POETRY AN INTRODUCTION. POETRY Introduction: What is poetry?

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<ul><li> Slide 1 </li> <li> POETRY AN INTRODUCTION </li> <li> Slide 2 </li> <li> POETRY Introduction: What is poetry? </li> <li> Slide 3 </li> <li> 3 What Is Poetry? o A short story condensed o From concentrate just add the water of your imagination (needs dilution) compressed, distilled, dense, nutritive value Condensed by contraction of volume, with proportional increase of strength. without superfluity, excess </li> <li> Slide 4 </li> <li> 4 What Is Poetry? o Subjective o Emotional o Lyrical (expresses thoughts, feelings of a single speaker) o Narrative o Descriptive o Argumentative o Philosophical (waxes philosophic, embodies a philosophy) o Metaphoric o Dramatic o Didactic (teaches, preaches, imparts knowledge) </li> <li> Slide 5 </li> <li> 5 What Is Poetry? o Good poetry: unique poetic elements (properly handled) consistent controlled form = function </li> <li> Slide 6 </li> <li> 6 What Is Poetry? o Bad poetry: mixed metaphors poor similes and metaphors (my wife is a shirt or a poem is a bra) poor diction-word choice wrong word inappropriate word poor word choice wrong sound of a word </li> <li> Slide 7 </li> <li> 7 What Is Poetry? o Bad poetry: form does not equal function (style does not fit the content or message) inappropriate diction unsuitable style inapt form for the occasion inconsistent tone lack of control over language, emotion, vision </li> <li> Slide 8 </li> <li> 8 What Is Poetry? o Bad poetry: all emotion, no skill ad misericordiam sentimentality bathos: bad pathos when overly sentimental works move readers to laughter instead of tears </li> <li> Slide 9 </li> <li> 9 What Is Poetry? o Bad poetry: creates unintended reaction unwittingly comic unintentionally antagonizing does not say what intended it to say/mean unconscious of double meanings too contrived (trying too hard, overly ingenious) </li> <li> Slide 10 </li> <li> 10 What Is Poetry? o Bad poetry: trite, banal, hackneyed lacks originality clichs, pat expressions, trite maxims, platitudes stale phrasing and imagery too derivative too much impersonation, imitation ripping off the Greats too aphoristic, preachy, didactic smacks of moral or intellectual superiority </li> <li> Slide 11 </li> <li> 11 What Is Poetry? o Bad poetry: only of private value so personal only the poet gets it the extreme opposite of banality self-indulgent, self-aggrandizing forced rhyme scheme come up with a word to make a rhyme rather than using a word that arises from the thought/feeling) too mechanical metronome rhythm robotic, by t book </li> <li> Slide 12 </li> <li> POETRY Introduction: Reading Poetry </li> <li> Slide 13 </li> <li> 13 How to Read Poetry Notice PUNCTUATION: o question marks, exclamation marks, period o is a line (or more) a question or a statement o adjust your inflection accordingly Read to a COMMA or SEMICOLON or PERIOD: o don't stop necessarily at the end of each line o enjambment </li> <li> Slide 14 </li> <li> 14 How to Read Poetry Watch for ROAD SIGNS: o watch for changes in logic or time o notice conjunctions such as but or yet o recognize transitions such as then or meanwhile or afterwards Read with a DICTIONARY at hand: o look up key words words you do not recognize to note Connotation vs. Denotation o look up various definitions of words to note how different meanings = different interpretations for the work </li> <li> Slide 15 </li> <li> 15 How to Read Poetry Sparingly and Cautiously use PERSONAL experiences or personal tastes, attitudes, beliefs: o while your own views may, occasionally, shed light on the work o more often than not, they can lead to misinterpretations and prejudices o a grain of salt Realize that the SPEAKER and the