Pid control new_identification_and_design_methods

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Best Ever tuning and designing techniques for PID controllers......far beyond Ziegler and Nichols.


  • 1. Michael A. JohnsonMohammad H. MoradiPID ControlNew Identification and Design Methods

2. Michael A. Johnson and Mohammad H. Moradi (Editors)WithJ. Crowe, K.K. Tan, T.H. Lee, R. Ferdous, M.R. Katebi, H.-P. Huang,J.-C. Jeng, K.S. Tang, G.R. Chen, K.F. Man, S. Kwong, A. Snchez,Q.-G. Wang, Yong Zhang, Yu Zhang, P. Martin, M.J. Grimble andD.R. GreenwoodPID ControlNew Identification and Design MethodsWith 285 Figures13 3. Michael A. Johnson, PhDMohammad H. Moradi, PhDIndustrial Control CentreElectrical Engineering GroupUniversity of StrathclydeFaculty of EngineeringGraham Hills BuildingBu-Ali Sina University50 George Street HamadanGlasgowIranG1 1QEUKBritish Library Cataloguing in Publication DataPID control : new identification and design methods1.PID controllersI.Johnson, Michael A., 1948- II.Moradi, Mohammad H.(Mohammad Hassan), 1967-629.8ISBN 1852337028Library of Congress Cataloging in Publication DataPID control : new identification and design methods / Michael A. Johnson(editor), Mohammed H. Moradi (editor); with J. Crowe ... [et al.] p. cm.Includes bibliographical references and index.ISBN 1-85233-702-81. PID controllersDesign and construction. I. Johnson, Michael A., 1948- II. Moradi,Mohammad H. (Mohammad Hassan), 1967- III. Crowe, J.TJ223.P55P53 2005629.8--dc22 2004057797Apart from any fair dealing for the purposes of research or private study, or criticism or review, as permitted under theCopyright, Designs and Patents Act 1988, this publication may only be reproduced, stored or transmitted, in any form or by anymeans, with the prior permission in writing of the publishers, or in the case of reprographic reproduction in accordance withthe terms of licences issued by the Copyright Licensing Agency. Enquiries concerning reproduction outside those termsshould be sent to the publishers.ISBN-10: 1-85233-702-8ISBN-13: 978-1-85233-702-5Springer Science+Business Springer-Verlag London Limited 2005MATLAB and SIMULINK are registered trademarks of The Mathworks Inc., 3, Apple Hill Drive, Natick, MA 01760-2098, USA. is a registered trademark of National Instruments Corporation, 11500, N. Mopac Expwy., Austin, TX 78759-3504,USA.SIMATIC is a registered trademark of Siemens AG, Germany.DeltaV is a trademark of Emerson Process Management.Plantweb is a registered trademark of Emerson Process Management.The use of registered names, trademarks, etc. in this publication does not imply, even in the absence of a specific statement,that such names are exempt from the relevant laws and regulations and therefore free for general use.The publisher makes no representation, express or implied, with regard to the accuracy of the information contained in thisbook and cannot accept any legal responsibility or liability for any errors or omissions that may be made.Typesetting: Ian Kingston Publishing Services, Nottingham, UKPrinted in the United States of America69/3830-543210 Printed on acid-free paper SPIN 10894354 4. For the gift of loving parents and family and for my grandchildren, Ethan andTeiganMichael A. JohnsonTo my wife, Mehri, and my sons, Aref and Ali, for their understanding andconsideration; To my parents for their love over many years and to my familyfor their support.Mohammad H. Moradi 5. PrefaceThe industrial evidence is that for many control problems, particularly those of the process industries,the Proportional, Integral and Derivative (PID) controller is the main control tool being used. For theseindustrial problems, the PID control module is a building block which provides the regulation anddisturbance rejection for single loop, cascade, multi-loop and multi-input multi-output controlschemes. Over the decades, PID control technology has undergone many changes and today thecontroller may be a standard utility routine within the supervisory system software, a dedicated hard-ware process controller unit or an inputoutput module within a programmable electronic systemwhich can be used for control system construction. With such a well-developed industrial technology available it is not surprising that an academiccolleague on learning that we planned a book on PID control exclaimed, Surely not! Is there anythingleft to be said?. Of course, the short answer is that technology does not stand still: new solution capabil-ities are always emerging and PID control will evolve too. Indeed, the ZieglerNichols rules have beenfamous for over sixty years and the strm and Hgglund relay experiment has been around for twentyyears, so it would be disappointing if some new approaches to PID control had not emerged in the mean-time. However, that is not to claim that all the methods discussed in this book will replace existing tech-nologies; nor is this