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    PLUMBING SYSTEMS(Plumbing Fixtures)-1

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    Introduction:

    Plumbing, in general, refers to the system as well as the material fixtures and

    the apparatus used inside a building.

    For supplying water,

    Removing the used water with different stacks (as liquid and water-bornewastes along with ventilating system).

    It also includes the system of storm water or roof drainage.

    The exterior system components connecting to a source, such as a public or aprivate water system or a point of disposal of waste or used water, a publicsewer system or an individual disposal system, namely, a domestic septic tank

    with arrangement for disposal of its effluent through a leaching cesspool or acollecting well with arrangements for removal of its contents by means of a

    vacuum car.

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    The plumbing systems include:

    Water Supply System: - Distribution Of Water from the Source.

    Plumbing fixtures: - Used for the water supply as well as the collection and

    disposal of used waters.

    Sanitary Drainage System: - This system is to carry the wastes from the plumbingfixtures to the public or private disposal system.

    Anti-siphonage System: - This system is to carry only the air for the purpose of

    ventilation and preventing the failure of the water seals in traps thereby preventing

    the entry of foul air from the public or private drainage system into the building.

    Storm water Drainage System: - This system is to collect and carry rain water or

    water not used by occupants of the building to a public storm water drain or to a

    local garden or a pond.

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    Principles of Plumbing:

    Proper Design

    Acceptable Installation

    Adequate Maintenance

    The principles of plumbing shall be achieved by following or adapting to the

    standard codes and practices.

    The essentials of good plumbing necessitate the observance of the

    principles detailed below. These relate to the plumbing fixtures, theplumbing pipes and the plumbing systems as a whole.

    The plumbing fixtures are to be:

    a. Made of smooth and non-absorbent material

    b. Located in well ventilated enclosures

    c. Free from concealed fouling spacesd. Easily accessible for the intended use

    e. Able to withstand adequate pressure

    f. Connected to a drainage system with water seal traps

    g. Tested for leaks, defects, etc, and rectified promptly, where necessary

    h. Storage water cisterns are to be proofed against contamination

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    PLUMBING

    Plumbing Fixtures:

    A plumbing fixture is supplied with water, discharges water and/or waste, andperforms a function for the user. Each fixture is designed for a specific activity to

    maintain public health and sanitation. As such, plumbing fixtures are often referred

    to as sanitaryware.

    The standard plumbing fixtures used in a plumbing system include:

    Water Closets

    UrinalsWash Basins

    Kitchen Sinks

    Service Sinks

    Sinks

    Showers

    BathtubsBidets

    Floor Drains

    Emergency fixtures

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    Plumbing Fixtures:

    In addition, there are fixture fittings used in connection with these plumbing

    fixtures, include:

    Faucets and Fixture fittings

    Shower valves

    Tub fillers

    Fixture Material: - The surface of any plumbing fixture must be smooth,

    impervious, and readily cleanable to maintain a high level of sanitation.

    Common plumbing fixture materials include:

    Vitreous china

    Non-Vitreous china

    Enameled cast iron

    Porcelain enameled steelStainless steel

    Plastic.

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    Water Closets

    A water closet is designed for the removal of soil waste of users. It is provided with cold

    water connection. Water closets are currently placed into one of three categories:

    A close coupled water closet It is one with a two piece tank and bowl fixture

    A one piece water closet It is one with the tank and bowl as one piece

    A flushometer style water closet It a bowl with a spud connection that receives theconnection from a flushometer valve.

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    Another distinction used to identify a water closet is the manner of mounting and

    connection.

    Floor Mounted Water Closet It is supported by the floor and connected directly to the

    piping through the floor.

    Wall Hung Water Closet It is supported by a wall hanger and never comes in contact with

    the floor. Wall hung water closets are considered for maintaining a clean floor in the toilet

    room since the water closet doesnt interfere with the cleaning of the floor.

    Floor Mounted, Back Outlet Water Closet It is supported by the floor yet connects to the

    piping through the wall. The advantage of this type of water closet is that the penetrations of

    the floor are reduced for the plumbing.

    Floor Mounted Water Closet Floor Mounted, Back Outlet Wall Hung Water Closet

    Water Closet

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    SQUATTING TYPE PEDESTAL TYPE

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    SQUATTING TYPE

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    PEDESTAL TYPE

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    Animated Video

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    UrinalsA urinal is designed for the removal of urine and quick exchange of users. The fixture must contain

    the urine, flush it down the drain, and wash the exposed surfaces. It is provided with cold water

    connection. Urinals have been considered a fixture for the male population. Urinals are identified

    as:

    Flushing style for urinals will be similar to the water closet.

    There are two types of flushing of urinals

    Manual operated flush valve.

    Sensor type.

    Flat b ack-small

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    Wash Basins

    A wash basin is used for personal hygiene. It is provided with hot and cold water

    connection. Wash basins can be counter mounted, under counter mounted, or wall hung.

    It is intended to be used for washing ones hands and face. For many years, the fixture

    standards required wash basin to have an overflow. This requirement was based on theuse of the fixture where by the basin was filled prior to cleaning. If a user left the room

    while the basin was being filled, the water would not overflow on to the floor. As a result,

    overflows became an optional item for basins. The fixture standard added a minimum size

    of overflow with a cross sectional area must be 18 in.

