pigmented villonodular synovitis: magnetic resonance imaging appearence

of 31 /31
PIGMENTED VILLONODULAR SYNOVITIS: MAGN RESONANCE IMAGING APPEARENCE A.B Abdallah, K.Mrad Dali, F.Bouzayène, K.Kadri, N.Mama, M.Ben Maitigue Radiology service, Sahloul Hospital * Orthopaedic surgery service, Sahloul Hosp MUSCULOSKELETAL : MK 14 MK14

Upload: calla

Post on 23-Mar-2016

32 views

Category:

Documents


4 download

Embed Size (px)

DESCRIPTION

MUSCULOSKELETAL : MK 14. PIGMENTED VILLONODULAR SYNOVITIS: MAGNETIC RESONANCE IMAGING APPEARENCE. A.B Abdallah , K.Mrad Dali, F.Bouzayène , K.Kadri , N.Mama , M.Ben Maitigue *, K.Tlili Radiology service, Sahloul Hospital - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

TRANSCRIPT

Page 1: PIGMENTED VILLONODULAR SYNOVITIS: MAGNETIC RESONANCE IMAGING APPEARENCE

PIGMENTED VILLONODULAR SYNOVITIS: MAGNETICRESONANCE IMAGING APPEARENCE

A.B Abdallah, K.Mrad Dali, F.Bouzayène, K.Kadri, N.Mama, M.Ben Maitigue*, K.Tlili Radiology service, Sahloul Hospital

*Orthopaedic surgery service, Sahloul Hospital

MUSCULOSKELETAL : MK 14

MK14

Page 2: PIGMENTED VILLONODULAR SYNOVITIS: MAGNETIC RESONANCE IMAGING APPEARENCE

INTRODUCTION Pigmented villonodular synovitis (PVNS) is a rare benign proliferative disorder primarily occurring

in the large joints of the appendicular skeleton such as the knee and hip joints.

PVNS is potentially aggressive lesion that attacks the synovium of joints, tendon sheaths or bursae

Diagnosis is made on clinical features, aspiration of the joint, radiographic features and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), which is the most useful.

Page 3: PIGMENTED VILLONODULAR SYNOVITIS: MAGNETIC RESONANCE IMAGING APPEARENCE

OBJECTIVES To evaluate the magnetic resonance

(MR) imaging of pigmented villonodular synovitis (PVNS) of the big joints.

Page 4: PIGMENTED VILLONODULAR SYNOVITIS: MAGNETIC RESONANCE IMAGING APPEARENCE

MATERIALS AND METHODS A retrospective review of MR imaging of

big joints was performed in 12 patients with clinical and histologically confirmed PVNS

PVNS was diagnosed by synovectomy in 7 cases and arthroscopy in 5 cases.

Page 5: PIGMENTED VILLONODULAR SYNOVITIS: MAGNETIC RESONANCE IMAGING APPEARENCE

RESULTS There were 5 males and 7 females A mean age of 33 years at diagnosis All lesions presented as a solitary intraarticular

mass In 9 cases, the disease was located in the knee It involved the ankle in 2 cases and the hip in

1case. Clinical symptoms varied gratly (table) Radiographs revealed a normal appearance in 6

cases, a focal soft tissue mass in 5 cases, bone erosions in 1 case.

Page 6: PIGMENTED VILLONODULAR SYNOVITIS: MAGNETIC RESONANCE IMAGING APPEARENCE

Articular ultrasonagraphy showed heterogenous echogenic masses in 2 cases and a markedly nodular thickened hypoechoic synovium in 2 cases

MRI showed in all cases a joint effusion and nodular thickened synovial membrane with prominent T1 low signal intensity, variable T2 signal intensity and “blooming” artifact from hemosiderin (seen with gradient-echo sequences).

