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NewYorkStateCollegeofAgncultureAtCornellUniversity',. tthac^,N.Y.LibraryCornellUniversityLibraryJC71.P35TheRepublicofPlato,3 1924014 570 208Cornell UniversityLibraryTheoriginal oftliis bookis intlie Cornell University Library.Therearenoknowncopyrightrestrictions intheUnitedStatesontheuseofthetext.http://www.archive.org/details/cu31924014570208\'LATO.RfpuUirofPlato.THEREPUBLIC^oe^.^^ ^ ^OFPLATOTRANSLATEDINTO ENGLISHWITHAN ANALYSIS ANDNOTESByJOHNLLEWELYNDAVIES,M.A.ANDDAVIDJAMESVAUGHAN,M.A.LATEFELLOWSOFTRINITYCOLLEGE,CAMBRIDGE"Knowledgeisearthly, ofthemind,ButWisdom,isheavenly,ofthesoul."Tennyson.A. L. BURTCOMPANY,PUBLISHERSINTEODUCTOEYNOTE.TheDialogue commonly called the Republic is theac-knowledged masterpiece of the large collection of similarcompositionswhichhavecome downto ns as the worksotPlato. These workshavemade the name of Platoone ofthe most familiar names in history. But we know littleabout Plato himself; astonishingly little, compared withwhatwemighthaveexpectedtoknow. Whenweconsiderthat he lived in a peculiarly historical period, concerningthe events and personages of which we have an unusualamount of information; that he had an illustrious repu-tation duringhis lifetime, M^hich wasprolonged to an ad-vancedold age; andthathis writmgswereverynumerovis,and have reached us in so perfect a condition as to showthattheirtext wasreverentlywatchedoverfromthefirst: -it cannotbutseemstrangethat the record of his life is someager, andthat the mutual relations of his writings areinvolvedinsomuchobscurity. Inthisabsenceofmaterialsfor a biography wemay doubtless find one token of thefastidious reserve, the suppressionof his own personality,whichis eminentlycharacteristic of Plato.According to the generally received opinion, the factswhich may be considered ascertain in the life of PlatosufHceforlittlemorethananoutline,andeventhiscannotbe quite firmly drawn. His dialogues,although thescene of them is laid in his own time, and the interloc-utors, byasingular liberty, are often well knownand liv-ing persons, including his own brothers,hardly contrib-utea single incident or fact to abiographicalsketch.TherearehowevercertaijB- Letters professingto bePlato's,whichgive much infcmnation as to his acts andhismotives,especially withVeference to theactively politicalportions of his career. These Letters have of late yearr.beengenerallybelievedtobespurious, themostimportantiii17INTRODUCTORYNOTE.of thembeingsupposedtobewrittenbydisciples ofPlataandtocontain more orless that is true. But Mr.Grotecontendsstrenuouslyforthegenuinenessof these, aswellasofotherwritings, included in the traditionalcanon orlist of Plato's works, which modern critics haverejectedasspurious. Mr. Grote, in his zeal to take Plate downfromhissuperhumanpedestal, maybesomewhattoo readyto attribute to him the compositions whicli have beenjudged unworthy of so divine a philosopher ; buthismasterlydiscussionwill certainlyreopenthequestion, andprobablypersuademany to adopt his conclusion. Tiierewouldthenbelesshesitation inaddingtheinteresting par-ticularscontained in the Epistles to what we otherwiseknowof Plato'slife;whilstthemore sceptical critics, ashas been said, are already willing to admit that thoseparticularsmayingreatpartbeauthentic.ThedateofPlato'sbirth is variouslygivenas b. c.430,428, and437;theplaceofit as either Athensor ^gina.Heis saidto havediedin B.C. 347. Helived thereforev,*theageof80orperhapsof83. Ifwetakethelatestdateofhisbirth, hewasbornaboutfouryears after the com-mencement of the Peloponnci^ian War. The historyofThucydides includesthe first 16 or 17years of his life;whereThucydidesends,Xenophontakesup thenarrativeof Grecianaffairs, andcarries it onfor48years, uptothebattleofMantinea in B.C. 362. ItwasthelotofPlatotogrowupto manhoodinthe midst ofa longnational struggle,marked by various fortunes and splendidefforts, whichwasbroughttoacloseatlastby thecompleteprostrationof hiscountry. Theconquest of Athensin B.C. 403 wasfollowedbytheshortruleoftheThirty, headedbyCritijis(whowasPlato's uncle,)andTheramenes.The arbitrarygovernmentoftheThirtywasoverthrownbyThrasybulns,andtheold democracyreestablished. Inb.c.399occurredtheterrible disgrace of tlie tiial and deathof Socrates.Forthenext half century, Athensdoes not occupythemoat conspicuous place in Grecianhistory,but bearsacri'ditftblepartin themovements of the time undertliaguidaiioeofablecommanderssuohaslphicrates,Chab'-'-aINTRODUCTOliYNOTE.