pinball liquid
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WignerMott transition, charge frustration and Hunds coupling in layered triangular lattices
S. Fratini  Institut Nel, CNRS
Collaborations: J. Merino A. Ralko C. Fvrier
V. Dobrosavljevi L. Rademaker S. Mahmoudian

Outlook
Coulomb induced charge ordering: Wigner/Mott electron correlations away from integer fillings
Frustration of CO on triangular lattices: pinball liquid non FL, bad metal, heavy fermion behavior
Experimental realizations? AgNiO2, multiband systempinball order stabilized by Coulomb + Hunds coupling

Wigner crystallization
e2
Rs ~
2
2mR2s
Rs

Coulomb interactions: Wigner vs Mott insulator
Wigner crystal
no underlying lattice long range interactions low electron density
e2
Rs ~
2
2mR2s Mott insulator
commensurate underlying lattice onsite interactions, Hubbard model high electron density, n=1
Electrons in a solid, periodic lattice
half filled bands (d, porbitals), 1 el per sitecuprates, organics, fullerenes.
onsite repulsion, U>W (bandwidth), electrons are localized [Mott, Hubbard]
Mott vs. Wigner insulator
2DEG in heterostructures,no underlying crystal lattice (Rs>>a)
At lowdensity
longrange Coulomb repulsion dominates over the kinetic energy, electrons crystallize [Wigner (1934)]
U W

Electrons in a solid, periodic lattice
half filled bands (d, porbitals), 1 el per sitecuprates, organics, fullerenes.
onsite repulsion, U>W (bandwidth), electrons are localized [Mott, Hubbard]
Mott vs. Wigner insulator
2DEG in heterostructures,no underlying crystal lattice (Rs>>a)
At lowdensity
longrange Coulomb repulsion dominates over the kinetic energy, electrons crystallize [Wigner (1934)]
Coulomb induced CO in solids: Wigner AND Mott physics
WignerMott CO insulator
intermediate electron density, n=1/2: quarter filling (common in 2D organics, some oxides) interplay of charge order and electronic correlations Extended Hubbard Model: onsite + long range interactions
Emergent Heavy Fermion Behavior at the WignerMott Transition
Jaime Merino,1 Arnaud Ralko,2 and Simone Fratini2
1Departamento de Fsica Teorica de la Materia Condensada, Condensed Matter Physics Center (IFIMAC)and Instituto Nicolas Cabrera, Universidad Autonoma de Madrid, Madrid 28049, Spain
2Institut NeelCNRS and Universite Joseph Fourier, Bote Postale 166, F38042 Grenoble Cedex 9, France(Received 9 April 2013; published 20 September 2013)
We study charge ordering driven by Coulomb interactions on triangular lattices relevant to the
WignerMott transition in two dimensions. Dynamical meanfield theory reveals the pinball liquid phase,
a charge ordered metallic phase containing quasilocalized (pins) coexisting with itinerant (balls) electrons.
Based on an effective periodic Anderson model for this phase, we find an antiferromagnetic Kondo
coupling between pins and balls and strong quasiparticle renormalization. NonFermi liquid behavior
can occur in such charge ordered systems due to the spinflip scattering of itinerant electrons off the
pins in analogy with heavy fermion compounds.
DOI: 10.1103/PhysRevLett.111.126403 PACS numbers: 71.10.Hf, 71.30.+h, 73.20.Qt, 74.70.Kn
The interplay between charge ordering (CO) and theMott metalinsulator transition (MIT) has common manifestations in narrowband systems such as the transitionmetal oxides [1] (cuprates, manganites, nickelates, andcobaltates), lowdimensional organic conductors [2] aswell as transitionmetal dichalcogenides [35]. On theone hand, charge ordering phenomena are favored by thepresence of electronic correlations, as these slow downthe electronic motion and reduce the tendency to chargedelocalization. Conversely, the reconstruction of the electronic spectrum upon entering a phase with broken symmetry can enhance the effects of correlations, extendingthe realm of Mott physics away from the usual integerfillings [2,613]. A fundamental relation between chargeordering and the Mott MIT has also been pointed outrecently in the twodimensional electron gas (2DEG),leading to the concept of the WignerMott transition[811]. Close to the Wigner crystal phase induced by thelong ranged Coulomb repulsion at low density, the electrons form an effectively narrowband system at halffilling(one electron per site of the Wigner crystal [14]), whosephysical properties resemble those of a Mott insulator.Correspondingly, it has been shown that the Wigner crystalmelting shares several common features with the Motttransition [8,9,15].
In the present Letter, we explore the interplay of chargeorder and electronic correlations starting from the extendedHubbard model on the triangular lattice, which frustratesthe insulating CO found in bipartite lattices. We focus onthe pinball liquid (PL) phase [1618], i.e., a charge orderedmetallic phase where quasilocalized electrons (pins) coexist with itinerant electrons (balls) over a broad range ofconcentrations. Applying the dynamical meanfield theory(DMFT) we find that the electron dynamics become heavily renormalized for a sufficiently large carrier concentration. The origin of this renormalization is elucidated via amapping to a periodic Anderson model (PAM). The strong
analogies with heavy fermions [19] indicate that nonFermiliquid behavior can arise in correlated CO systems onfrustrated lattices in a broad temperature range above theKondo breakdown temperature scale.Model.The reference model to study the interplay
between charge ordering and electronic correlations isthe extended Hubbard model (EHM),
H "tX
hiji!cyi!cj! H:c: U
X
i
ni"ni# VX
hijininj; (1)
which describes electrons moving on a lattice with atransfer integral t and interacting via both onsite (U) andnearestneighbor Coulomb interactions (V). We set theenergy scale t 1. Studies of the EHM have mostlyfocused on bipartite lattices [2,6,7,911] (the Bethe lattice,or the square lattice in two dimensions), as these cannaturally accommodate for charge ordering at a commensurate occupation of one charge per two lattice sites,corresponding to one quarter band filling. There are important cases, however, where the relevant lattice geometry isnonbipartite, adding frustration to the already rich phenomenology of correlated CO. A notable example is thetwodimensional Wigner crystal itself, where chargesarrange on a triangular pattern in order to minimize theirelectrostatic energy. How the analogy between the Wignercrystal transition and the Mott MIT is modified when oneconsiders the appropriate triangular geometry [14] remainsan open question, which was not addressed in Refs. [8,9].A second example is the family of twodimensional organicconductors "BEDTTTF2X [20,21], where BEDTTTFis bis(ethylenedithio)tetrathiafulvalene, the molecular latticeis triangular, and the band filling is fixed by charge transferto one hole per two molecular sites. In this framework,the EHM has been studied intensively to address the phenomenon of charge ordering, and fundamental differencesbetween the square and triangular lattice have emerged.Most prominently, for isotropic V, on the triangular lattice,
PRL 111, 126403 (2013) P HY S I CA L R EV I EW LE T T E R Sweek ending
20 SEPTEMBER 2013
00319007=13=111(12)=126403(5) 1264031 ! 2013 American Physical Society
order when V>>t

JX
hiji
SiSj
J
J
Magnetic
VX
hiji
(ni 1/2) (nj 1/2)
Charge (n=1/2)
+J
V/4
V/4 +V/4
Triangle = Frustration
 charge frustration is far less studied than its spin analogue  contrary to spins, charges are itinerant  to be explored!

square lattice, one electron per two sites (n=1/2)
all bonds arehappy
[Kaneko et al. PRB06, Hotta et al. PRB06, CanoCorts et al. PRL'10, PRB'11, Merino et al. PRL13]
 checkerboard" order  CO insulator (gapped)  2x degenerate
nearest neighborCoulomb repulsion
Extended Hubbard Model
V ninj
Square vs.Triangular lattice

E/N=V/2 E/N=V/2
irrelevant, while that of tc is fixed to be positive for thequarterfilled hole system.
We find five charge order patterns as shown in Fig. 2,where the charge rich and poor sites as denoted by solid andopen ellipsis, respectively. We have tried many otherpatterns, but they are not stabilized or have a rather higherenergy. Figure 2(a) shows a pattern with a unit cell withthree lattice sites which was not considered by Seo.3) We callthis state as 3fold pattern in the following. The other fourstates are stripe states and we call them as (b) vertical, (c)horizontal, (d) diagonal and (e) vertical+diagonal, respectively.
The obtained phase diagram on tc=tpVp=Vc plane forU 0:7 eV, Vc=U 0:3, U=tp 7 is shown in Fig. 3. Here,the lowestenergy state among the various states is shown.The diagonal1 and diagonal2 (and 3fold1 and 3fold2)have different spin configurations which we discuss shortly.We find that the 3fold pattern is stabilized in the largeVp=Vc region. The vertical stripe state obtained in ref. 3 hasa slightly higher energy than the 3fold pattern in this region.The phase diagram in Fig. 3 shows that the frustration in Vijleads to the 3fold pattern.
The hole density at each site depends on the strength ofCoulomb interaction and transfer integral. Their values inthe ground state range from 0.7 to 0.9 at rich sites and fromnearly 0 to 0.1 at poor sites, except for the 3fold type wherethey are around 1.0 and 0.25 at rich and poor sites,respectively.
The diagonal1 and diagonal2 states are insulating statesin the parameter region where calculations were carried out,since the Fermi energy is located in the band gap. On theother hand, the 3fold type states are found to be metallic,
because the Fermi energy necessarily crosses at least oneband among the six bands in the 3fold type states at quarterfilling.
Next, let us discuss the spin configurations. As shown inFig. 4, not only the charge degrees of freedom but also thespin degrees of freedom are ordered. In the stripe states,antiferromagnetic order is obtained along the stripe due tothe strong onsite Coulomb interaction leading exchangecoupling Jij. However, the relative phase of antiferromagnetism between neighboring stripes depends on the interchain coupling. The diagonal1 has antiferromagnetic spinorder along the c axis (i.e., vertical direction) betweenstripes, while the diagonal2 has ferromagnetic spin order asshown in Figs. 4(c) and 4(d). These two states have very
(a) 3fold (b) vertical
(d) diagonal(c) horizontal
(e) vertical+diagonal
Fig. 2. Obtained various patterns of charge order. The charge rich andpoor sites are denoted by solid and open ellipses, respectively.
diagonal2
diagonal1
ferro3fold2
3fold1
1
0.8
0.6
0.4
0.2
00 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 1
Vp/Vc
tc/tp