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    BRACKET MOUNTED

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    UNDER COUNTER RIM BELOW COUNTER

    BRACKET MOUNTED

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    BRACKET MOUNTED

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    UNDER COUNTER RIM ABOVE COUNTER

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    ABOVE COUNTER

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    FULL PEDESTAL

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    HALF PEDESTAL

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    50. DRAIN

    14. SINK RIM

    52. RUBBER GASKET

    12. SINK BASIN

    16. SINK WALLS

    18. BORE

    10. SINK ASSEMBLY

    24. COUPLER

    20. COUNTER TOP

    22. COUNTER TOP BORE

    42. NUT54. LIGHT SOURCE

    46. WATER DRAIN PIPE

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    Kitchen Sink

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    Showers

    A shower is designed to allow full body cleansing.

    It is provided with hot and cold water connection.

    The size and configuration of a shower must permit and individual to bend at

    the waist to clean the lower body extremities. Shower valves must be thermostatic mixing and pressure balancing type.

    The shower valves not only control the flow and temperature of the water,

    they also must control any variation in temperature of the water.

    A pressure balancing valve maintains a constant pressure of the shower water

    by constantly adjusting the pressure of the hot and cold water supply. If there

    is a change in pressure on the cold water supply, the hot water supply balancesto the equivalent pressure setting. If the cold water shuts off completely, the

    hot water shuts off as well.

    Thermostatic mixing valves adjust the temperature of the water by

    maintaining a constant temperature once the water temperature is set. This is

    accomplished by thermally sensing controls that modify the quantity of hot

    and cold water to keep the set temperature.

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    Side showerHand shower Head shower

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    SHOWER

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    Bathtubs

    The bathtub was the original fixture used to bathe or cleanse ones body.

    It is provided with hot and cold water connection.

    The standard installation was a combination of tub/shower. The bath tub shall be fitted with overflow and waste pipe of nominal diameter of not less

    than 32 mm and 40 mm respectively.

    This over flow drain is necessary since the bathtub is often filled while the bather is not

    present. Shower valves will be TMV & PBV type as said earlier.

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    Fiberglass/Gelcoat (FRP) : Fiberglass is probably one of the morecost-effective materials used in the construction of bathtubs. It is lightweight, easy to install, and inexpensive. The gelcoat surface is thinner and

    less durable than acrylic. As a result, the finish tends to lack the depth andresilience found in acrylic and porcelain tubs and, over time, the color mayalso fade. Additionally, fiberglass tends to scratch easily.

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    Acrylic : Acrylic is similar to fiberglass, but tends to cost a littlemore because the color is embedded throughout the substance ratherthan just the surface coat like fiberglass. Thus, the color has a nice highgloss finish and lasts longer. Acrylic is also a good insulator so your waterstays warmer longer. It is also easy to clean and more durable than

    fiberglass. Some manufacturers actually use a grade of acrylic that is sodurable you can hit it with a hammer and it won't crack. In most cases, ifthe surface becomes scratched, you will be able to buff it out.

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    Cast Iron : Cast iron can last for years but is quite expensive. It canresist damage, dents and dings with ease. Because of their sheer weight (two tothree hundred pounds), they are effective at reducing vibration and noise.Another added bonus is that water tends to stay warmer longer. Most

    manufacturers of cast irons will also issue a warranty for as long as the originalpurchaser owns the tub. Outside of the tremendous weight factor of a cast ironbathtub, they do have their limitations. Few models are longer than 5 feet. Theyare usually not large enough to accommodate two people, and whirlpool jets arenot an option.

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    Marble : Marble bathtubs are extremely attractive and comein a variety of unique shapes. They are great if you are looking for abathtub that will leave a distinct impression. Marble is, however, more

    costly and can scratch easily. Another drawback is that marble is verybrittle and will crack from thermal shock if the water temperature is toohot or the temperature of the marble changes suddenly.

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    TRENCH DRAIN

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    Emergency Fixtures

    The two types of emergency fixture are the emergency shower and the eyewash station.

    It is provided with cold water connection. These fixtures are designed to wash a victim

    with large volumes of water when there is a chemical spill or burn or another hazardousmaterial is spilled on an individual.

    Emergency fixtures are provided in industrial buildings and chemical laboratories. An

    emergency shower is also called a drench shower because of the large volume of water

    discharged through the emergency shower.

    Eyewash stations are for washing the eyes.

    Drinking fountain It is a bowl fitted with a push

    button tap and a water bubbler or a tap with a

    swan neck outlet fitting. It has a waste fitting, a

    trap and is connected to the waste pipe.

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    TAP

    A Tap is a valve for controlling the release of a liquid or gas. In the British Isles and

    most of the Commonwealth the word is used for any everyday type of valve,

    particularly the fittings that control water supply to bathtubs and sinks. In the U.S. the

    usage is sometimes more specialized, with the term "tap" and the word Faucet being

    used for water outlets.

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    An LED light turns water blue when its cold and red when its hot! No more trying

    to remember if hot water is on the left or the right! And fear not, the nightmares of

    blood coming from your sink will disappear in time.

    VALVES

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    Animated Video

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    BALL VALVE

    ANIMATED VIDEO

    ANIMATED VIDEO

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    ANIMATED VIDEO

    ------------------------ SALAMAT ---------------------