Reuslts

Page 7: PIGMENTED VILLONODULAR SYNOVITIS: MAGNETIC RESONANCE IMAGING APPEARENCE

PatientsSex/age

Localisation

Clinic Radio-graphy

Ultra-sound

MRIThickened synovial Joint

effusionbone

T1 T2 T2* Gado

M/45Y right knee

-pain normal - low low hemosiderin

+ + normal

F/12Y Right knee -Hemarthrosis-swelling

normal - low low hemosiderin

+ + normal

F/53Y right knee -Pain, swelling-hemarthrosis

Erosion boneSoft tissu mass

- low high

hemosiderin

+ + Erosion bone

M/22Y Right knee -Pain-swelling

normal - low low hemosiderin

+ + Femoral erosion

F/45Y right knee -Pain normal - low low hemosiderin

+ + femoral erosion

M/53Y Left knee -pain-swelling

Soft tissu mass

- low low hemosiderin

+ + normal

M/19Y Left knee -swelling-hemarthrosis

Soft tissu mass

nodular thickened hypoechoic synovium

low low hemosiderin

+ + normal

F/42Y Right knee -pain-hemarthrosis

normal -

low high

hemosiderin

+ + normal

M/34Y Left knee -swelling -hemarthrosis

normal -

low low hemosiderin

+ + Normal

F/39Y right ankle -pain-swelling

Soft tissu mass

heterogenous echogenic masse

low high

hemosiderin

+ + normal

F/19Y Right ankle

-pain-swelling

Soft tissu mass

heterogenous echogenic masse

low low hemosiderin

_ _ normal

F/8Y Right hip -pain normal nodular thickened hypoechoic synovium

low low hemosiderin

+ + normal

Page 8: PIGMENTED VILLONODULAR SYNOVITIS: MAGNETIC RESONANCE IMAGING APPEARENCE

Case1: A 19 years old girl with pain aind swelling right knee

T1 T2 DP FATSAT

Radiography(a) is normalMRI: -joint effusion (*) - synovial thickening prominent in the anterior portion of the joint (arrows) DP

FATSAT

a

Page 9: PIGMENTED VILLONODULAR SYNOVITIS: MAGNETIC RESONANCE IMAGING APPEARENCE

T2 FATSAT T1+C

T1+C

T2*

Case 1

*Mild blooming artifactis seen on the gradient-echo image (a,c) (arrowheads) *Sagittal T1&T2-weighted postcontrast show prominent diffuse enhancement (arrows) and joint effusion (*).

a b

c

d

Page 10: PIGMENTED VILLONODULAR SYNOVITIS: MAGNETIC RESONANCE IMAGING APPEARENCE

Case2: A 53years old woman with reccurent hemathrosis and swelling right knee.

DP FATSAT T2 STIR

Radiography shows extensive erosion of the femoral lower extremity with sclerotic margins (arrows) and maintained knee joint space.

MRI reveal a large amount of high-signal-intensity tissue (*) with posterior extension that replaces the entire knee joint. Extrinsic erosions of thefemur and tibia with low-signal-intensity margins are also seen (straight arrows).

Page 11: PIGMENTED VILLONODULAR SYNOVITIS: MAGNETIC RESONANCE IMAGING APPEARENCE

T2* T1+C

T1+C: coronal(a) The gradient-echo image also shows focal hypointense areas (arrowheads), findings that represent the blooming artifact from hemosiderin

The tissue mass (*), has prominent diffuse enhancement on axial(b) and sagittal (c)- T1-weighted postcontrast

Case 2

ab

c

Page 12: PIGMENTED VILLONODULAR SYNOVITIS: MAGNETIC RESONANCE IMAGING APPEARENCE

Case 3: a 19 year old teenager with a swelling left knee

T1 T2

(a) Lateral radiographshows an illdefinedarea of softtissueopacity thatreplaces the normalHoffa fat pad (arrow).

a

b

(b)Transverse sonogram of the knee reveals the hypoechoic intraarticular softtissuemass (arrows)

Sagittal T1& T2-weighted: reveal an effusion and synovial thickening in the anterior portion of the joint(*)

Page 13: PIGMENTED VILLONODULAR SYNOVITIS: MAGNETIC RESONANCE IMAGING APPEARENCE

T2*

T1 FATSAT+CDP FATSAT

Case 3

Mild blooming artifact is seen on the gradient-echo image

Sagittal proton-density–weighted fatsuppressed: There is a thick low-signal-intensity rim with areas of nodularitySagittal T1-weighted postcontrast shows prominent diffuse enhancement

Page 14: PIGMENTED VILLONODULAR SYNOVITIS: MAGNETIC RESONANCE IMAGING APPEARENCE

Cas 4: A 39 years old woman had pain and swelling in the anterior aspect of his ankle for four years.