POET are not necessarily one and the same: o because poetry is by nature quite subjective and emotional, o we readers have a tendency to confuse the views expressed in the poem with the views held by the writer o Disclaimer: Please understand that the opinions, views, and comments that appear in the poem will not necessarily reflect the views held by the poet. </li> <li> Slide 16 </li> <li> 16 How to Read Poetry Notice the POETIC ELEMENTS employed: o diction, symbolism, imagery, metaphors, o similes, conceit, meter, rhythm, rhyme, o stanza, persona, alliteration, assonance Note the RHYME SCHEME and RHYTHM: o at the end of each line, note the rhyme with a letter (a, b, c, ) o read the poem aloud, noticing and enunciating each piece of punctuation, to discover its rhythm </li> <li> Slide 17 </li> <li> 17 How to Read Poetry READ, PARAPHRASE, and then SUMMARIZE: o read the poem through the first time o then begin to put it into your own words, to simplify its meaning (paraphrase) o then summarize the entirety in a brief statement relating to its meaning, message, theme (summarize) EXPLICATE and ANALYZE: o explain each line of the poem; interpret line by line (explicate) o analyze the piece focusing on a single literary/poetic element (analyze) </li> <li> Slide 18 </li> <li> POETRY Introduction: Writing about Poetry </li> <li> Slide 19 </li> <li> 19 Writing About Poetry I. LITERAL LEVEL o Paraphrase: (parts) put lines into your own words simplify the language and syntax o Summarize: (whole) the gist/thrust of the entire work succinct, short </li> <li> Slide 20 </li> <li> 20 Writing About Poetry II. ANALYTICAL LEVEL o Explication: close reading line-by-line analysis tone, persona, imagery, symbolism, meter, how the poetic elements work together to form a unified whole &amp; reveal hidden meanings Edgar Allan Poes unity of effect * arrive at a conclusion about the work </li> <li> Slide 21 </li> <li> 21 Writing About Poetry II. ANALYTICAL LEVEL o Analysis: focus on a single poetic element note its relationship to the whole, especially in terms of meaning </li> <li> Slide 22 </li> <li> 22 Writing About Poetry III. HOW to QUOTE POETRY o Slash marks: word space slash space word o Line numbers: end quote space (line #). no line or #, just the numeral o End punctuation: include ? or !, otherwise omit o Ellipses: word space. space. space. space word o Quoting multiple lines: block quote style indent all, no period at the end space (line #s) o Brackets: when you change a letter or a word </li> <li> Slide 23 </li> <li> POETRY Introduction: Poems </li> <li> Slide 24 </li> <li> 24 LANGSTON HUGHES </li> <li> Slide 25 </li> <li> 25 LANGSTON HUGHES o 1902-67 o Born in Joplin, Missouri o Mexico, NYC, Paris o Fiction, Drama, Essays, Biographies, o Newspaper column In the Chicago Defender Jesse B. Simple (fictional Everyman) o Poetry Poet Laureate of the Negro Race </li> <li> Slide 26 </li> <li> 26 LANGSTON HUGHES o Harlem (1951) re-titled in 1959 as Dream Deferred Which do you prefer? o 11 lines o 1 st and last questions 1-line stanzas o Middle stanzas = 4 questions (possibilities) 2 lines, 2 lines, 1 line, 2 lines similes last = not a question o Last line = italicized </li> <li> Slide 27 </li> <li> 27 LANGSTON HUGHES o Harlem (1951) Thesis Question: What happens to a dream deferred? Answers: dries up (raisin in sun) festers (sore) stinks (rotten meat) crusts over (sweet syrup) sags (heavy load) explodes (bomb) </li> <li> Slide 28 </li> <li> 28 LANGSTON HUGHES o Harlem (1951) Diction Dream = hopes, aspirations, wishes, talents delusion Fester = to rot, puss, ulcerate (ugly, repulsive images) Heavy load &amp; sag = Burden Slaves carrying bales of cotton, supplies Raisin, sore, black meat, syrup, bomb = Black in color Syrup = Not so disgusting