Fig. 3. The phase diagram on tc=tpVp=Vc plane for U 0:7 eV, Vc=U 0:3, U=tp 7. The differences between diagonal1 and 2 and between 3fold1 and 2 are spin configuration as explained in Fig. 4.
Fig. 4. 3fold and diagonal type charge order appeared in Fig. 3. The greyand open ellipses represent charge rich and poor sites, respectively. Thedirection of spin at each site is shown by uparrow or downarrow. Thedifference between the diagonal1 and the diagonal2 is the spinconfiguration at charge rich sites. The former has antiferromagnetic spinorder along c axis between stripes, while the latter has ferromagnetic spinorder. 3fold1 is ferrimagnetic, and 3fold2 is ferromagnetic.
J. Phys. Soc. Jpn., Vol. 75, No. 1 M. KANEKO and M. OGATA
0147103
irrelevant, while that of tc is fixed to be positive for thequarterfilled hole system.
We find five charge order patterns as shown in Fig. 2,where the charge rich and poor sites as denoted by solid andopen ellipsis, respectively. We have tried many otherpatterns, but they are not stabilized or have a rather higherenergy. Figure 2(a) shows a pattern with a unit cell withthree lattice sites which was not considered by Seo.3) We callthis state as 3fold pattern in the following. The other fourstates are stripe states and we call them as (b) vertical, (c)horizontal, (d) diagonal and (e) vertical+diagonal, respectively.
The obtained phase diagram on tc=tpVp=Vc plane forU 0:7 eV, Vc=U 0:3, U=tp 7 is shown in Fig. 3. Here,the lowestenergy state among the various states is shown.The diagonal1 and diagonal2 (and 3fold1 and 3fold2)have different spin configurations which we discuss shortly.We find that the 3fold pattern is stabilized in the largeVp=Vc region. The vertical stripe state obtained in ref. 3 hasa slightly higher energy than the 3fold pattern in this region.The phase diagram in Fig. 3 shows that the frustration in Vijleads to the 3fold pattern.
The hole density at each site depends on the strength ofCoulomb interaction and transfer integral. Their values inthe ground state range from 0.7 to 0.9 at rich sites and fromnearly 0 to 0.1 at poor sites, except for the 3fold type wherethey are around 1.0 and 0.25 at rich and poor sites,respectively.
The diagonal1 and diagonal2 states are insulating statesin the parameter region where calculations were carried out,since the Fermi energy is located in the band gap. On theother hand, the 3fold type states are found to be metallic,
because the Fermi energy necessarily crosses at least oneband among the six bands in the 3fold type states at quarterfilling.
Next, let us discuss the spin configurations. As shown inFig. 4, not only the charge degrees of freedom but also thespin degrees of freedom are ordered. In the stripe states,antiferromagnetic order is obtained along the stripe due tothe strong onsite Coulomb interaction leading exchangecoupling Jij. However, the relative phase of antiferromagnetism between neighboring stripes depends on the interchain coupling. The diagonal1 has antiferromagnetic spinorder along the c axis (i.e., vertical direction) betweenstripes, while the diagonal2 has ferromagnetic spin order asshown in Figs. 4(c) and 4(d). These two states have very
(a) 3fold (b) vertical
(d) diagonal(c) horizontal
(e) vertical+diagonal
Fig. 2. Obtained various patterns of charge order. The charge rich andpoor sites are denoted by solid and open ellipses, respectively.
diagonal2
diagonal1
ferro3fold2
3fold1
1
0.8
0.6
0.4
0.2
00 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 1
Vp/Vc
tc/tp

Fig. 3. The phase diagram on tc=tpVp=Vc plane for U 0:7 eV, Vc=U 0:3, U=tp 7. The differences between diagonal1 and 2 and between 3fold1 and 2 are spin configuration as explained in Fig. 4.
Fig. 4. 3fold and diagonal type charge order appeared in Fig. 3. The greyand open ellipses represent charge rich and poor sites, respectively. Thedirection of spin at each site is shown by uparrow or downarrow. Thedifference between the diagonal1 and the diagonal2 is the spinconfiguration at charge rich sites. The former has antiferromagnetic spinorder along c axis between stripes, while the latter has ferromagnetic spinorder. 3fold1 is ferrimagnetic, and 3fold2 is ferromagnetic.
J. Phys. Soc. Jpn., Vol. 75, No. 1 M. KANEKO and M. OGATA
0147103
irrelevant, while that of tc is fixed to be positive for thequarterfilled hole system.
We find five charge order patterns as shown in Fig. 2,where the charge rich and poor sites as denoted by solid andopen ellipsis, respectively. We have tried many otherpatterns, but they are not stabilized or have a rather higherenergy. Figure 2(a) shows a pattern with a unit cell withthree lattice sites which was not considered by Seo.3) We callthis state as 3fold pattern in the following. The other fourstates are stripe states and we call them as (b) vertical, (c)horizontal, (d) diagonal and (e) vertical+diagonal, respectively.
The obtained phase diagram on tc=tpVp=Vc plane forU 0:7 eV, Vc=U 0:3, U=tp 7 is shown in Fig. 3. Here,the lowestenergy state among the various states is shown.The diagonal1 and diagonal2 (and 3fold1 and 3fold2)have different spin configurations which we discuss shortly.We find that the 3fold pattern is stabilized in the largeVp=Vc region. The vertical stripe state obtained in ref. 3 hasa slightly higher energy than the 3fold pattern in this region.The phase diagram in Fig. 3 shows that the frustration in Vijleads to the 3fold pattern.
The hole density at each site depends on the strength ofCoulomb interaction and transfer integral. Their values inthe ground state range from 0.7 to 0.9 at rich sites and fromnearly 0 to 0.1 at poor sites, except for the 3fold type wherethey are around 1.0 and 0.25 at rich and poor sites,respectively.
The diagonal1 and diagonal2 states are insulating statesin the parameter region where calculations were carried out,since the Fermi energy is located in the band gap. On theother hand, the 3fold type states are found to be metallic,
because the Fermi energy necessarily crosses at least oneband among the six bands in the 3fold type states at quarterfilling.
Next, let us discuss the spin configurations. As shown inFig. 4, not only the charge degrees of freedom but also thespin degrees of freedom are ordered. In the stripe states,antiferromagnetic order is obtained along the stripe due tothe strong onsite Coulomb interaction leading exchangecoupling Jij. However, the relative phase of antiferromagnetism between neighboring stripes depends on the interchain coupling. The diagonal1 has antiferromagnetic spinorder along the c axis (i.e., vertical direction) betweenstripes, while the diagonal2 has ferromagnetic spin order asshown in Figs. 4(c) and 4(d). These two states have very
(a) 3fold (b) vertical
(d) diagonal(c) horizontal
(e) vertical+diagonal
Fig. 2. Obtained various patterns of charge order. The charge rich andpoor sites are denoted by solid and open ellipses, respectively.
diagonal2
diagonal1
ferro3fold2
3fold1
1
0.8
0.6
0.4
0.2
00 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 1
Vp/Vc
tc/tp

Fig. 3. The phase diagram on tc=tpVp=Vc plane for U 0:7 eV, Vc=U 0:3, U=tp 7. The differences between diagonal1 and 2 and between 3fold1 and 2 are spin configuration as explained in Fig. 4.
Fig. 4. 3fold and diagonal type charge order appeared in Fig. 3. The greyand open ellipses represent charge rich and poor sites, respectively. Thedirection of spin at each site is shown by uparrow or downarrow. Thedifference between the diagonal1 and the diagonal2 is the spinconfiguration at charge rich sites. The former has antiferromagnetic spinorder along c axis between stripes, while the latter has ferromagnetic spinorder. 3fold1 is ferrimagnetic, and 3fold2 is ferromagnetic.
J. Phys. Soc. Jpn., Vol. 75, No. 1 M. KANEKO and M. OGATA
0147103
"stripes"
E/N=V/2
frustrated neighbors!
[Kaneko et al. PRB06, Hotta et al. PRB06, CanoCorts et al. PRL'10, PRB'11, Merino et al. PRL13]
triangular lattice, one electron per two sites (n=1/2) (BEDTTTF)2X
Square vs.Triangular lattice
Classical ground state infinitely degenerate.
+ Quantum fluctuations lead to exotic phases
+ Thermal fluctuations > L. Rademaker tomorrow

the pinball liquidon the triangular lattice we cant make n=1/2 electrons happy, but at least can we make them less unhappy ?
 same electrostatic energy as stripes, but gains kinetic energy  frustration is released via quantum fluctuations  coexisting localized charges (pins) and itinerant carriers (balls)
on the honeycomb lattice  pinball liquid: CO metal, with quite interesting properties
[Kaneko et al. PRB06, Hotta et al. PRB06, CanoCorts et al. PRL'10, PRB'11, Merino et al. PRL13]
pins
balls
irrelevant, while that of tc is fixed to be positive for thequarterfilled hole system.
We find five charge order patterns as shown in Fig. 2,where the charge rich and poor sites as denoted by solid andopen ellipsis, respectively. We have tried many otherpatterns, but they are not stabilized or have a rather higherenergy. Figure 2(a) shows a pattern with a unit cell withthree lattice sites which was not considered by Seo.3) We callthis state as 3fold pattern in the following. The other fourstates are stripe states and we call them as (b) vertical, (c)horizontal, (d) diagonal and (e) vertical+diagonal, respectively.
The obtained phase diagram on tc=tpVp=Vc plane forU 0:7 eV, Vc=U 0:3, U=tp 7 is shown in Fig. 3. Here,the lowestenergy state among the various states is shown.The diagonal1 and diagonal2 (and 3fold1 and 3fold2)have different spin configurations which we discuss shortly.We find that the 3fold pattern is stabilized in the largeVp=Vc region. The vertical stripe state obtained in ref. 3 hasa slightly higher energy than the 3fold pattern in this region.The phase diagram in Fig. 3 shows that the frustration in Vijleads to the 3fold pattern.
The hole density at each site depends on the strength ofCoulomb interaction and transfer integral. Their values inthe ground state range from 0.7 to 0.9 at rich sites and fromnearly 0 to 0.1 at poor sites, except for the 3fold type wherethey are around 1.0 and 0.25 at rich and poor sites,respectively.
The diagonal1 and diagonal2 states are insulating statesin the parameter region where calculations were carried out,since the Fermi energy is located in the band gap. On theother hand, the 3fold type states are found to be metallic,
because the Fermi energy necessarily crosses at least oneband among the six bands in the 3fold type states at quarterfilling.
Next, let us discuss the spin configurations. As shown inFig. 4, not only the charge degrees of freedom but also thespin degrees of freedom are ordered. In the stripe states,antiferromagnetic order is obtained along the stripe due tothe strong onsite Coulomb interaction leading exchangecoupling Jij. However, the relative phase of antiferromagnetism between neighboring stripes depends on the interchain coupling. The diagonal1 has antiferromagnetic spinorder along the c axis (i.e., vertical direction) betweenstripes, while the diagonal2 has ferromagnetic spin order asshown in Figs. 4(c) and 4(d). These two states have very
(a) 3fold (b) vertical
(d) diagonal(c) horizontal
(e) vertical+diagonal
Fig. 2. Obtained various patterns of charge order. The charge rich andpoor sites are denoted by solid and open ellipses, respectively.
diagonal2
diagonal1
ferro3fold2
3fold1
1
0.8
0.6
0.4
0.2
00 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 1
Vp/Vc
tc/tp

