Plant Classification Everything You Need to Know About Kingdom Plantae Everything You Need to Know About Kingdom Plantae

Download Plant Classification Everything You Need to Know About Kingdom Plantae Everything You Need to Know About Kingdom Plantae

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<ul><li><p>Plant ClassificationEverything You Need to Know About Kingdom Plantae</p></li><li><p>CharacteristicsPhotosyntheticMulticellular EukaryoticCell walls made up of celluloseSexual (seeds and spores) and asexual (vegetative propagation) reproductionCommon ancestor was green algae (a protist)</p></li><li><p>2 Categories of Plants:Vascular and NonvascularVascular tissue is specialized tissue for the transport of water and solutes through a plant</p></li><li><p>Vascular PlantsVascular plants make up over 90% of all plantsFerns (seedless), gymnosperms (cone bearing) and angiosperms (flowering plants)Xylem and phloem make up vascular tissueXylem- tissue that carries water and minerals upward in a plantPhloem- tissue that carries sugars (from photosynthesis) upward and downward in a plant</p></li><li><p>Vascular PlantsHave rootsTo absorb water, anchor the plant in the ground, protect the plant from bacteria and fungiTwo types of rootsTaproot- enlarged primary root; grows deep below the surface (carrot)Fibrous- numerous, extensively branched roots, grow near the surface (prevents topsoil from being washed away (grass)</p></li><li><p>Vascular PlantsHave stemsHolds leaves up to sunlight and transport water and food between roots and leaves</p><p>Water TransportFood Transport</p></li><li><p>Vascular PlantsHave leavesCollect light for photosynthesisHave stomas- pores in epidermis of leaf for carbon dioxide, water vapor and oxygen to be exchanged</p></li><li><p>Stoma</p></li><li><p>Vascular PlantsReproduce by seeds and sporesFerns- have spores, no seeds (sperm and egg)Gymnosperms- seeds in cones (pine tree)Angiosperms- seeds in flowers (deciduous trees, flowers and bushes)</p></li><li><p>Seedless Vascular PlantsEx: Clubmoss, horsetails &amp; fernsHave true roots, stems, leaves &amp; veins</p></li><li><p>Nonvascular Plants- BryophytesMosses, liverworts and hornwortsLack vascular tissue for long distance transport of water and solutesMore dependent on water, need to live in moist environment</p></li><li><p>Nonvascular PlantsLack true roots, stems and leavesHave rhizoids- long, thin cells that anchor them to the ground and absorb water and mineralsNeed water for sexual reproductionfor sperm to swim to egg</p></li><li><p>Moss, liverwort &amp; hornwort</p></li><li><p>Human Uses of MossesSphagum- a group of mosses that live in acidic water or bogsActs as a natural spongePeat moss for fuel and shipping products</p></li><li><p>AdaptationsCuticle to reduce water lossLignin to make cell walls harder which allows trees to grow taller and spread branches and leaves to catch sunlightBud scales to protect buds from winter temperaturesDeciduous trees lose their leaves and become dormant in winter</p></li><li><p>Plant Life CycleAlternation of GenerationsPlants have two alternating phases in their lifecycleA diploid (2N) phaseSporophyte (makes spores by meiosis)A haploid (N) phaseMakes gametes by mitosis</p></li><li><p>Alternation of GenerationsSporophyte (2N)Gametophyte (N)Spores (N)MEIOSISFERTILIZATIONEggs (N)HaploidDiploid</p></li><li><p>Parts of LeafMesophyll- ground tissue where photosynthesis takes placeGuard Cell- specialized cells in the epidermis that controls the opening and closing of the stomaCuticle- waxy coating on leaf to reduce water lossEpidermis- outer layer of the leafXylem- cells that carry water upward from the rootsPhloem- cells the transport sugars throughout the plantStoma- pore-like openings in the underside of the leaf that allow CO2 and O2 to diffuse in and out of the leaf</p></li><li><p>Parts of Leaf</p></li><li><p>A Perfect FlowerA perfect flower is one that contains both male and female reproductive structures.The male reproductive structures are collectively called the stamen. The stamen consists of the filaments and anthers. The female structures are collectively called the pistil. The pistil consists of the ovary, style and stigma. The sepals and the petals are called sterile structures since they are not part of the reproductive system. </p></li><li><p>A Perfect Flower</p></li><li><p>A Perfect FlowerSepals- usually green surrounding the flower and protect the flower while it is developingPetals- Often brightly colored and attracts insects and other pollinatorsStamen- Male portion of the flowerAnther- oval sac where pollen is madeFilament- long, thin stalk that supports the antherPistil (Carpel)- Female portion of the flowerOvary- contains ovules (female gametophyte)Style- stalk to carpel (connects stigma to ovary)Stigma- top sticky portion of the pistil (carpel), where the pollen lands </p><p>Angiosperm Reproduction</p></li><li><p>Comparing Features of Seed Plants </p><p>FeatureGymnospermsAngiospermsSeedsBear their seeds on cones Bear their seeds within flowers Reprod.Can reproduce without water; male gametophytes are contained in pollen grains; fertilization occurs by pollination Can reproduce without water; male gametophytes are contained in pollen grains; fertilization occurs by pollination Ex:Conifers, cycads, ginkgoes, gnetophytes Grasses, flowering trees, shrubs, wildflowers, cultivated flowers </p></li><li><p>Plant ResponsePhototropism- tendency of plant to grow light.Gravitropism- response of a plant to the force of gravity (why plants grow up)Photoperiodism- response of plants to periods of light and dark </p></li><li><p>Tree PartsHeartwood- contains old xylem; provides tree with support.Sapwood- contains active xylemVascular Cambium- produces new xylemCork Cambium- produces corkCork- contains nonfunctioning phloem </p></li></ul>