Why? </li> <li> Slide 29 </li> <li> 29 LANGSTON HUGHES o Harlem (1951) Title Harlem Renaissance (1920s) New Negro Movement post-Civil War, move North Harlem, Manhattan, New York @ 3 miles, @ 175,000 blacks WEB DuBois, Langston Hughes Countee Cullen, Zora Neale Hurston, Jazz Age, Roaring 20s Great Depression, Harlem Riots </li> <li> Slide 30 </li> <li> 30 LANGSTON HUGHES o Harlem (1951) Title Harlem, 1950s Racial inequality Riots: 1935, 1943, 1964 (Watts 1965, Detroit 1967) How did people react? Rot Anger, frustration festers Uncle Toms Anger, frustration explodes </li> <li> Slide 31 </li> <li> 31 LANGSTON HUGHES o Harlem (1951) Questions Why are the 1 st and last lines separated? Why is the last line italicized? Why is the last line w/o simile? Why is the heavy load not a question? What is the answer to the thesis question? Why are load and explode the only rhymes? Why the break from disgusting images with syrup? </li> <li> Slide 32 </li> <li> 32 APHRA BEHN </li> <li> Slide 33 </li> <li> 33 APHRA BEHN o Ay-fra Bean o (1640-89) o 1 st English woman to earn a living through writing (1 st professional woman writer) o Married London merchant of Dutch descent o Served as a spy in the Dutch Wars, 1665-67 (after his death) o Novels Oroonoko (royal slave, one of 1 st English works to question slavery) o Plays, Poetry </li> <li> Slide 34 </li> <li> 34 APHRA BEHN o Song: Love Armed (1676) Characters: Love = Cupid, the god of love Persona = man Addressee = woman Poetic conventions: Unrequited love of the man toward a disdainful woman Unrequited love is painful Yet pleasurable </li> <li> Slide 35 </li> <li> 35 APHRA BEHN o Song: Love Armed (1676) Structure: 2 4-line stanzas Rhyme scheme = ABAB Refrain from me from thee (variations on) </li> <li> Slide 36 </li> <li> 36 APHRA BEHN o Song: Love Armed (1676) Structure: Whats Taken (to arm Love)? From man (persona): desire from his eyes sighs &amp; tears languishments &amp; fears From woman: fire from her eyes pride &amp; cruelty killing dart </li> <li> Slide 37 </li> <li> 37 APHRA BEHN o Song: Love Armed (1676) Themes: Love &amp; war connection Battle of the sexes Alls fair in love &amp; war Cupid w/bow &amp; arrow Why do we enjoy suffering? Listening to others suffer? The Blues Sad songs, break-up songs Why do we name hurricanes? To impose form onto suffering = To master or control suffering, the unknown, uncontrollable </li> <li> Slide 38 </li> <li> 38 APHRA BEHN o Song: Love Armed (1676) Questions: What is its theme concerning love or relationships? Is this a mans poem to be enjoyed more by male readers than female readers? Is it sexist in its portrayal of women? The persona = man, written by a woman Does that make a difference? </li> <li> Slide 39 </li> <li> POETRY Narrative Poetry </li> <li> Slide 40 </li> <li> 40 BACKGROUND o Transition from Prose to Poetry o Historically, move from stories in poetry to stories in prose verse narratives stories in poetic form narrative = beginning, middle, end basic Plot Action, Characterization, Setting, Dialogue Symbolism, Irony, Juxtaposition </li> <li> Slide 41 </li> <li> 41 BACKGROUND o Historically Oral Tradition illiterate masses poetic structure makes it easy to remember &amp; pass along stories about heroes &amp; history epic poetry (Homer) sagas (scops) </li> <li> Slide 42 </li> <li> 42 BACKGROUND o Historically Literacy Wm. Caxtons printing press (1440) Gutenbergs bible (1450) More literacy = less oral tradition = change in literature </li> <li> Slide 43 </li> <li> 43 POPULAR BALLADS </li> <li> Slide 44 </li> <li> 44 POPULAR BALLADS o authors = anonymous, undated o persona = detached, objective, impersonal, characterless 3 rd person POV o themes death, fate perils of sea </li> <li> Slide 45 </li> <li> 45 POPULAR BALLADS o use of repetition