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03 Quint PMUs for Reliability Standards

PMUs for NERC Reliability Standards

Ryan D. Quint, Ph.D., P.E.Staff Coordinator, NERC SMS, SAMSWECC JSIS MeetingSeptember 22, 2015RELIABILITY | ACCOUNTABILITY#1DISCLAIMER: This is not Compliance Guidance material; the goal is to illustrate application of synchrophasor technology as it relates to NERC Reliability Standards.

Pre-Screening: This material will be incorporated into:NASPI Starter Kit Simplified version of this presentationNASPI Tutorial Detailed discussion of this presentationSMS PMUs for NERC Reliability Standards Comprehensive look at wider range on NERC Reliability Standards and application of PMUsDISCLAIMERRELIABILITY | ACCOUNTABILITY#Starter Kit HighlightsThis list highlights the more mature, high-value applicationsComprehensive list will be developed by NERC SMSStandard NumberTitleStatusBAL-003-1Frequency Response and Frequency Bias SettingSubject to EnforcementFAC-001-2Facility Interconnection RequirementsSubject to EnforcementIRO-003-2Reliability Coordination Wide-Area ViewSubject to EnforcementMOD-026-1Verification of Models and Data for Generator Excitation Control System or Plant Volt/Var Control FunctionsSubject to EnforcementMOD-027-1Verification of Models and Data for Turbine/Governor and Load Control or Active Power/Frequency Control FunctionsSubject to EnforcementMOD-033-1Steady-State and Dynamic System Model ValidationSubject to EnforcementPRC-002-2Disturbance Monitoring and Reporting RequirementsSubject to Future EnforcementRELIABILITY | ACCOUNTABILITY#Requires sufficient Frequency Response from the Balancing Authority (BA) to maintain Interconnection Frequency within predefined bounds by arresting frequency deviations and supporting frequency until the frequency is restored to its scheduled value.Provides consistent methods for measuring Frequency Response and determining Frequency Bias SettingBAL-003-1: Frequency Response and Frequency Bias SettingRELIABILITY | ACCOUNTABILITY#Frequency Response Analysis Tool (FRAT)

RELIABILITY | ACCOUNTABILITY#FAC-001-2 avoid[s] adverse impacts on the reliability of the Bulk Electric System.Transmission Owners and applicable Generator Owners must document and make Facility Interconnection requirements available so that entities seeking to interconnection will have the necessary information.Standards does not explicitly specify any requirements for synchrophasor technology;However, many utilities have realized the value in this capability, and are requiring PMU monitoring at new generation interconnectionsFacility Connections Requirements (FCR)Open Access Transmission Tariff (OATT)FAC-001-2: Facility Interconnection RequirementsRELIABILITY | ACCOUNTABILITY#EntityReferencePJMhttp://www.pjm.com/documents/agreements.aspxhttp://www.pjm.com/documents/manuals.aspxBPAhttp://www.bpa.gov/transmission/Doing%20Business/Interconnection/Pages/default.aspxAESOhttp://www.aeso.ca/rulesprocedures/18592.htmlERCOThttp://www.ercot.com/mktrules/guides/noperatingDuke Midwesthttp://www.ferc.duke-energy.com/DEW/MidwestConnection.pdfIPChttps://www.idahopower.com/pdfs/BusinessToBusiness/facilityRequirements.pdfFCR and OATT ReferencesHandful of utilities have incorporated PMU installation into their Facility Connection Requirements (FCR) documents as per FAC-001 or in their Open Access Transmission Tariff (OATT).RELIABILITY | ACCOUNTABILITY#PJM Interconnection(PJM)Revision to OATT new generators >= 100 MWentering theQueue on or after October 1, 2012with a proposed new Customer Facility that has a Maximum Facility Output equal to or greater than 100 MWshall install and maintain, at its expense, phasor measurement units (PMUs).PMUs shall be installed on the Customer Facility low side of the generator step-up transformer, unless it is a non-synchronous generation facility, in which case the PMUs shall be installed on the Customer Facility side of the Point of Interconnection.must be capable of a minimum of 30 samples per secondwhich are synchronized via a high-accuracy satellite clock. similar quality equipment, such as relays or digital fault recorders, that can collect dataand which data is synchronized via a high-accuracy satellite clockwould satisfy this requirement.

