails to up to three people when its switched on. </p><p> Also, internet-linked sensors that can be attached to fridge doors and bathroom mats.</p></li><li><p>Population pyramids</p><p>LICHIC</p><p>Short life expectancy</p><p>High birth rate</p><p>Long life expectancy</p><p>Low birth rate</p></li><li><p>Key wordsLife expectancy the average number of years a person is expected to live</p><p>Dependent population the people aged under 15 and over 65 that are relying on the rest of the population to work and pay taxes to ensure a good quality of life (health care, education, etc.)</p><p>Economically Active Population people aged 15-65 who are of working age</p><p>Economic Dependency Ratio the % of people working compared to those people who are not. A high % of people working is good for the economy.</p></li></ul>

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