of sounds alliteration (Anglo-Saxon hold-over) consonance (consonant) assonance (vowel) of words, phrases o musical rhythm meant to be sung </li> <li> Slide 46 </li> <li> 46 POPULAR BALLADS o omissions ellipses not so descriptive (omitting key details) NO SHIPWRECK told in flashes, quick glimpses photo slide show o little description photo show omitted details, scenes (ellipses) some dialogue </li> <li> Slide 47 </li> <li> 47 POPULAR BALLADS o 4-line stanzas ABAB rhyme scheme (typically unrhymed) 1st, 3rd lines = 4 accents 2nd, 3rd lines = 3 accents The king sits in Dumferling toune, Drinking the blude-reid wine: O quhar will I get guid sailor To sail this schip of mine? </li> <li> Slide 48 </li> <li> 48 POPULAR BALLADS Belong to the Oral Tradition not written down until 18 th century multiple versions Enlightenment (frowned upon) undignified lacks decorum Romantics (resurgence) poetry of the people, masses Old ballads = written down New ballads = composed (literary ballads) </li> <li> Slide 49 </li> <li> 49 Sir Patrick Spence </li> <li> Slide 50 </li> <li> 50 SIR PATRICK SPENCE BACKGROUND o Written @ 15th century o Published in 1765 Thomas Percys Reliques of Ancient English Poetry (famous collection of folk ballads) </li> <li> Slide 51 </li> <li> 51 SIR PATRICK SPENCE BACKGROUND possible (though never verified) historical allusion 1281 marriage: of Margaret, daughter of Alexander III of Scotland to King Eric of Norway in 1281 on the return voyage, many of her noble escorts were drowned 1290 succession: the death of Margaret's daughter, "the Maid of Norway," while she was being brought back to Scotland in 1290 to succeed her grandfather, who died in 1286. </li> <li> Slide 52 </li> <li> 52 SIR PATRICK SPENCE o Dumferling: Dumferline, a town in Fife, on the Firth of Forth an early residence of the Scottish kings o sits: reigns, rules AND is stationary, seated BUT will make others move o blood red: mighty power, power over life &amp; death, foreshadowing </li> <li> Slide 53 </li> <li> 53 SIR PATRICK SPENCE o wine: party (Eros in Love Armed) suggests the ease with which he wields such power suggests that the question (sailing mission) = not well-thought, casual that the one who takes this mission will die The Lottery win BUT lose by winning typically an honor to be chosen by the king BUT this is an impossible, dangerous suicide mission </li> <li> Slide 54 </li> <li> 54 SIR PATRICK SPENCE o good sailor: skillful sailor brave decent human loyal, obedient to king </li> <li> Slide 55 </li> <li> 55 SIR PATRICK SPENCE o Elder Knight: elder = respected (respect your elders) favored, respected by king, yields political power (sits at kings right knee) line 14: suggests Elder Knight = enemy of Sir Patrick Spence (ill deid) </li> <li> Slide 56 </li> <li> 56 SIR PATRICK SPENCE o alliteration &amp; stanza #3: repetition of sound s sounds like snake, waves crashing on beach (foreshadows SPS death) o Long Letter to SPS: written, signed, sealed by king = royal decree MUST be obeyed SPS must sail the royal ship </li> <li> Slide 57 </li> <li> 57 SIR PATRICK SPENCE o Sir Patrick Spence: 1st meeting = reading kings letter, walking on the beach at leisure his 1st reaction, 1st line = laugh modest: laughs at praise humor: thinks the mission is a practical joke his 2nd reaction = cry realizes this mission will be his death but he cannot refuse the kings command feels set up/betrayed by someone O who is this who has done this deed / This ill deed done to me (repetition = for emphasis in Oral Tradition - foreshadowing) </li> <li> Slide 58 </li> <li> 58 SIR PATRICK SPENCE o done deed to deed done: repetition certainty of death Mirror World: Court vs. Ordinary, appearance vs. reality true friends court politics, stab in the back, set up fo...</li></ul>