RELIABILITY | ACCOUNTABILITY#PJM Interconnection(PJM)Modifications to OATTPMU equipment which includes the communication circuit capable of carrying the PMU data to a local data concentrator, and then transporting the information continuously to the Transmission Provideras well as store the PMU data locally for thirty days.Interconnection Customer shall provide to [TP] all necessary and requested information through the [TP] synchrophasor system, including: (a) gross MW and MVAR measured at the Customer Facility side of the generator step-up transformer (or, for a non-synchronous generation facility, to be measured at the Customer Facility side of the Point of Interconnection); (b) generator terminal voltage; (c) generator terminal frequency; and (d) generator field voltage and current, where available. Transmission Provider will install and provide forongoing support and maintenance of the network communications linking the data concentrator to the Transmission Provider.RELIABILITY | ACCOUNTABILITY#PJM Interconnection(PJM)Addition to PJM Manual 14D: Generator Operational Requirements, Section 4.3Section 4.3.1: Phasor Measurement Device Unit RequirementsSection 4.3.2: Phasor Data Concentrator (PDC) RequirementsSection 4.3.3: Network RequirementsSection 4.3.4: Data Exchange and Management Requirements

RELIABILITY | ACCOUNTABILITY#Bonneville Power Administration (BPA)Modification to Technical Requirements for Interconnection to the BPA Transmission Gridby measuring bus voltage and frequency, and generation current and power.Performance monitoring is required to fully validate performance and verify the model provided under Section 5.3.8.BPA will collect disturbance data andperform performance validation. If BPA observesdiscrepancy betweendata and monitored results, the [GO] shall be required to performtesting of the generation equipment.requires PMUat all generation projectsdirectly connected to the BPA grid at voltages 230-kV and above, and at some lower voltage interconnections when identified during the interconnection studies.The PMU will be installed at the project substation (typically a collector station if a wind generation project) and will measure quantities at either the low side or high side of each substation step-up transformer (e.g. 34.5/230 kV).RELIABILITY | ACCOUNTABILITY#Bonneville Power Administration (BPA)Modification to Technical Requirements for Interconnection to the BPA Transmission GridBPA will install the PMU and the required communication circuits/equipment at the project substation to transport the information to the Control Center.BPA may also require a continuous data stream to a BPA Phasor Data Concentrator (PDC) located at the BPA Point of Interconnection via the installed communications network at the project substation.PMU must be tested after configuration (but prior to installation) for compliance with IEEE C37.118 standard and WECC filtering and dynamic performance requirements.

RELIABILITY | ACCOUNTABILITY#Alberta Electric System Operator (AESO)Modification to ISO Rules, Section 502.9: Synchrophasor Measurement Unit Technical Requirements A legal owner of a generating unit, legal owner of an aggregated generating facility or legal owner of a transmission facility who is a legal owner of a generating unit for which the ISO issues a functional specificationon or after the effective date of this section 502.9 [2/28/2013], must design and construct its facility in accordance with the minimum synchrophasor measurement unit requirementsand verify to the ISO that the facility meets the requirements during commissioning and energization of the new facility.Synchrophasor Measurement Unit FunctionalitySynchrophasor Measurement Unit Signal NamesData Storage and StreamingSuspected Failure or Malfunction of a Synchrophasor Measurement UnitAs-Built Drawings

RELIABILITY | ACCOUNTABILITY#Electric Reliability Council of Texas (ERCOT)Modification to Nodal Operating Guides (NOG)Revised December 17, 2014(1)The Facility owner(s), whether a TSP or new Generation Entity, shall install phasor measurement recording equipment at the following Facilities. The installation shall occur not later than 18 months after a written notification from ERCOT to the Facility owner. (a) Flexible AC transmission system devices configured to actively control steady-state voltage or power transfer capability, operated at or above 100kV, and energized after July 1, 2015;(b) One Transmission Facility identified by ERCOT associated with each published generic transmission constraint as deemed necessary by ERCOT; and(c) New generating Facilities over 20 MVA aggregated at a single site placed into service after January 1, 2017;

RELIABILITY | ACCOUNTABILITY#Requires that each Reliability Coordinator must have a wide-area view of its own Reliability Coordinator Area and that of neighboring Reliability Coordinators.Requirement R1 focuses on monitoring all [BES] facilities within its Reliability Coordinator Area and adjacent Reliability Coordinator Areas, as necessary to ensure that, at any time, regardless of prior planned or unplanned events, the Reliability Coordinator is able to determine any potential System Operating Limit and Interconnection Reliability Operating Limit violations within its Reliability Coordinator Area. IRO-003-2: Reliability Coordination Wide-Area ViewRELIABILITY | ACCOUNTABILITY#MOD-026: Generator excitation control system or plant volt/var control functionsMOD-027: Turbine/governor and load control or active power/frequency control functionsApplicability:Individual generating unit greater than 100 MVA gross nameplate ratingIndividual generating plant consisting of