Fig. 3. The phase diagram on tc=tpVp=Vc plane for U 0:7 eV, Vc=U 0:3, U=tp 7. The differences between diagonal1 and 2 and between 3fold1 and 2 are spin configuration as explained in Fig. 4.
Fig. 4. 3fold and diagonal type charge order appeared in Fig. 3. The greyand open ellipses represent charge rich and poor sites, respectively. Thedirection of spin at each site is shown by uparrow or downarrow. Thedifference between the diagonal1 and the diagonal2 is the spinconfiguration at charge rich sites. The former has antiferromagnetic spinorder along c axis between stripes, while the latter has ferromagnetic spinorder. 3fold1 is ferrimagnetic, and 3fold2 is ferromagnetic.
J. Phys. Soc. Jpn., Vol. 75, No. 1 M. KANEKO and M. OGATA
0147103
fill as many sites as possible avoiding frustration (n=1/3)
E/N=0
all remaining charges to reach n=1/2 move to interstitials (honeycomb lattice)
irrelevant, while that of tc is fixed to be positive for thequarterfilled hole system.
We find five charge order patterns as shown in Fig. 2,where the charge rich and poor sites as denoted by solid andopen ellipsis, respectively. We have tried many otherpatterns, but they are not stabilized or have a rather higherenergy. Figure 2(a) shows a pattern with a unit cell withthree lattice sites which was not considered by Seo.3) We callthis state as 3fold pattern in the following. The other fourstates are stripe states and we call them as (b) vertical, (c)horizontal, (d) diagonal and (e) vertical+diagonal, respectively.
The obtained phase diagram on tc=tpVp=Vc plane forU 0:7 eV, Vc=U 0:3, U=tp 7 is shown in Fig. 3. Here,the lowestenergy state among the various states is shown.The diagonal1 and diagonal2 (and 3fold1 and 3fold2)have different spin configurations which we discuss shortly.We find that the 3fold pattern is stabilized in the largeVp=Vc region. The vertical stripe state obtained in ref. 3 hasa slightly higher energy than the 3fold pattern in this region.The phase diagram in Fig. 3 shows that the frustration in Vijleads to the 3fold pattern.
The hole density at each site depends on the strength ofCoulomb interaction and transfer integral. Their values inthe ground state range from 0.7 to 0.9 at rich sites and fromnearly 0 to 0.1 at poor sites, except for the 3fold type wherethey are around 1.0 and 0.25 at rich and poor sites,respectively.
The diagonal1 and diagonal2 states are insulating statesin the parameter region where calculations were carried out,since the Fermi energy is located in the band gap. On theother hand, the 3fold type states are found to be metallic,
because the Fermi energy necessarily crosses at least oneband among the six bands in the 3fold type states at quarterfilling.
Next, let us discuss the spin configurations. As shown inFig. 4, not only the charge degrees of freedom but also thespin degrees of freedom are ordered. In the stripe states,antiferromagnetic order is obtained along the stripe due tothe strong onsite Coulomb interaction leading exchangecoupling Jij. However, the relative phase of antiferromagnetism between neighboring stripes depends on the interchain coupling. The diagonal1 has antiferromagnetic spinorder along the c axis (i.e., vertical direction) betweenstripes, while the diagonal2 has ferromagnetic spin order asshown in Figs. 4(c) and 4(d). These two states have very
(a) 3fold (b) vertical
(d) diagonal(c) horizontal
(e) vertical+diagonal
Fig. 2. Obtained various patterns of charge order. The charge rich andpoor sites are denoted by solid and open ellipses, respectively.
diagonal2
diagonal1
ferro3fold2
3fold1
1
0.8
0.6
0.4
0.2
00 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 1
Vp/Vc
tc/tp

Fig. 3. The phase diagram on tc=tpVp=Vc plane for U 0:7 eV, Vc=U 0:3, U=tp 7. The differences between diagonal1 and 2 and between 3fold1 and 2 are spin configuration as explained in Fig. 4.
Fig. 4. 3fold and diagonal type charge order appeared in Fig. 3. The greyand open ellipses represent charge rich and poor sites, respectively. Thedirection of spin at each site is shown by uparrow or downarrow. Thedifference between the diagonal1 and the diagonal2 is the spinconfiguration at charge rich sites. The former has antiferromagnetic spinorder along c axis between stripes, while the latter has ferromagnetic spinorder. 3fold1 is ferrimagnetic, and 3fold2 is ferromagnetic.
J. Phys. Soc. Jpn., Vol. 75, No. 1 M. KANEKO and M. OGATA
0147103
E/N=V/2

