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  • Policy to Connect Science and Farmers

    “Climate Smart Agriculture

    in ASEAN and Thailand:

    Soil and Nutrient Management

    Presented by Dr. Margaret C. Yoovatana, Senior Policy and Plan Specialist, Planning and Technical Division, Department of Agriculture, Ministry of Agriculture and Cooperatives, Thailand, at the Symposium “ Agriculture is the Solution! for Climate Change” held during 13-17 May 2019 in Otsu City, Shiga prefecture, Japan, hosted by the Ministry of Agriculture,

    Forestry and Fisheries (MAFF). Email luckymegy@yahoo.com Tel. +66 2 579 5359 Fax. +66 2 561 5024 Mobile : +66 88 151 8415

  • Presentation Outline

    1. ASEAN Regional Guidelines on the Promotion of Climate Smart Agriculture Practices Vol. 1 & 2

    2. ASEAN Guidelines on Soil and Nutrient Management

    3. Agricultural Policies of the Ministry of Agriculture and

    Cooperatives

    4. Concepts and Theories on Soil Management in Royal

    Initiative Projects

    5. Royal Development Study Centers

    6. Sufficiency Economy

  • ASEAN Regional Guidelines for Promoting

    Climate Smart Agriculture Practices

     Vol. 1 endorsed by Special SOM – 36th AMAF in 2015 (Myanmar)

     Vol. 2 endorsed by Special SOM – 38th AMAF in 2017 (Singapore)

    Vol. 2 Vol. 1

  • 2. ASEAN Guidelines on Soil

    and Nutrient Management

    https://www.asean-agrifood.org/what-we-do/soil-and-nutrient- management-2/

    Scope of the Guidelines covers:  Properties and issues of soil in ASEAN  Good Soil Management Practices  Good Nutrient Management Practices  Standard, regulations and market information

    of fertilizer and supplements  Recommendation for soil and nutrient

    management

    Endorsed in 2017 during the 39th AMAF Meeting, Chiang Mai, Thailand

  • Principles of Sound Soil Management for Climate – Smart Agriculture

    Maximize soil nutrient use efficiency – nutrient and supplement inputs  Control erosion - prevent loss of soil organic matter and associated

    nutrient  Use integrated nutrient management.  Efficiently manage soil water, including effective water harvesting and

    storage to mitigate drought  Conservation agriculture and organic agriculture

    principles into the farming system to maintain/improve soil health.

  • Mitigation of emissions of greenhouse gases

    Soil/land condition Mitigation Response

    Degraded or marginal lands Convert to perennial vegetation

    Drained peat soil Restore to wetlands

    Acid sulfate soils Restore water table; lime; conservation agricultural systems

    Sandy and skeletal soils Convert to perennial vegetation

    Nutrient-depleted soils Integrated nutrient management including leguminous N-fixation

    Excessive cultivation and or burning of crop residues

    Conservation agricultural systems

    Low residue crops Strip

    cropping/intercropping/relay cropping including

    perennial crop component and permanent ground

    cover

  • Indigenous knowledge

    and local wisdom

     Black – fertile soils  Red, white and yellow – poor soils, poor

    water retention and lower yields  Grey – impaired drainage, waterlogged  Associated vegetation – Imperata cylindrica

    and Mimosa invisa are considered poor soils

  • Soil Management Practices

     Cover Crops  Crop Rotation  Conservation agricultural practices  Vegetative buffer strips  Problems Soils  Acid Sulfate Soils – careful management of the water table to prevent further oxidation. Water tables maintained

  • Soil Management Practices (Cont.)

     Problems Soils  Acid sulfate soils – careful management of the water table to prevent further oxidation. Liming, leaching, water tables maintained  Peat soils – controlled drainage, gradual lowering of the ground water table to control subsidence and to prevent spontaneous combustion

  • Soil Management Practices (Cont.2)

     Problems Soils Sandy soils – organic amendments, compost, manure and crop residues, drip irrigation, mulching, cover cropping, splitting nutrient application Skeletal soils – planting fast growing trees and drought tolerant perennial crops and pastures, compost, manures or crop residues to improve nutrient and water-holding capacity

  • Managing soil constraints

     Acidity – liming, monitor soil pH in the crop root zone for early warning of subsoil acidity