-(a)Lateral radiograph of the ankle shows an anterior soft-tissue mass (curved arrows)-MRI shows a well-defined localized mass in the anterolateral ankle joint (*) which has an intermediate density T1 & T2 signal with prominent diffuse enhancement (arrowheads).

a T1

T2

T2*

Page 15: PIGMENTED VILLONODULAR SYNOVITIS: MAGNETIC RESONANCE IMAGING APPEARENCE

Case 4

The anterior soft-tissue mass presents a mildly high STIR signal with prominent diffuse enhancement (arrowheads) on sagittal and axial sequences.

STIR

T1+C

T1+C

Page 16: PIGMENTED VILLONODULAR SYNOVITIS: MAGNETIC RESONANCE IMAGING APPEARENCE

Cas 5: A 19 years old girl who presents ankle pain and swelling.

T1 T2

*Lateral radiograph: anterior soft-tissu mass of the ankle joint *This mass presents with an intermediate T1& T2 signal without bone erosion.

Page 17: PIGMENTED VILLONODULAR SYNOVITIS: MAGNETIC RESONANCE IMAGING APPEARENCE

STIR

T2* T1+C

T1+C

The anterior soft-tissue mass presents a mildly high STIR signal with prominent diffuse enhancement (*) on sagittal and axial sequences.The gradient-echo image shows focal hypointense areas (arrowheads), that represent the blooming artifact from hemosiderin .

Page 18: PIGMENTED VILLONODULAR SYNOVITIS: MAGNETIC RESONANCE IMAGING APPEARENCE

DISCUSSION Pigmented villonodular synovitis (PVNS) is a slow

growing lesion of uncertain etiology arising from the synovial membrane.

It is a disease of synovial membrane characterized by a proliferation of mononuclear cells, probably of histiocytic origin, deep to the synovial lining cells.

It represents a benign, hypertrophic synovial process characterized by villous, nodular, and villonodular proliferation and pigmentation from hemosiderin of the synovial membrane of the bursa or the tendon sheath.

Page 19: PIGMENTED VILLONODULAR SYNOVITIS: MAGNETIC RESONANCE IMAGING APPEARENCE

Pigmented villonodular synovitis most commonly affects adult patients in the third of fourth decades of life, in our study 4 patients (33 %) were aged under 22 years

Patients present with joint pain, swelling, and stiffness.

Although any joint may be affected by PVNS, the knee is the most common site, involved in 80 % of cases ( 75%) in our study. Other joints frequently involved are the hip, shoulder, and ankle.

These lesions are subclassified as localized or diffuse form.

Discussion

Page 20: PIGMENTED VILLONODULAR SYNOVITIS: MAGNETIC RESONANCE IMAGING APPEARENCE

Usually only one joint is affected

Because clinical signs and symptoms are typically nonspecific and laboratory tests are unremarkable, the radiologist plays a key role in the diagnosis and treatment of this pathology.

Discussion

Page 21: PIGMENTED VILLONODULAR SYNOVITIS: MAGNETIC RESONANCE IMAGING APPEARENCE

Radiography Radiographic findings are normal in up to 20%

of cases. It was normal in 50% in our study.

Overall, osseous abnormalities are present in 15%–25% of cases

Extrinsic erosion, often with well-defined sclerotic margins, of the underlying bone is the most common osseous abnormality, seen in 9%–25% of cases. It involves joints with tight capsules, because of pressure phenomenon (foot or ankle).

Page 22: PIGMENTED VILLONODULAR SYNOVITIS: MAGNETIC RESONANCE IMAGING APPEARENCE

Subtle or obvious juxtaarticular soft-tissue masses that appear dense because of high iron content (hemosiderin) in the synovium

Periosteal reaction (8% of cases) and calcifications (6%) are rare

Preservation of bone density.