the approach to the zerotemperature ordering transition, abehavior that is strongly reminiscent of what is expectedclose to a QCP. The situation is similar at U=t 5 andU=t 15 [Fig. 2(b)], although in the latter case the kineticenergy ratio at T 0 is already reduced down to valuesK=K0 " 0:7 before entering the CO phase at VCO 4:83t,which is indicative of a moderately correlated electronliquid. In this case the quantum critical behavior adds upto the correlated electron picture, affecting the motion ofelectrons that have already been slowed down by localelectronic correlations.
The above observations can be directly related to thelowenergy quasiparticle properties by analyzing the temperature dependence of the integrated optical weightI! R!0 !!0d!0. The lowfrequency integral I! 0:5t, reported in Fig. 2(c), comprises most of the quasiparticles contributing to the Drude behavior in a normalFermi liquid, while excluding higherenergy incoherentexcitations arising from the strong electronic interactions.Comparison of Figs. 2(b) and 2(c) demonstrates that thestrong reduction of kinetic energy above T% primarilyoriginates from a drastic suppression of the lowenergycoherent quasiparticles. Finally, Fig. 2(d) illustrates I!at a given V=t 4:8 just below the CO transition, showingthat the quasiparticle weight lost at T% is partly transferredto highenergy excitations, which are broadly distributedon the scale of U, V.
The above results are summarized in the finite temperature phase diagram of Fig. 3, which constitutes the centralresult of this work. Scaled units V=VCO are used so that theweakly (U=t 5) and moderately (U=t 15) correlatedcases can be directly compared, illustrating the universalityof the T% phenomenon in proximity to the CO instability.
Both T% and TCO appear to vanish at VCO, leading to afunneltype bad metallic region with strong quantumcritical fluctuations.To obtain further insight into the behavior of quasipar
ticles near the CO instability and make contact with theestablished concepts of quantum criticality, we have calculated the specific heat coefficient " CV=T. Our results,reported in Fig. 4(a), resemble the behavior of nearly twodimensional antiferromagnetic metals in which a singularincrease is expected upon lowering the temperature closeto the QCP, crossing over to a constant value at the onset ofFermi liquid behavior [4,22]. Curves similar to those inFig. 4(a) are commonly observed in heavy fermion systems[4,23,24]. As a striking confirmation of the QCP scenarioemerging from the preceding paragraphs, we see that thereis a direct correspondence between thermodynamic anddynamical properties: the peak position in the specificheat essentially coincides with the temperature T% derivedfrom the kinetic energy and the lowfrequency opticalintegral near to the QCP (see Fig. 3).Finally, we discuss the behavior of the effective mass as
extracted from the lowtemperature limit of the specificheat coefficient (in practice we estimate m% from the peakvalue of " to overcome the numerical limitations of theLanczos technique at low T). It can be expected on generalgrounds that the strong electronelectron interactions responsible for the threefold CO will strongly affect thoseparts of the Fermi surface that are connected by momentaclosest to the ordering wave vector Q. This should lead tothe emergence of hot spots with divergent effectivemass, m%=mb / ln1=jV & VCOj, in full analogy to thesituation encountered in metals close to a magnetic instability [22,25]. The effective mass reported in Fig. 4(b)indeed shows a marked enhancement at the approach ofVCO, which adds to a moderate renormalization m
%=mb &2 provided by noncritical electronic correlations. Whetherthe destruction of quasiparticles remains confined to suchhot spots or spreads over the whole Fermi surface is an
0 0.1 0.2 0.3 0.4 0.5
T/t
0.5
0.6
0.7
0.8
0.9
1.0
K/K
0
V/t = 0
1.522.15
2.252.3
2.5
U/t=5(a)
0 0.1 0.2 0.3 0.4 0.5
T/t
0.5
0.6
0.7
0.8
0.9
1.0
K/K
0
4
2
33.5
5
4.54.75
4.8
V/t = 0
4.83
(b)U/t=15
0 0.1 0.2 0.3 0.4 0.5
T/t
0
0.2
0.4
0.6
0.8
I y (
=0.5
t)
V/t = 0
(c) U/t=15
2
33.5
44.5
4.754.8
4.83
0 2 4 6 8 10 12
/t
0
0.2
0.4
0.6
0.8
I y (
)U/t=15
T/t = 0.01
0.5
V/t=4.8
(d)
FIG. 2 (color online). Kinetic energy of the Ns 12 interacting system at U=t 5 (a) and U=t 15 (b); T dependence oflowfrequency optical weight (c), and integrated optical spectralweight I! for T=t 0:01, 0.03, 0.05, and 0.10.5 in 0.1intervals (d). Arrows in (a), (b), (c) correspond to inflectionpoints of the curves, defining the temperature scale T%.
FIG. 3 (color online). Finite temperature phase diagram illustrating the emergence of nonFermi liquid properties induced bythe proximity to the charge ordering transition. The interactionstrength has been rescaled to the critical values to compare QCPrelated properties for weakly and moderately correlated systems.
PRL 105, 036405 (2010) P HY S I CA L R EV I EW LE T T E R Sweek ending16 JULY 2010
0364053
2) pinball liquid: within the CO phase, spontaneous separation into localized and itinerant carriers
pins
balls
[Merino et al. PRL13]
[CanoCorts et al. PRL'10, PRB11] single band EHM on triangular lattice
Collapse of Coherent Quasiparticle States in !!BEDTTTF"2I3 Observedby Optical Spectroscopy
K. Takenaka,* M. Tamura, N. Tajima, and H. Takagi
RIKEN (The Institute of Physical and Chemical Research), Wako, Saitama 3510198, JapanCREST, Japan Science and Technology Agency, Kawaguchi, Saitama 3320012 Japan
J. Nohara and S. SugaiDepartment of Physics, Nagoya University, Nagoya 4648602, Japan
(Received 14 December 2004; published 23 November 2005)
Optical conductivity measurements on the organic metal !!BEDTTTF"2I3 revealed that the systemcrosses over rapidly from a coherent quasiparticle state to an incoherent state with temperature. Despitethe metallic temperature dependence of resistivity, a welldefined Drude peak at low temperatures turnsinto a farinfrared peak with temperature. The peak energy shifts to higher frequencies and, simultaneously, the spectral weight is transferred to high frequencies beyond the electron band width. Thesecharacteristics imply that !!BEDTTTF"2I3, so far believed to be a typical metal, is in fact a stronglycorrelated electron system with badmetal character.
DOI: 10.1103/PhysRevLett.95.227801 PACS numbers: 78.30.Jw, 71.27.+a, 72.15.#v
At first glance, the transport properties of strongly correlated electron systems are not very different from thoseof ordinary metals at low enough temperatures T becauseof the formation of coherent Landau quasiparticles.However, since the coherent quasiparticles are marginallyformed in this class of compounds, coherence is rapidlydiminished with increasing T and the transport propertiesshow qualitatively different behavior at high temperatures.The badmetal behavior often observed in conductingtransitionmetal oxides is believed to represent such acrossover from coherenttoincoherent states. In a classof transitionmetal oxides near a Mott transition, such asVO2 [1], V2O3 [2], La2#xSrxCuO4 [3], and La2#xSrMnO3[4], the resistivity often shows a metallike increase with Twell beyond the IoffeRegelMott (IRM) limit where themean free path is as short as the Fermi wavelength. We donot see any signature of resistivity saturation around theIRM limit.
Incoherence is also identifiable via optical spectroscopy.Optical conductivity "!!" has a certain advantage overresistivity in that incoherence can be probed in the frequency! domain. In"!!" of prototypical transitionmetaloxides, we indeed observe incoherence as a deviation fromthe Drude behavior expected for simple metals. Even in thecoherent regime at low temperatures, the Drude componentoften shows a pronounced slowly decaying (typically " /!#1) tail at high frequencies, compared with the expected!2 decay, signaling coexistence of the incoherent transport. At high enough temperatures, we no longer observeDrude behavior and an almost !independent featuredominates the low! "!!". It is not yet clear, however,how the Drude component evolves into the !independentfeature with increased incoherence. These unusual naturesof transport and optical conductivity have been taken as asignature of the breakdown of the coherent quasiparticlestates [59].
Most of the concepts described above were developed for transitionmetal oxides in the aftermath of thediscovery of highTc cuprates. However, since theseconcepts must be generic to a variety of correlated systems, it should work in other systems including molecularconductors when the correlation dominates. Indeed, itnow becomes clear that the molecular solids in manycases fall into the category of a typical strongly correlated electron system. To establish the universality of thisincoherence concept, we have investigated a molecular conductor !!BEDTTTF"2I3 [!I3, BEDTTTF $bis!ethylenedithio"tetrathiafulvalene (inset of Fig. 1)].!I3 consists of alternating stacking of BEDTTTF conduction layers and insulating ones of I3 anions. In theconduction layer, the molecules are almost uniformly arranged to give a twodimensional 3=4filled band [10,11].The resistivity of !I3 shows a metallike increase overall the T range from 1 K up to room temperature and anytrace of density wave transition cannot be seen [10].Quantum oscillations were observed in this molecularsolid, which clearly indicates the presence of welldefinedLandau quasiparticles at low enough temperatures [12].From these observations, !I3 had been considered as atypical metal.
In this work, the transport and optical properties of !I3were investigated. In marked contrast with the conventional wisdom, the results are in striking parallel with thebadmetal behavior of correlated transitionmetal oxides,implying that !I3 is a strongly correlated electron systemin which the electronic coherence is barely formed. Weindeed observed a welldefined crossover to an incoherentstate with a minute increase of T. This establishes commonphysics over chemically different classes of conductors.Furthermore, by closely inspecting the T dependence of"!!", we were able to disclose the evolution of coherenceas a function of T in the ! domain.
PRL 95, 227801 (2005) P H Y S I C A L R E V I E W L E T T E R Sweek ending
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00319007=05=95(22)=227801(4)$23.00 2278011 2005 The American Physical Society
1) quantum criticality: approaching the CO transition, scattering by critical charge fluctuations up to T~t (bad metallic properties, large mass enhancement, destruction of qp) consistent with exp. in
2 routes to non Fermi liquid behavior
conduction electrons are scattered by the fluctuations of the localized moments
felectrons
delectrons
analogy with heavy fermions

Pinball liquid: exciting properties
Pinball liquid
If V>>W, mean field predicts
nA=3/2, nB=nC=0
A
B
CA
B
C
If U is large, double occupation is forbidden
nA=1 nB=nC=1/4
n(Ri)= 3/4+3/4 cos(Q.Ri)
[C.Hotta JPSJ & PRB (2006)]
Emergent heavy fermion behavior expected (Non FL, bad metal, quantum criticality etc.)
[Merino et al. PRL13]all values ofV, and does not scalewith/ t2=V as in the 3COphase. Note that the pinball phase is absent on the squarelattice, where the system is CO and insulating (COI) atsufficiently large U [7,911]; cf. Fig. 2(d).
The origin of the pinball phase can be best understoodas follows. At large V and small U, the 3CO phase has adensity nA ! 3=2 on the chargerich sites and nB ! 0 onthe chargepoor sites. Increasing U tends to suppress thedouble occupancy and eventually when U * 3V, the localCoulomb energy cost is avoided by leaving only onecharge per A site (a pin, nA 1). The excess charge densityis then transferred to the chargepoor sites (balls, nB1=4).This transition, shown in Fig. 1(c), occurs between twometallic phases, which only differ on the amount of chargetransferred. This transition is of a different type from themetaltoCOI transition [11] on the square lattice, whichdisplays phase coexistence as in the pure Mott metalinsulator transition. We find that the two charge speciesbehave very differently: pins form an almost halffilledsystem with a marked Mott behavior due to strongonsite Coulomb interactions, in opposition to the ballswhich, owing to their low concentration, are, in principle,protected from them. The spectral function for the B, Csublattices indeed shows a wide band crossing the Fermienergy, while the A sublattice shows typical features ofstrongly correlated systems: the spectral weight is mostlylocated in two separate regions away from the Fermilevelthe lower and upper Hubbard bands separatedby an energy Uwhile the weight at the Fermi energyis strongly suppressed. This can be quantified via thequasiparticle weight of the correlated pins, ZA 1# @ [email protected]!!0, which is depicted in Fig. 1(d).It is large in the conventional 3CO phase at low U, anddrops drastically upon entering the pinball liquid (here atU 8:5). This drop occurs when the A sublattice concentration spontaneously adjusts to nA 1 [Fig. 1(c)]. Withinthe accuracy of our method, a small nonvanishing quasiparticle weight persists at all U [23]. Since the filling ofthe correlated hybrid band is never exactly an integer, theresults indicate that the pins do not undergo a full Motttransition, but remain in a strongly correlated Fermi liquidstate. This contrasts with the situation encountered onbipartite lattices [11], where the electron concentration inthe correlated band is automatically fixed to halffillingonce the Fermi energy falls inside the gap, resulting ina true Mott transition for U * W (the bandwidth) andV * 2.
Periodic Andersonmodel and emergent heavy fermions.To get further insight into the effects of electronic correlations we now map the problem into a PAM. This isachieved by introducing creation operators ai , b
i , and
ci respectively on the A, B, and C sublattices and diagonalizing the bands of the honeycomb lattice formed by Band C sites (tight binding on graphene). Rewriting !k P
iei"i(k as Eke
i#k , we can define BC subspace spinor
operators $k;) e#i#k=2;)ei#k=2=ffiffiffi2
p, whose energies
are %k;) )Ek (the origin is fixed at the Dirac point).Dropping the Coulomb interaction on the conductionbands leads to
HPAM X
i&
%Aayi&ai&
X
k&'
%k;'$k'&$k'&
X
ik;'
Vk;'eikRiayi&$k'& H:c:
UX
i
ayi"ai"ayi#ai#; (2)
where the hybridization between the conduction bandsand the localized level is determined by Vk;# i
ffiffiffi2
pEk sin3#k=2 and Vk;
ffiffiffi2
pEk cos3#k=2. The en
ergy of the localized level is set by the charge transfer gap,%A #", which originates from the electrostatic interactionbetween charges on different sublattices. The pinball phasestudied in the preceding paragraphs corresponds to " 3V=2 and is therefore in the charge transfer regime U * "[becauseU > 3V * 3V=2, cf. Fig. 1(a)]. The quantities n',ZA, andA'! calculated in the PAM are compared with theEHM results in Figs. 1(c), 1(d), 2(a), and 2(b), showing aconsistent agreement in the pinball liquid phase.The nature of the coupling between pins and balls is now
conveniently analyzed based on the low energy effectivePAM, varying the number of electrons per unit cell ncell 20; 3& (ncell 3n) for a fixed " 4:5. This intervalincludes the region of stability of the pinball in the originalEHM [18], i.e., 1< ncell < 2. The density of states (DOS)of HPAM in the noninteracting limit U 0 is shown inFig. 3(a). Hybridization broadens the localized pin leveloriginally at %A #" into a dispersive band, and alsoaffects the dispersion of the conduction bands, which is no
PAM
A
U 0, 4.5
6 4 2 0 2 40.0
0.5
1.0
Pinball ZAnAnB
0 0.5 1 1.5 2 2.5 30.0
0.5
1.0
ncell
mAzmBz 5
ZkF,VkF,
2
0 0.5 1 1.5 2 2.5 30.0
0.5
1.0
ncell
(a)
(b) (c)
FIG. 3 (color online). Strong quasiparticle renormalization inthe pinball liquid phase and antiferromagnetic Kondo correlations. (a) DOS of the noninteracting PAM (U 0) for " 4:5.Different colors correspond to a projection on the nonhybridizedbands: pins (blue), # (orange), and (red). (b) A=B sublatticedensities (full lines DMFT, dashed lines ED) and pin quasiparticle weight (DMFT) and (c) hybridization, quasiparticlerenormalization (DMFT), and magnetic correlations (ED) as afunction of the filling ncell at U 12.
PRL 111, 126403 (2013) P HY S I CA L R EV I EW LE T T E R Sweek ending
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1264033
Can be mapped to the Periodic Anderson Model
heavy fermions pinball liquid
localized moments felectrons pins
conduction electrons delectrons balls

Experimental realizations?