     Sodicity – excessive exchangeable and solution sodium (Na) could be managed by application of soluble calcium forms as gypsum, ponding of freshwater to remove the displaced sodium by leaching

  • Managing soil constraints (cont. 2)

     Salinity – leaching, replacing exchangeable sodium by adding gypsum, cover surface by mulch, levelling to reduce ponding

     Low nutrient retention – clay minerals (e.g. bentonite) and organic matter, liming to increase Cation Exchange Capacity (CEC), split application of N,K, Ca and Mg fertilizers to reduce risk of leaching of cations because of low soil CEC, avoid over-irrigation to reduce the risk of nutrient leaching.

  • Managing soil constraints (cont. 4)

     Salinity – leaching, replacing exchangeable sodium by adding gypsum, cover surface by mulch, levelling to reduce ponding

     Low nutrient retention – clay minerals (e.g. bentonite) and organic matter, liming to increase Cation Exchange Capacity (CEC), split application of N,K, Ca and Mg fertilizers to reduce risk of leaching of cations because of low soil CEC, avoid over-irrigation to reduce the risk of nutrient leaching.

  • Managing soil constraints (cont. 5)

     High phosporous fixation – grow low P-demand crops use minimal rates of water – soluble P fertilizer applied in band or pockets to reduce fertilizer-soil contact, thereby decreasing the loss of P availability by fixation, application of citrate-soluble P fertilizer such as reactive phosphate rock

     Waterlogging- drainage, mound crop rows, split N fertilizer

  • Managing soil constraints (cont. 6)

     Low plant available water – clay materials to increase soil water - holding capacity, surface mulch with organic residues to reduce evaporative losses of soil water and assist in increasing water infiltration, use species such as vetiver grass for bunding and terracing, trickle or drip irrigation systems to maintain soil moisture most efficiently, plant drought - tolerant crops

     Hard –setting /dispersion - maintain soil surface in a moist condition and protect from raindrop impact by surface mulching, limit tillage

  • Managing soil constraints (cont. 6)

     Low plant available water – clay materials to increase soil water - holding capacity, surface mulch with organic residues to reduce evaporative losses of soil water and assist in increasing water infiltration, use species such as vetiver grass for bunding and terracing, trickle or drip irrigation systems to maintain soil moisture most efficiently, plant drought - tolerant crops

     Hard –setting /dispersion - maintain soil surface in a moist condition and protect from raindrop impact by surface mulching, limit tillage

  • 4. Agricultural Policies of the Ministry of Agriculture and Cooperatives (MOAC)

    1. Management of Water Resources 2. Consolidated Farms 3. Learning Centers 4. Zoning by Agri – map 5. Smart Farmer 6. Development of Farmers Institutions as State Enterprises 7. Agricultural Banks

    8. Organic Agriculture 9. New Theory in Agriculture 10. Fisheries Standards 11. Promote Agricultural

    Mechanization 12. Agricultural Commodities Market

    Outlets 13. Quality of Agricultural Products 14. Debt Alleviation 15. Rice Supply Chain

    15 MOAC Agricultural Policies

  • 4. Royal Initiative Projects Related to Soil Management

     Tricking the soil  Vetiver Grass for Soil Degradation and Erosion  Promoting land allocation and reform  The New Theory in Agriculture  Development and Conservation of Water

    Resources  Development and Conservation of Water

    Resources  Development and Conservation of Forest

    Resources  Conservation and Rehabilitation of the Ecosystem

    of Coastal Areas

    Concepts and Theories on Soil Management in Royal Initiative Project

    Photo credit: www.chaipat.or.th

    Photo credit: www.chaipat.or.th

  • 5. Royal Development Study Centers

    Khao Cha-ngum Deteriorated Soil Rehabilitation Study Project http://www.ldd.go.th/ldd_en/

     Vetiver grass  rehabilitation of forests

    based on the principle of natural cycle which is simple and cost-saving as well as supporting the natural cycle of the forest.

    Photo credit : http://www.chaipat.or.th/eng/our-work/environmental-quality-improvement.html

  • Royal Initiative Projects

    Huai Hong Khrai Royal Development Study Centre http://www.rdpb.go.th

     development of watershed areas

     conserve watersheds and develop forests

     construction of check dams

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