Radiography

Page 23: PIGMENTED VILLONODULAR SYNOVITIS: MAGNETIC RESONANCE IMAGING APPEARENCE

Sonographic appearances Sonographic appearances of intraarticular PVNS are

nonspecific.

Sonographic features of diffuse intraarticular disease include joint effusion, comple heterogeneous echogenic masses, and markedly thickened hypoechoic synovium that may have nodular and villous projections

Extrinsic erosion of underlying bone may also be seen.

Page 24: PIGMENTED VILLONODULAR SYNOVITIS: MAGNETIC RESONANCE IMAGING APPEARENCE

PVNTS manifests as a hypoechoic solid mass with well-defined margins that is intimately related to the associated involved tendon

Doppler imaging commonly reveals increased blood flow in all types of PVNS.

Sonography

Page 25: PIGMENTED VILLONODULAR SYNOVITIS: MAGNETIC RESONANCE IMAGING APPEARENCE

CT PVNS lesions may show high attenuation

because of the presence of hemosiderin. It can also be caused by chronic bleeding

or calcifications. CT is useful indelineating bone cyst

formation and erosions. CT is well suited for Imaging guidance of

diagnostic core needle biobsy.

Page 26: PIGMENTED VILLONODULAR SYNOVITIS: MAGNETIC RESONANCE IMAGING APPEARENCE

MR Imaging MR imaging has become the technique of choice for

diagnosis and follow-up in patients with pigmented villonodular synovitis.

It is useful for preoperative, non-invasive diagnosis of PVNS in many cases

The appearance depends on the relative proportions of lipid, hemosiderin, fibrous, stroma, pannus, fluid and cellular elements

Page 27: PIGMENTED VILLONODULAR SYNOVITIS: MAGNETIC RESONANCE IMAGING APPEARENCE

The most characteristic finding is nodular intraarticular masses of low signal intensity on T1 (all patients), T2 (75% in our study) and proton density.

Areas of low signal intensity on T2-weighted images are due to the magnetic susceptibility effect produced by hemosiderin and are more manifest in the periphery of the lesions, present in all our cases.

This decreased signal intensity is more pronounced on gradient-echo images and at high field strengths.

MR Imaging

Page 28: PIGMENTED VILLONODULAR SYNOVITIS: MAGNETIC RESONANCE IMAGING APPEARENCE

Gradient-echo images demonstrate an enlargement of the low-signal-intensity areas (“blooming”) that is caused by magnetic susceptibility artifact.

The blooming effect, which specifically signifies the presence of hemosiderin as the cause of low signal intensity, is nearly pathognomonic of PVNS at MR imaging.

MR Imaging

Page 29: PIGMENTED VILLONODULAR SYNOVITIS: MAGNETIC RESONANCE IMAGING APPEARENCE

Occasionally, intralesional areas of high signal intensity on both pulse sequences may be present. These areas are believed to be due to fat, edema, or inflammation,

PVNS lesions characteristically show prominent contrast enhancement with the administration of gadolinium (90% in our study),

The signal intensity of the lytic subchondral lesions varies and may indicate the presence of fluid, soft tissue, or hemosiderin.

MR Imaging

Page 30: PIGMENTED VILLONODULAR SYNOVITIS: MAGNETIC RESONANCE IMAGING APPEARENCE

Treatment Treatment of PVNS is required to prevent

progressive loss of function and destruction of the involved joint or the tendon or bursa

Treatment options include surgical resection, radiation therapy, pharmaceutical modulation of the disease, or a combination of these approaches

Synovectomy may be performed with either an arthroscopic or open arthrotomy technique

The recurrence rate for localized disease is generally lower (from 0% to 44% )than that for diffuse intraarticular PVNS (8% to 56%).

Page 31: PIGMENTED VILLONODULAR SYNOVITIS: MAGNETIC RESONANCE IMAGING APPEARENCE

Conclusion PVNS represents an uncommon benign

hyperthrophic synovial process

It is characterized by villous, nodular, and villonodular proliferation and pigmentation from hemosiderin

The MR imaging is useful for diagnosis and is optimal for identifying the extent of synovial disease, surveying and detecting reccurence.