Layered ET2X organic conductors
charge transfer: 1 hole/2 molecules > quarter filled bands single band tight binding description, W~0.5eV narrow bands, effects of interactions should be strong U,V>W lead to charge ordered phases BUT triangular lattice is anisotropic: striped phases commonly observed, but no PL
! are similar to those in DCNQI2X with X ) Li, Ag,as seen in section 3.1.1.
3.3. TwoDimensional Systems: ET2X andBETS2X
Interesting A2B compounds with 2D nature wererealized in early 1980s following the successfulsynthesis of the BEDTTTF (abbreviated as ET)molecules, which is shown in Figure 12a.2 With theamount of charge transfer as X, ET1/2+ form 2Dplanes of 3/4filled electronic systems on the average.There exist many polytypes in this family categorizedby the Greek letters, R, ", , , etc.,43 representing
different spatial arrangements of ET molecules whichshow different electronic properties. Here, we willfocus on the extensively studied polytypes with eithertwo or four molecules in the unit cell; the representative examples of the former are  and "types andthose of the latter are , , and Rtypes. The spatialarrangements of the molecules in the unit cell ofthese polytypes are schematically shown in Figure12b.
If the energy bands are not strongly dispersive andare separated energetically with each other, the bandtheory for  and "type compounds would predictthat the Fermi level falls in the center of the upperband which will then be halffilled, and simplemetallic states are expected. On the other hand, in, , and Rtype compounds with four ETs in theunit cell the Fermi level would be located within thegap between the highest and the second bands,leading to band insulators. However, the electronicproperties actually observed are truly diverse as willbe introduced in the following.
There are compounds consisting of derivatives ofthe ET molecule, for example its selenium variantssuch as BETS () BEDTTSF)44,45 shown in Figure12a, and its oxygen variants such as BO() BEDOTTF).2 In this review, we concentrate onET and BETSbased materials in which cases manysystematic experimental studies have been carriedout so far. The BETS molecule has a HOMO morewidely spread compared to that of the ET molecule,44and then the value of U for BETS, UBETS, is expectedto be smaller than that for ET, UET.45 Therefore,similarly to the case of TMTTF and TMTSF explained above in section 3.2, the ET salts usuallyshow stronger tendency toward insulating states dueto electron correlation than the BETS salts, as wewill see in the following for each polytype. Anothercharacteristic feature of the BETS compounds compared to the ET compounds is that there are compounds which contains magnetic anions, X ) FeY4(Y ) Cl, Br, etc.) with Fe3+ (S)5/2) interacting withthe BETS conducting plane,46 as we will see insections 3.3.3 and 3.3.4.
3.3.1. TypeThe experimental phase diagram of ET2X is
summarized by Mori et al. as shown in Figure 13,characterized by the dihedral angle, , defined as theangle between the molecules in adjacent columns.47(In ref 47, this is defined as but we use insteadin this paper to avoid confusion.)
In the region of large , the ground state isinsulating and there exists a sharp increase of F (MItransition) below some characteristic temperaturesat around 100 K, as shown in Figure 14a, where astructural phase transition is concurrently observed.47The temperature dependence of !, which is shown inFigure 14b,47 is rather smooth through these temperatures behaving similarly to a lowdimensionallocalized spin system, and a crossover to a spingapped behavior is seen below around 10 K.
On the other hand, in the region of smaller , sucha sharp transition is absent but with decreasingtemperature, F gradually increases below around 50
Figure 11. Electrical resistivity, F of several members ofTM2X. (Reprinted with permission from ref 40. Copyright1993 EDP Sciences.)
Figure 12. (a) ET and BETS molecules and (b) schematicrepresentation of spatial arrangements of these moleculesin the 2D plane for different polytypes, where the ellipsesand the gray area represent the molecules and the unitcells, respectively.
5012 Chemical Reviews, 2004, Vol. 104, No. 11 Seo et al.

dichalcogenides, oxides
but also: dichalcogenide monolayers,ionic liquid doped organic semiconductors,adsorbate lattices, trapped cold ions,
2D transition metal oxides
ex. cobaltates NaxCoO2
Sipos et al. Nat Mater (2008)
1TTaS2: Mott physics driven by CODavidstar 13x13 unit cell
2D transition metal dichalcogenides
TaS2,NbSe2,

The case of AgNiO2Crystal structure of 2HAgNiO2
NiO2 planes
Ni3+ E. Wawrzynska, et. al. PRB 77, 094439 (2008).
eg
t2g
triangular lattice of Ni ions 1 electron per site per 2 orbitals > quarter filling Pinball liquid physics expected!

Xray / neutron scatteringCharge ordering phenomena
T< 365 K
E. Wawrzynska, et. al. PRL 99, 157204 (2007); PRB 77, 094439, (2008).
Ni12+ Ni24+
T

Resistivity (1): CO transitionCharge order transition in AgNiO2
T. Sorgel, Ph. D thesis, (2006).
CO is a metalmetal transition weak anomaly in resistivity

Resistivity
TN T* (T)AT2
T. Sorgel, Ph. D thesis, (2006).
(T)AT, 1
Resistivity larger than MottIoffe Regel limit: bad metal!
CurieWeiss susceptibility
TN T*
T. Sorgel, Ph. D thesis, (2006).
resistivity larger than MottIoffeRegel limit (~ )> bad metal deviations from T2 behavior above T*~150K
Resistivity (2): bad metal
mcm

