political culture canadian & world politics www.craigmarlatt.com/school

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  • Political Culture Canadian & World Politics www.CraigMarlatt.com/school
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  • Political Culture 1.Political Terminology 2.Societal Beliefs Affecting Minorities 3.Why Do Governments Cooperate? 4.Religion in Politics 5.Ideologies
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  • Political Culture
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  • Political Culture is the way in which the political system is inserted into a larger social reality of beliefs, attitudes, values, and norms. To be effective, political culture: widespread awareness of the culture widespread acceptance of the system compliance to the system expectation of behaviour of government
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  • Political Culture Components of Political Culture Customs conventionally accepted and reinforced in legal action of the state (e.g. government resigns if it feels it no longer has popular support) Beliefs convictions accepted in that culture (e.g. humans are selfish, so there is a need for laws) Expectations what ought to be or ought NOT to be done by government (e.g. politicians act in the publics best interest; politicians dont take bribes) Symbols flag, anthem, shield, logos, etc.
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  • Political Culture Laws norms of behaviour set out in legislation Values attitudes toward what is right and desirable (e.g. the right to be free and to pursue goals within the limits of the law Charter of Rights) Institutions the structures set out to accomplish all of the decisions (e.g. ministries, agencies, crown corporations, etc.) Skills the knowledge and procedures for achieving desired goals
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  • Influences on Politics There are many ways in which members of a society acquire and pass along their attitudes and values about the political system. The particular values that hold sway, as well as the relative influence and methods of these agents, vary across societies to produce fairly distinctive cultures.
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  • Influences on Politics Key Political Writings Karl Marx Friedrich Engels Mao Tse-Tung Ethnicity and Language Composition Aboriginal population home language immigration, citizenship, and national origin mother tongue
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  • Influences on Politics The Family use and abuse of power relations discipline gender roles whom to trust and whom to help what responsibilities one bears to others composition married couples with or without children other families with or without children people living alone
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  • Influences on Politics The Media Noam Chomsky et al what gets reported what doesnt get reported unsubstantiated reports concentrated ownership of media outlets Religion many different religions varying degrees of separation of church and state atheist effect on politics
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  • Influences on Politics Education varying education levels government controlled curricula ways of educating students filling quotas The Workplace management v. unions labour laws (of lack thereof) employment, underemployment, and unemployment
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  • Influences on Politics Of particular interest in Canada. British Influence American Influence Feminism Environmentalism Nationalism } examples?
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  • Nations and States Nation a group of people with set of common biological and psychological characteristics there is prestige to be considered a nation and suggests political viability as a state (e.g. Metis, French Canadians)
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  • Nations and States National Identity usually a combination of race, religion, and government with subgroups: Race biologically defined group whose members share a gene pool giving them common physical characteristics (e.g. skin, eye, and hair colour) Tribe a defined group of people who are tied together psychologically by a myth of common ancestry and who think of themselves as blood relations (obviously includes elements of biological connection as well) Ethnic Group a mixture of biological and psychological elements for a group of people who share a common descent (e.g. Japanese-Canadian or Polish-Canadian)
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  • Nations and States State self-governing political entity Homogenous State one culture e.g. United States Heterogeneous State many cultures multinational e.g. Poland, Israel Nation-State exists where common identities of a nation coincide with the boundaries of a sovereign authority Binational State e.g. Canada (originally) Multinational State e.g. India, former Soviet Union Multi-state Nation e.g. The Koreas
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  • Nations and States What is Canada today? homogeneous v. heterogeneous one nation v. binational v. multinational?
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  • Society Society needs rules conflicts are inevitable as various groups pursue self-interests need for government to arbitrate the machinery politics is the various interests attempting to move decisions in their direction
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  • Society In order to carry out the decisions, government needs power: force coercion persuasion through influence authority followed because they are believed to be right traditional natural moral legal charisma
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  • Society Power alone tends to lead to its own negation (revolt!) if the society does not like the decisions. There must be legitimacy the acceptance by society of the governments right to hold power. traditional acceptance of leaders legal acceptance the right to lead is based on the law followership people tend to follow leaders
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  • Society Governments are constantly striving for legitimacy so that society will follow. This is a struggle for all leaders. Most governments use all of the legitimacy areas. With modern states, there comes a question of sovereignty to be discussed later.
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  • Societal Beliefs Affecting Minorities How does a societys view of minorities help and hinder those minorities? PROSCONS ActionExampleActionExample Immigration Policies Settlement of the West, 1890s Racial ProfilingToronto Police Service, 2000s Multiculturalism Programs Ministry of Canadian Heritage, 1990s Restriction of Rights Jews and Others, WW2
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  • Why Do Governments Cooperate? Brainstorm pairing or groups of countries whose governments tend to work well together. What factors make them so willing to cooperate with one another? CountriesReasons for Cooperation Canada, United Statessimilar culture similar social and economic values United States, United Kingdom Soviet Union, Cuba Norway, Sweden, Finland
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  • Religion in Politics Eastern Religions and Politics Hinduism Confucianism Buddhism Western Religion and Politics Judaism Catholicism Islam Protestantism
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  • Religion in Politics Hinduism oldest of major world religions believe in a single divinity that is present in everything through reincarnation, at death a soul passes from one body to another good actions in this life lead to a better situation in the next incarnation rules for diet, family, caste (hereditary social class), and politics doctrine of non-violence, or ahimsa, was the basis for Mahatma Gandhis use of civil disobedience some Hindus opposed Gandhi
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  • Religion in Politics Confucianism Confucius (551449 BCE) created a system of right living known as ren Confucius taught rulers to act humanely toward their subjects parents, teachers, and government officials were the guardians of this civic religion (no priests) all human relationships involved defined roles and mutual obligations a social hierarchy egalitarianism the promotion of equality co-existed with Buddhism and Taoism well, until Mao Zedong outlawed all religions in 1949
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  • Religion in Politics Buddhism Siddhartha Gautama (ca. 563483 BCE) preached that enlightenment was to be found in the Middle Way, the path that lies between indulgence and asceticism (rigid self-discipline) many characteristics of Hinduism were adopted a buddha is someone who has awakened to the true nature of universal cause and effect, and whose awareness transcends birth, suffering, and death Emperor Ashoka made Buddhism the state religion of India and spread it throughout southeast Asia and the Middle East diaspora of Tibetans spread it further
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  • Religion in Politics Judaism Romans destroyed the Temple of Jerusalem in 70 CE, forcing Jewish people to spread throughout the world (diaspora) in some host countries, they were accepted and given much religious freedom; in others, they were viewed as outsiders and treated with hostility although both Jews and Arabs are Semitic peoples, anti-Semitism has come to mean hatred of the Jewish people Hitlers Holocaust (1933-1945) was the most extreme example of anti-Semitic behaviour
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  • Religion in Politics Catholicism led by the pope, who is seen as the successor to Saint Peter as Christs representative on Earth eastern and western churches evolved western Christians used Catholicism to political advantages (carrying out the Spanish Inquisition, creating denominational schools, and discouraging divorce, abortion) eastern Christians saw themselves as Orthodox following the principles of the original religion excommunication of two leaders in 1054 finished the schism John Paul II reached out to the east, but no reconciliation
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