^and-Timothens. AgesilaustheKingofLacedaemon,andEpaminondas of Thebes, were the mostillustriousandmostprominent rulersof this period, leadingon eithersideinthevigorouscontest which is best known by thebattles ofLenctra (b.c.371)and Mantiuea (b. c.362).Afterthe battle ofMantinea, themost important featurein Grecian history is the gradual and steady rise of thepowerofPhilipofMacedon. Before Plato died, Demos-theneshad become famousthrough his orations againstPhilip;andwithinayearafter his deathPhilip, by thedestruction ofthePhociansat theendoftheSacredWar,hadsecuredhissupremacyin Greece,Bytheside ofthemain current of Grecian affairs, thehistoryofSicilyacquiredinterestand importanceduringthissamehalfcenturyundertherule ofthetwo Dionysiiand Dion. The elderDionysius, having governed withvigor at Syracuseforaquarter ofacentury, died in B.C.367. Hissonheldasimilar authorityfor12 years, whenhe was expelled by Dion, who after four yearsof rulewas in his turnattackedandput todeath.Livinginsuchanage, Platowasawitnessofasingularvariety ofpoliticaldevelopments,and someoftherichnessofillustrationintheRepublicis nodoubt duetohispecul-iaropportunitiesof observation. Buthehimselfwasnotsuitedforthelife of practicalpolitics. Hehad everyad-vantageof training, beingthesonofrichparents, robustinhealth, andeducatedin all the accomplishmentsofthetime;andhemusthavebeencompelledto dischargetheordinary duties ofan Athenian citizen, includingsomemilitaryservice. Butwehear of nomoredecidedattempttoenter thearenaofAthenianpoliticsthanthatforwhichthe7th Epistleis anauthority. Itis therestated that hewasinvitedbyhis relations andconnectionsamongst theThirtytotakesomepartinpublicaffairs,andthathewasdesirousofdoingso;butwhenhesawwhatiniquitiestheThirty- wereperpetrating,andespecially whenhesawthemoncetrying, butvainly, toforceSocrates todo aninjurytoa citizen, hefelt himselfdriven back intoaprivatelife.Hehadthe samedesire ofmixing in public affairs after\ViINTRODUCTORYNOTE.therestoration of thedemocracy, but then again besawharsh thingsdone, andat lasttheiniquitouscondemnationofSocratesentirelyrepelled himfrompolitics.)The philosopher whose name is connected with thesetworepulsesfromapolitical career had gainedan ascen-dencyofsingularpowerandpermanenceoverthemindofPlato. WhenSocratesdied,Platowas28yearsold. Foreightyearstheyhadlived in closeintimacyas teacher andpupil. Wehavenorecordofthecharacterorincidentsofthis connection. But Plato's works show thathiswholesubsequentlife wasformed by it. Hedevotedhimself tophilosophy,andmade it his one purpose to walk inthepath of inquiry which Socrates hadopened out tohim.The image of his teacher never faded from his mind.Withmixeddevotionandfreedom, heusesSocratesin hisdialoguesastheexponentof all hisownviews. Howeverdistantthespeculations ofPlato mayhavebeenfrom thehomelierthoughtsofSocrates, Plato undoubtedlybelievedthathewasfaithfullyfollowing the principles ormethodwhichSocrateshadtaughtandillustrated.After thedeath of Socrates, b.c.399, Plato withdrewto Megara. Wedonot know howlong he stayed there,butinthecourse ofsome12years after thedeath ofSo-crates, heis said tohave traveled to Cyrene andEgypt,to ItalyandSicily. Whilsthewas in Sicily, hemode ac-quaintance with Dion at Syracuse, and probablywithDionysiustheelder. Accordingtoa strange auddoubt-fulstory, Dionysiuscausedhimtobesoldinto slavery,butlie wasransomedatJEgiuaandthenreturnedtoAthens.There he settled,andbegan to teachphilosophy,aboutB, c. 388386.From that timehe pursuedan evencareer, withonlytwo considerableinterruptions,asadignifiedand illustri-ous teacher,for about 40 years.LikeSocrates,he re-ceived nofeesfor his instructions,and taught, itis sup-posed, chieflythroughconversation.Hisreputationwashigherthan that of anycontemporaryphilosopher,andhedrewmanypupilsabouthim,ofwhomther"",3tfamouswashisgreat rival iujjiilosophv.Aristotle.INTRODUCTORYNOTE.viiOncein thecourse ofhis lifehe hada singularcall toapplyhis political science to the governmentof a state.When the elder Dionysius died, he was succeededinhispower by his son, who had no strength ofcharacterandwasat firstmuchundertheinfluenceof Plato'sfriendandadmirerDion. Theopportunityseemed a veryfavorableone forestablishinga stateonsoundprinciples. Dionysiuswas readyto accept advice, Dion was urgent inhis en-treaties that Plato would come to guidehim, andPlatowas unwillinglyconstrained to payavisit to Syracuseonthis errand. The story of this visit is told in the 7thEpistle. It did notsucceed. Platomaynothaveshownmuch tact in the management of Dionysius; the taskattempted mayhave been a hopeless one. Atall eventsDionysius did not longcontinue submissive toDionandPlato. He banished Dion from Syracuse; and after awhilePlato, thoughnothimselfbadlytreated,returnedtoAthens. Hepaidasecond visit, however,toDionysius,inthe hopeofdoingsomeservice to Dion, buthewasagaindisappointed;and his Syracusanexperienceshadnothingbutwhatwaspainfulandmortifyingtolookbackupon.Thereader of theRepuMic is notobligedto enterintothe difficult question as to theorderandarrangementofPlato's works. AsecondDialogue, theTimaeus,connectsitselfwiththeRepublic,anda third, the Ci'itias, withtheTimseus, so as to form a trilogy;but the Republic iscomplete in itself. It offers no indication of its dateofcomposition, except that its vigor,especiallywhen it iscomparedwithsuchaworkastheLaws,probablywrittenin Plato's old age,speaks of the prime of life andofintellect. It has a second traditional title. ConcerningJustice.The connection of the twotitles is sufficientlyexplained