CurieWeiss susceptibilityCurieWeiss susceptibility
TN T*
T. Sorgel, Ph. D thesis, (2006).
Large local moments (from DFT ) change of slope at T*
ARNAUD RALKO, JAIME MERINO, AND SIMONE FRATINI PHYSICAL REVIEW B 91, 165139 (2015)
1.5 2.0 2.5 3.0 3.50.0
0.2
0.4
0.6
0.8
V t
ST
t1.2 1.4 1.6 1.8 2.0
0.0
0.2
0.4
0.6
0.8
nA
ST
t
U t 71316
JH U 0.2, 0.25
(a) (b)
FIG. 4. (Color online) (a) Singlettriplet gap for the model (1) ona foursite cluster, in units of t . (b) Same as in (a), plotted vs thechargerich sublattice density.
quantitatively consistent with the experimental range ofresults, eff = 1.811.96, are naturally reached in the presenceof substantial electronic correlations in the PL and remain highalso in the HM phase at larger U .
Second, we discuss the origin of the magnetic orderingobserved at low temperatures [9,10,35]. To assess the magnitude of the antiferromagnetic (AF) coupling J betweennearestneighboring local moments in the PL mediated byvirtual superexchange processes via the chargepoor sites,we diagonalize Eq. (1) on a minimal foursite cluster withopen boundary conditions [illustrated in the inset of Fig. 4(b)]and calculate the singlettriplet gap !S/T in the excitationspectrum, which coincides with J in the Heisenberg limit [36].Figure 4(a) shows that J strongly decreases with V and, to alesser extent, also with U . To highlight the role played by theelectron density on the pins, we redraw the results as a functionof nA in Fig. 4(b). The data collapse in a narrow region, whichwe use to estimate nA from the experimental value of J . Fromthe magneticordering temperature, TN = 20 K and usingTN 0.3J based on the classical Monte Carlo simulationsof Ref. [37], we obtain J 6 meV = 0.03t for t = 0.2 eV.Such a low value of the magneticordering temperature impliesthat the system is very close to the integer filling nA = 2 (weestimate nA ! 1.9, indicated by an arrow), locating AgNiO2in the strongly correlated pinball phase.
Xray and neutron scattering experiments do indicatesubstantial threefold charge disproportionation [10,11,38],compatible with the emergence of large magnetic moments onthe chargerich sites [9,10]. In our scenario, an AF couplingbetween itinerant and localized species [25] leads to thescreening of the pin local moments giving way to Fermiliquid behavior at low temperatures as in heavy fermions.Above the coherentincoherent crossover temperature T ,quasiparticles are destroyed due to the scattering of theitinerant carriers by the unscreened pin moments, which hasseveral experimental manifestations. The measured resistivityindeed displays typical Fermiliquid behavior T 2 above
the Neel temperature TN = 20 K, albeit with anomalouslylarge absolute values (!1 m# cm) [1417], which crossesover to a (sub)linear T dependence [16] at temperaturesabove T 150 K. At lower temperatures, the resistivityundergoes a sharp drop below TN which has been associated[10,19] with the suppression of such scattering. The Seebeckcoefficient increases linearly with temperature up to about100 K, as expected in a metal, but then it reaches a maximumaround T and changes sign at 260 K [14,15]. A crossoverin the CurieWeiss susceptibility is also observed close toT [17]. Finally, the value of the specificheat coefficient, = Cv/T , within the AF phase suggests an appreciable massenhancement, m/mb = 2.6 [19], intermediate between thevalues calculated for pins and balls in Fig. 3(c).
VI. OUTLOOK
Previous works describing orbitally degenerate transitionmetal oxides with quarterfilled bands have focused on modelswhere frustration plays a minor role, leading to chargeorderedinsulating states [12,13]. Here, we have demonstrated thatCoulombinduced charge ordering on frustrated triangular lattices leads to the emergence of a robust metallic pinball liquidphase stabilized by Hunds coupling acting on the dorbitalmanifold. Such a phase presents characteristics qualitativelysimilar to heavy fermions and bad metallic behavior associatedwith the Kondo coupling between localized moments anditinerant carriers, consistent with what is observed in thechargeordered metal AgNiO2. Optical conductivity experiments in this material could be used to observe the concomitantdestruction of the Drude peak [3941] above the coherentincoherent crossover scale T . Applying external pressure maydestroy the magnetic order at a quantum critical point, givingway to a Fermiliquid state, as observed in heavyfermionmaterials [42] and the nickel oxypnictide CeNiAsO [43]. Otherphases found here such as the spin/orbital stripe states or thePCO phase with ordering of the ball sites could also be realized,as is the case in adsorbates deposited on metal surfaces [30].Finally, a similar interplay of multiorbital physics, electroniccorrelations, and charge ordering may occur on other triangularcompounds such as Ag2NiO2 [44], the Ba3B
Ru2O9 ruthenates[45], and the superconducting cobaltates [47], as well as othergeometrically frustrated lattices.
ACKNOWLEDGMENTS
Discussions with C. Fevrier are gratefully acknowledged. J.M. acknowledges financial support from MINECO(MAT201237263C0201). This work is supported by theFrench National Research Agency through Grants No.ANR12JS04000301 SUBRISSYME and No. ANR2010BLANC04060 NQPTP.
[1] L. Balents, Nature (London) 464, 199 (2010).[2] C. Hotta, Crystals 2, 1155 (2012).[3] F. Kagawa, T. Sato, K. Miyagawa, K. Kanoda, Y. Tokura,
K. Kobayashi, R. Kumai, and Y. Murakami, Nat. Phys. 9, 419(2013).
[4] K. Takada, H. Sakurai, E. TakayamaMuromachi, F. Izumi,R. A. Dilanian, and T. Sasaki, Nature (London) 422, 53 (2003).
[5] N. P. Ong and R. J. Cava, Science 305, 52 (2004).[6] M.H. Julien, C. de Vaulx, H. Mayaffre, C. Berthier, M. Horvati,
V. Simonet, J. Wooldridge, G. Balakrishnan, M. R. Lees, D. P.
1651394
PINBALL LIQUID PHASE FROM HUNDs COUPLING IN . . . PHYSICAL REVIEW B 91, 165139 (2015)
4 6 8 10 12 140
1
2
3
U t
Vt
3CO
PL
PL
SCDW SODWHM
3CO
HM
PC
O
0.1 0.2 0.3
5
10
15
20
JH U
Ut
FIG. 2. (Color online) Phase diagram of the twoorbital extendedHubbard model on the triangular lattice obtained from DMFT (blackpoints) and UHF (gray points) for a representative value V/t = 2.The dotted lines are the phase boundaries U (1)c and U
(2)c given in the
text. The dashed line indicates charge order within the chargepoorsublattice as found in the UHF solution. The inset shows the UHFphase diagram in the (U,V ) plane for JH /U = 0.2.
The physics of this model is even richer if we allow for moregeneral brokensymmetry states, as presented in the inset ofFig. 2 for a representative value JH/U = 0.2. The metal atlow V has further symmetry breaking for sufficiently largeU , corresponding to spin/charge density waves (SCDW) andspin/orbital density waves (SODW). An additional transitionalso appears within the pinball phase at large U and V ,corresponding to the ordering of the mobile electrons on thehoneycomb lattice (pinball charge order, PCO). These resultswill be discussed elsewhere [32].
IV. PINBALL LIQUID
To further characterize the PL phase, we show in Fig. 3several physical properties obtained by DMFT at differentvalues of the JH /U ratio. The key quantity that controls thebehavior of the system is the average electron density in thedifferent sublattices, shown in Fig. 3(a). Starting from the3CO phase, the chargerich sublattice density is progressivelyreduced with U until it reaches nA = 2. The onset of the PL issignaled by a kink at this point, followed by a plateau whichdevelops at large JH /U extending all the way up to the HMphase. To demonstrate that such a lockin of the density isclosely related to the existence of a highspin configuration onthe pins, in Fig. 3(b) we show the value of the local magneticmoment evaluated for the same values of the microscopicparameters. Closely following the behavior of the density,a plateau is observed in the magnetic moment too, with amaximum in correspondence of nA = 2, as expected (arrows).Interestingly, upon increasing JH the fluctuating magneticmoment takes large values approaching the ideal limit SA = 1(SA 0.85 at U = 9t and JH/U = 0.25), indicative of stronglocal correlations.
The evolution of the quasiparticle weight, shown inFig. 3(c), reveals how in the presence of a sizable JH , alarge mass enhancement, m/mb = 1/Z, occurs on the pinsalready for moderate values of U ! W (here W = 9t is the
0 5 10 15 200.0
0.5
1.0
1.5
2.0
2.5
3.0
n
0 5 10 15 200.0
0.2
0.4
0.6
0.8
1.0
S
0 5 10 15 200.0
0.2
0.4
0.6
0.8
1.0
Z
0 5 10 15 201.0
1.2
1.4
1.6
1.8
2.0
eff
U tU t
U tU t
(a) (b)
(c) (d)
JH 0.25JH 0.2JH 0.1
FIG. 3. (Color online) (a) Electronic density n , (b) magneticmoment S obtained from S2 = S(S + 1), and (c) quasiparticlerenormalization Z on the chargerich ( = A; solid symbols) andchargepoor ( = B,C; open symbols) sublattices for V/t = 2 andJH /U = 0.1 (circles), 0.2 (triangles), and 0.25 (diamonds). (d) Totaleffective Bohr magneton (see text).
bandwidth on the triangular lattice). This happens becausethe density on the chargerich sublattice is locked around halffilling (two electrons in two orbitals), which corresponds to themaximally correlated case in the presence of Hunds coupling[33]. Accordingly, the minimum of ZA coincides with thevalue where nA = 2, indicated by arrows. At the same time,the mass of the minority electrons remains close to the bandvalue, owing to their low concentration in the honeycomblattice. Figure 3(c) also shows that the mass renormalizationof the majority electrons in the PL phase at intermediate U ismuch stronger than that of the homogeneous metallic phaseat large U . Upon reaching the HM phase, the quasiparticleweight jumps back to a less correlated value. It then graduallydecreases with U towards the Mott transition expected at avalue U/t 36 [34]. Note that within the HM phase thequasiparticle weight at a given U is found to increase withJH , as expected for a twoorbital system with one electron persite [34].
V. DISCUSSION
We now analyze the consequences of the present theoretical scenario, in connection with existing experimentson AgNiO2. To make a quantitative comparison with themeasured CurieWeiss susceptibility [10,16,17], we report in
Fig. 3(d) the effective Bohr magneton, eff = gB
S2eff,as obtained from the effective moment per site evaluated in DMFT: S2eff
S2A+S2B +S2C 3 . We see that val
ues much larger than the densityfunctionaltheorylocaldensityapproximation estimates, eff = 1.31.5 [9], and
1651393

ThermopowerThermopower
A. Wichainchai, Jour. Sol Stat. Chem., 74 126 (1988).
Change of sign! S T
!!d"2#$1/2%ae2
1&D , "38$
where & is the scattering time. The MottIoffeRegel condition (l!a) is equivalent to &D!2# , leading to a resistivity
!0!%ae2 . "39$
For a!10 this corresponds to a resistivity of 3 m' cm.Figure 3 shows that even for moderate interaction strengthsthe resistivity can smoothly increase to values much largerthan this. Furthermore, our results provide a counterexampleto the ideas of Emery and Kivelson60 since there is a smoothcrossover from transport by incoherent excitations at hightemperatures to Fermi liquid transport at low temperatures.
B. Thermopower
In Fig. 4, we show the results for the thermopower as afunction of temperature for different values of the Coulombinteraction U and in the nearly symmetric case t2*/t1*!0.1.The lowtemperature behavior is correctly described by
Eq. "9$. As can be observed, the slope of the thermopower atlow temperatures increases with increasing U, scaling as theeffective mass m*/m!1/Z . We find a minimum in the thermopower which is rather shallow for small U and becomesincreasingly pronounced with increasing U. A similar featurealso occurs for doped Mott insulators13 and for the Andersonlattice.19 We observe that the mimimum moves to highertemperatures as U/t1* is decreased. This is a consequence ofthe increase in the Kondo scale with decreasing U and issupported by the observation that this minimum follows thepeak in the specific heat. To illustrate the close relationshipbetween the thermopower and the specific heat, Fig. 5 showsthe specific heat for the same parameter values as Fig. 4.
The peak in the specific heat, already analyzed by severalauthors,63 is associated with the binding energy of the Kondospin screening cloud which eventually forms at each latticesite. The hightemperature behavior found is typical of systems that have a depleted density of states at the Fermi energy, for example, in semimetals and insulators one expectsthe magnitude of the thermopower to decrease as the temperature is decreased. This is more easily understood fromthe behavior of the spectral densities which show this effective depletion of quasiparticle excitations at the Fermi energy"see Fig. 1$.The change in sign of the thermopower at intermediate
temperatures T(0.2t1* for U!3.5t1* can be explained fromthe fact that the spectral weight of the quasiparticle excitations is transferred mostly to the lower rather than to theupper Hubbard band, making the holes, rather than the electrons, the dominant carriers contributing to energy transport"see Fig. 1$.It is worth stressing that it is not necessary to get to too
large values of U/t1* to find a clear signature of the minimumin the thermopower and strong temperature behavior. This isa feature that one can find in sufficiently correlated systemsfar from the Mott transition as can be checked from the effective masses we obtain, m*/m , which in our calculationsvary between 2 and 4 for U(2 and 4, respectively.Figure 6 shows the thermopower when the frustration is
increased to t2*/t1*!0.3. The magnitude of the thermopoweris enhanced as a result of the larger asymmetry present in theparticlehole excitations of the system. Thus, the slope at lowtemperatures is increased by a factor of about 3, as expectedfrom Eq. "32$. The main features remain similar to the lessfrustrated case t2*/t1*(0.1, although the minimum of thethermopower is more pronounced for a larger degree of frustration.
FIG. 4. Temperature dependence of the thermopower for thefrustrated hypercubic lattice for t2*/t1*!0.1 and for different valuesof U/t1*!2, 3, 3.5, and 4. The dashed lines are based on linearextrapolations to zero temperature as expressed in Eq. "32$. Thecurves show how interactions between electrons significantlychange the magnitude and temperature dependence from the linearbehavior expected for a weakly interacting Fermi liquid. Indeed, theappearance of a minimum in the thermopower is a signature ofthermal destruction of the coherent Fermi liquid state that exists atlow temperatures.
FIG. 5. Specific heat in units of the gas constant R, for thefrustrated hypercubic lattice for t2*/t1*!0.1 and for different valuesof U/t1*!2, 3, 3.5, and 4. Note that the peak occurs at a temperature comparable to that at which the peak in the thermopower occurs "compare with Fig. 4$. The dashed lines are linear extrapolations to zero temperature. As in the case of the thermopower, thesimple linear behavior found for the noninteracting case is qualitatively changed and a peak at low temperatures shows up for U/t1*)3. The temperature scale at which this peak appears is set by thebinding energy of the spinscreening cloud formed at each latticesite due to the Kondo effect.
8004 PRB 61JAIME MERINO AND ROSS H. MCKENZIE
[Merino, Mc Kenzie PRB(00)]

Optical conductivity
?

Electronic properties of AgNiO2
Charge ordered and metallic, CO is threefold Large local moments, order at TN

ARNAUD RALKO, JAIME MERINO, AND SIMONE FRATINI PHYSICAL REVIEW B 91, 165139 (2015)
: dx2y2
: d3z2r2
U 3JHU 2JH JHU
9V/4 + U/3 JHU 5JH/3
3V
PinballLiquid
HM
3CO
A B
C
FIG. 1. (Color online) (top) Atomic processes described by theHund interaction HHund, with the corresponding coupling constants,highlighting the highspin configuration of lowest energy; the disksof different colors represent the orbitals d3z2r2 and dx2y2 . (bottom)Electronic configurations in the homogeneousmetal (HM), threefoldchargeordered (3CO), and pinball liquid phases on the triangularlattice, with the corresponding electrostatic energies. Arrows represent localized moments (pins); gray disks are the itinerant electrons(balls).
This comprises intraorbital and interorbital repulsion as wellas pair hopping and spinflip processes, as illustrated inFig. 1. We also consider a nearestneighbor Coulomb repulsionterm HV = V
ij ninj as the driving force for charge
disproportionation, where ni =
, ni, is the total densityoperator at site i, with ni, = d+i,di, .
The competition between the different terms in the Hamiltonian (1) can be understood from the following electrostaticconsiderations. For sufficiently weak interactions, the systemis a homogeneous metal (HM) with ni = n = 1. Because theinteraction energy EHM = 3V of this uniform configurationincreases with V , a chargeordered configuration will bepreferred at large V in order to minimize the electrostaticenergy cost. On the triangular lattice, this is achieved byordering electrons on a threesublattice structure (sublatticesA,B,C) with nA = 3 electrons per site on one sublattice andall other sites empty. The interaction energy of this threefoldcharge order (3CO), sketched in Fig. 1, is purely atomic,E3CO = U 5JH /3 per site. It has no energy cost associatedwith the offsite Coulomb repulsion and is therefore favoredat large V .
From previous studies of the extended Hubbard model inthe singleband case [2325] it is known that an intermediatephase can be stabilized between the 3CO and the homogeneousmetal. In this phase, termed pinball liquid (PL), part ofthe electron density of the chargerich sites (pins) spillsout to the neighboring unoccupied sites (balls) in order toreach a favorable compromise between local and nonlocalCoulomb interactions. The additional microscopic processesincluded in the present multiband case, which favor highspinconfigurations, play a key role in this scenario: the maximum
Hunds exchange energy is achieved in ions with a totalspin1 configuration, where precisely two electron spins arealigned (Fig. 1). Therefore, a phase which maximizes thenumber of doubly occupied sites will be naturally promotedfor sufficiently large JH , stabilizing a pinball liquid state withnA = 2 on the chargerich sites instead of nA = 3.
The key role of JH in stabilizing the PL can be assessedquantitatively by comparing its energy, EPL = 9V/4 + U/3 JH , with that of the 3CO and HM calculated previously.The PL is favored when U (1)c < U < U
(2)c , with U
(1)c = JH +
(27/8)V + C1 and U (2)c = 3JH + (9/4)V + C2 (the constantterms arise from the kineticenergy gain of mobile electronsin the PL and HM phases, which both scale proportionally tot [21]). This energetic argument predicts that (i) the PL phaseemerges above a critical value of JH/U and (ii) its area spreadsupon increasing JH /U and diverges for JH /U = 1/3.
III. PHASE DIAGRAM
We solve Eq. (1) by employing two complementary methods. We first apply unrestricted HartreeFock (UHF) meanfield theory allowing for solutions breaking any symmetry,which guides us systematically through the whole phasediagram. To address the effects of electron correlations thatwere neglected in previous theoretical treatments [9,12,29]and that we demonstrate here to be crucial in the region ofexperimental relevance, we then use singlesite dynamicalmeanfield theory (DMFT). This is expected to be particularly accurate in systems with geometrical frustration orwith large coordination, where the spatial range of nonlocalcorrelations is suppressed. We focus on solutions with threefold translational symmetry breaking, restricting ourselves toparamagnetic phases and ignoring the possible ordering onthe minority sublattice, which leaves us with two twoorbitalimpurity models describing the chargerich and chargepoorsites coupled only through the hopping. Note that in the DMFT,the onsite correlations are treated exactly, while a Hartreedecoupling is employed for the nearestneighbor interaction V .The full DMFT selfconsistent loop is evaluated using Lanczosdiagonalization until selfconsistency. For technical details seeRefs. [25,30].
We report in the main panel of Fig. 2 the results obtainedby varying the ratio JH /U in the interval (0.050.3) for an experimentally relevant value of the intersite Coulomb repulsionV/t = 2 [31]. As expected from the electrostatic argumentabove, a prominent PL phase emerges in a broad region ofthe phase diagram between the homogeneous metal and the3CO. The boundaries of the PL region, determined by theconditions nA = 2 (onset of PL) and nA = 1 (HM), are shownas points (gray for UHF, black for DMFT) and closely followthe analytical predictions U (1)c and U
(2)c , drawn as dotted lines
(here adjusted by setting the constants C2 = C1 = 0.8t).The area covered by the PL spreads upon increasing the Hundcoupling and attains values of U that are quite typical fortransitionmetal oxides. This should be contrasted with thecase where the Hund coupling is small or absent, in whichcase the local Coulomb repulsion prevents any possibility ofcharge ordering and a homogeneous metal is stabilized instead(left side of Fig. 2).
1651392
[Ralko , Merino, Fratini, PRB15; Fvrier, Fratini, Ralko, PRB'15]
2 orbitals: Extended Hubbard Model + Hund
PHYSICAL REVIEW B 91, 165139 (2015)
Pinball liquid phase from Hunds coupling in frustrated transitionmetal oxides
Arnaud Ralko,1,2 Jaime Merino,3 and Simone Fratini1,21Institut NEEL, Universite Grenoble Alpes, F38042 Grenoble, France
2Institut NEEL, CNRS, F38042 Grenoble, France3Departamento de Fsica Teorica de la Materia Condensada, Condensed Matter Physics Center (IFIMAC)
and Instituto Nicolas Cabrera, Universidad Autonoma de Madrid, Madrid 28049, Spain(Received 15 December 2014; revised manuscript received 16 April 2015; published 30 April 2015)
The interplay of nonlocal Coulomb repulsion and Hunds coupling in the dorbital manifold in frustratedtriangular lattices is analyzed by a multiband extended Hubbard model. We find a rich phase diagram with severalcompeting phases, including a robust pinball liquid phase, which is an unconventional metal characterized bythreefold charge order, bad metallic behavior, and the emergence of highspin local moments. Our results naturallyexplain the anomalous chargeordered metallic state observed in the triangular layered compound AgNiO2. Thepotential relevance to other triangular transitionmetal oxides is discussed.
DOI: 10.1103/PhysRevB.91.165139 PACS number(s): 71.10.Hf, 71.30.+h, 73.20.Qt, 74.70.Kn
I. INTRODUCTION
Materials with competing electronic interactions on triangular lattices are a fertile ground for novel phenomenaand original quantum phases, such as the spinliquid behavior [1] observed in organic ((BEDTTTF)2Cu2(CN)3,Me3EtSb[Pd(dmit)2]2) and inorganic (Cs2CuCl4) quasitwodimensional materials. Geometrical frustration can play asimilar role in chargeordering phenomena, leading to puzzling unconventional metallic and superconducting states.Remarkable examples are found in the quarterfilled organicsalts (BEDTTTF)2X [2,3], the layered cobaltates NaxCoO2[47], and the transitionmetal dichalcogenide 1T TaS2 [8].
An interesting yet less explored member of this categoryis AgNiO2, a layered oxide compound with a triangularplanar lattice structure, whose properties reflect a rich interplay between magnetic, orbital, and charge degrees offreedom. This system presents a robust threefold chargeordered phase, which is stable above room temperature (TCO =365 K) and undergoes magnetic ordering only at much lowertemperatures, TN = 20 K [911]. Contrary to the commonbehavior observed in oxides with JahnTeller active ions, thecharge ordering in this material is not associated with anystructural distortion, indicative of a purely electronic drivingmechanism. Furthermore, the ordering is partially frustratedby the triangular lattice geometry, causing the electronicsystem to spontaneously separate into localized magneticmoments, residing on a superlattice of chargerich Ni sites,and itinerant electrons moving on the honeycomb latticeformed by the remaining chargepoor Ni sites. The materialis therefore metallic throughout the chargeordered phase,which contrasts with the situation in nonfrustrated perovskitenickelates [12,13], RNiO3, where charge order invariably leadsto an insulating behavior. The high values of the electricalresistivity and its anomalous temperature dependence inAgNiO2 [1417], however, indicate bad metallic behavior,also supported by the observation of a large pseudogapin photoemission experiments [18], an anomalous Seebeckcoefficient [14,15], and a large specificheat coefficient [19].
In this work, we analyze a multiband microscopic modelwhich takes explicit account of electronic correlations todemonstrate that the emergence of chargeordered phaseswith unconventional metallic properties is a natural outcome
in frustrated triangular oxides with both strong Coulombinteractions and Hunds coupling away from halffilling. Ourresults show that the combination of onsite and offsiteCoulomb repulsion and Hund exchange stabilizes a robustpinball liquid phase [2025], a quantum phase where theelectrons spontaneously separate into coexisting localizedpins exhibiting Mott physics and itinerant balls movingon the remaining honeycomb lattice. We argue that the chargeordered metallic phase of AgNiO2 is a neat experimentalrealization of such a pinball liquid, which explains manyexperimental features such as the threefold ordering patternwith strong charge disproportionation, the presence of largelocal moments, and the bad metallic behavior.
II. TWOORBITAL MICROSCOPIC DESCRIPTION
In AgNiO2 the d orbitals of Ni (t62ge
1g configuration, formal
valence Ni3+) split into an upper eg doublet occupied byone electron and a completely filled lower t2g triplet that areseparated by a crystalfield gap of 2 eV [17,18,26]. Labelingby = 1,2 the eg orbitals d3z2r2 and dx2y2 and neglectingthe lowlying t2g orbitals, we write the following twoorbitalextended Hubbard model:
H = t
ij
,
(di,dj, + H.c.) + HHund + HV. (1)
The first term describes eg electrons moving on the triangularlattice of Ni ions with transfer integrals t at a density n =1, which nominally corresponds to onequarter filling (oneelectron per two orbitals per site). These electrons interact oneach atomic site via the Hund coupling, as described by thestandard Kanamori Hamiltonian [27,28]:
HHund = U
i,
nini + (U 2JH )
i, = nini
+ (U 3JH )
i,

2 orbitals: Extended Hubbard Model + Hund
ARNAUD RALKO, JAIME MERINO, AND SIMONE FRATINI PHYSICAL REVIEW B 91, 165139 (2015)
: dx2y2
: d3z2r2
U 3JHU 2JH JHU
9V/4 + U/3 JHU 5JH/3
3V
PinballLiquid
HM
3CO
A B
C
FIG. 1. (Color online) (top) Atomic processes described by theHund interaction HHund, with the corresponding coupling constants,highlighting the highspin configuration of lowest energy; the disksof different colors represent the orbitals d3z2r2 and dx2y2 . (bottom)Electronic configurations in the homogeneousmetal (HM), threefoldchargeordered (3CO), and pinball liquid phases on the triangularlattice, with the corresponding electrostatic energies. Arrows represent localized moments (pins); gray disks are the itinerant electrons(balls).
This comprises intraorbital and interorbital repulsion as wellas pair hopping and spinflip processes, as illustrated inFig. 1. We also consider a nearestneighbor Coulomb repulsionterm HV = V
ij ninj as the driving force for charge
disproportionation, where ni =
, ni, is the total densityoperator at site i, with ni, = d+i,di, .
The competition between the different terms in the Hamiltonian (1) can be understood from the following electrostaticconsiderations. For sufficiently weak interactions, the systemis a homogeneous metal (HM) with ni = n = 1. Because theinteraction energy EHM = 3V of this uniform configurationincreases with V , a chargeordered configuration will bepreferred at large V in order to minimize the electrostaticenergy cost. On the triangular lattice, this is achieved byordering electrons on a threesublattice structure (sublatticesA,B,C) with nA = 3 electrons per site on one sublattice andall other sites empty. The interaction energy of this threefoldcharge order (3CO), sketched in Fig. 1, is purely atomic,E3CO = U 5JH /3 per site. It has no energy cost associatedwith the offsite Coulomb repulsion and is therefore favoredat large V .
From previous studies of the extended Hubbard model inthe singleband case [2325] it is known that an intermediatephase can be stabilized between the 3CO and the homogeneousmetal. In this phase, termed pinball liquid (PL), part ofthe electron density of the chargerich sites (pins) spillsout to the neighboring unoccupied sites (balls) in order toreach a favorable compromise between local and nonlocalCoulomb interactions. The additional microscopic processesincluded in the present multiband case, which favor highspinconfigurations, play a key role in this scenario: the maximum
Hunds exchange energy is achieved in ions with a totalspin1 configuration, where precisely two electron spins arealigned (Fig. 1). Therefore, a phase which maximizes thenumber of doubly occupied sites will be naturally promotedfor sufficiently large JH , stabilizing a pinball liquid state withnA = 2 on the chargerich sites instead of nA = 3.
The key role of JH in stabilizing the PL can be assessedquantitatively by comparing its energy, EPL = 9V/4 + U/3 JH , with that of the 3CO and HM calculated previously.The PL is favored when U (1)c < U < U
(2)c , with U
(1)c = JH +
(27/8)V + C1 and U (2)c = 3JH + (9/4)V + C2 (the constantterms arise from the kineticenergy gain of mobile electronsin the PL and HM phases, which both scale proportionally tot [21]). This energetic argument predicts that (i) the PL phaseemerges above a critical value of JH/U and (ii) its area spreadsupon increasing JH /U and diverges for JH /U = 1/3.
III. PHASE DIAGRAM
We solve Eq. (1) by employing two complementary methods. We first apply unrestricted HartreeFock (UHF) meanfield theory allowing for solutions breaking any symmetry,which guides us systematically through the whole phasediagram. To address the effects of electron correlations thatwere neglected in previous theoretical treatments [9,12,29]and that we demonstrate here to be crucial in the region ofexperimental relevance, we then use singlesite dynamicalmeanfield theory (DMFT). This is expected to be particularly accurate in systems with geometrical frustration orwith large coordination, where the spatial range of nonlocalcorrelations is suppressed. We focus on solutions with threefold translational symmetry breaking, restricting ourselves toparamagnetic phases and ignoring the possible ordering onthe minority sublattice, which leaves us with two twoorbitalimpurity models describing the chargerich and chargepoorsites coupled only through the hopping. Note that in the DMFT,the onsite correlations are treated exactly, while a Hartreedecoupling is employed for the nearestneighbor interaction V .The full DMFT selfconsistent loop is evaluated using Lanczosdiagonalization until selfconsistency. For technical details seeRefs. [25,30].
We report in the main panel of Fig. 2 the results obtainedby varying the ratio JH /U in the interval (0.050.3) for an experimentally relevant value of the intersite Coulomb repulsionV/t = 2 [31]. As expected from the electrostatic argumentabove, a prominent PL phase emerges in a broad region ofthe phase diagram between the homogeneous metal and the3CO. The boundaries of the PL region, determined by theconditions nA = 2 (onset of PL) and nA = 1 (HM), are shownas points (gray for UHF, black for DMFT) and closely followthe analytical predictions U (1)c and U
(2)c , drawn as dotted lines
(here adjusted by setting the constants C2 = C1 = 0.8t).The area covered by the PL spreads upon increasing the Hundcoupling and attains values of U that are quite typical fortransitionmetal oxides. This should be contrasted with thecase where the Hund coupling is small or absent, in whichcase the local Coulomb repulsion prevents any possibility ofcharge ordering and a homogeneous metal is stabilized instead(left side of Fig. 2).
1651392
ARNAUD RALKO, JAIME MERINO, AND SIMONE FRATINI PHYSICAL REVIEW B 91, 165139 (2015)
: dx2y2
: d3z2r2
U 3JHU 2JH JHU
9V/4 + U/3 JHU 5JH/3
3V
PinballLiquid
HM
3CO
A B
C
FIG. 1. (Color online) (top) Atomic processes described by theHund interaction HHund, with the corresponding coupling constants,highlighting the highspin configuration of lowest energy; the disksof different colors represent the orbitals d3z2r2 and dx2y2 . (bottom)Electronic configurations in the homogeneousmetal (HM), threefoldchargeordered (3CO), and pinball liquid phases on the triangularlattice, with the corresponding electrostatic energies. Arrows represent localized moments (pins); gray disks are the itinerant electrons(balls).
This comprises intraorbital and interorbital repulsion as wellas pair hopping and spinflip processes, as illustrated inFig. 1. We also consider a nearestneighbor Coulomb repulsionterm HV = V
ij ninj as the driving force for charge
disproportionation, where ni =
, ni, is the total densityoperator at site i, with ni, = d+i,di, .
The competition between the different terms in the Hamiltonian (1) can be understood from the following electrostaticconsiderations. For sufficiently weak interactions, the systemis a homogeneous metal (HM) with ni = n = 1. Because theinteraction energy EHM = 3V of this uniform configurationincreases with V , a chargeordered configuration will bepreferred at large V in order to minimize the electrostaticenergy cost. On the triangular lattice, this is achieved byordering electrons on a threesublattice structure (sublatticesA,B,C) with nA = 3 electrons per site on one sublattice andall other sites empty. The interaction energy of this threefoldcharge order (3CO), sketched in Fig. 1, is purely atomic,E3CO = U 5JH /3 per site. It has no energy cost associatedwith the offsite Coulomb repulsion and is therefore favoredat large V .
From previous studies of the extended Hubbard model inthe singleband case [2325] it is known that an intermediatephase can be stabilized between the 3CO and the homogeneousmetal. In this phase, termed pinball liquid (PL), part ofthe electron density of the chargerich sites (pins) spillsout to the neighboring unoccupied sites (balls) in order toreach a favorable compromise between local and nonlocalCoulomb interactions. The additional microscopic processesincluded in the present multiband case, which favor highspinconfigurations, play a key role in this scenario: the maximum
Hunds exchange energy is achieved in ions with a totalspin1 configuration, where precisely two electron spins arealigned (Fig. 1). Therefore, a phase which maximizes thenumber of doubly occupied sites will be naturally promotedfor sufficiently large JH , stabilizing a pinball liquid state withnA = 2 on the chargerich sites instead of nA = 3.
The key role of JH in stabilizing the PL can be assessedquantitatively by comparing its energy, EPL = 9V/4 + U/3 JH , with that of the 3CO and HM calculated previously.The PL is favored when U (1)c < U < U
(2)c , with U
(1)c = JH +
(27/8)V + C1 and U (2)c = 3JH + (9/4)V + C2 (the constantterms arise from the kineticenergy gain of mobile electronsin the PL and HM phases, which both scale proportionally tot [21]). This energetic argument predicts that (i) the PL phaseemerges above a critical value of JH/U and (ii) its area spreadsupon increasing JH /U and diverges for JH /U = 1/3.
III. PHASE DIAGRAM
We solve Eq. (1) by employing two complementary methods. We first apply unrestricted HartreeFock (UHF) meanfield theory allowing for solutions breaking any symmetry,which guides us systematically through the whole phasediagram. To address the effects of electron correlations thatwere neglected in previous theoretical treatments [9,12,29]and that we demonstrate here to be crucial in the region ofexperimental relevance, we then use singlesite dynamicalmeanfield theory (DMFT). This is expected to be particularly accurate in systems with geometrical frustration orwith large coordination, where the spatial range of nonlocalcorrelations is suppressed. We focus on solutions with threefold translational symmetry breaking, restricting ourselves toparamagnetic phases and ignoring the possible or