book a definitive survey of all that has taken place in the developments of PIDcontrol since, say, 1985. The book was originally conceived as a set of chapters about new ideas that arebeing investigated in PID control; it might be more accurately subtitled Some new identification anddesign methods. The first proposals for this book were constructed using a classification scheme based on the extent towhich a method used a model, then what type of model and then whether the method used optimisationprinciples or not; a very academic approach. Such a scheme does work, but, as one reviewer remarked, itis perhaps unnecessarily rigid. However, another objective of the Editors was to incorporate into the texta set of contributions from international authors, and this is more difficult to achieve with a very strictclassification framework. Consequently, the finished book has a more relaxed structure but retains aninherent methodological agenda. The book opens with two basic chapters about PID controllers. Industrial technology is examinedusing discussions, examples and pictures in Chapter 1. Two interesting industrial product reviewssignificantly add to the value of this chapter. Chapter 2 is constructed around a set of useful conceptswhich say more about the PID notation and conventions than anything else. The material in these twoopening chapters is descriptive and informative; some of it is theory, but it is selective. It is designed tobe partly a repository of existing technology and expertise and partly an introduction to some of theterminology and concepts that will be used in subsequent chapters. The sections in these two chapters 6. viii Preface are written with some repetition of material to enable individual sections to be read in isolation when using the text in reference mode.This is followed by 11 chapters that make different contributions to ideas for identification for PID control, and to the tuning of PID controllers. Almost all of the contributions arise from problems and research issues which have intrigued the various authors, and the chapters describe some answers to these problems. This is not just the leavening of a set of the various authors published papers but a fully explained presentation of the investigative directions being followed by the contributors. The Editors hope that the reader will find the presentations quite readable and be able to follow up the research literature directly.The underlying continuity in the book is that, as the chapters follow each other, the quality of model information used by the problem formulation and solution increases. This agenda starts at Chapter 3, where the methods assume no model information at all. The next group of chapters, numbers 4 to 7, use nonparametric models. Because the reaction curve method is historically associated with nonparametric methods, Chapter 8 on extensions to the reaction curve method is placed next. In the gap between nonparametric and parametric model-based methods, Chapters 9 and 10 report on the genetic algorithms and fuzzy model approach and on a so-called subspace identification method, respectively. Finally, methods based on parametric models take the stage in the final three chapters of the book. The last of these chapters looks at the idea of predictive PID control.The emphasis within each chapter varies depending on what is important to the method being described. For example, a chapter might describe how to obtain the appropriate model information for a PID control design method, or how to use the appropriate model information in PID control design algorithm; sometimes both aspects of identification and design are treated. At no point can it be claimed that existing PID tuning methods are treated systematically; rather, the book has some chapters that explain some new ideas, whilst in other chapters existing techniques are given and then extended, rein- terpreted and renovated. The book is most certainly not a cookbook for PID control tuning recipes, and to return to our colleagues surprised, Is there anything left to be said?, the book now written shows clearly that the PID control still has many avenues to be explored.This is also the place to give thanks to various people who have been so helpful in the compilation, construction and production of the book. All the contributors are very gratefully thanked for agreeing to participate and for their patience during the editorial period. It was an extraordinary pleasure to meet some of them at their home institutions in Singapore and Taipei, Taiwan, in 2000, and others at various recent international control conferences.Professor M. J. Grimble is gratefully thanked for allowing Emeritus Professor M. A. Johnson the use of facilities at the Industrial Control Centre, University of Strathclyde in Glasgow, during the writing of this book.Finally, the Editors would like to thank the publishing staff at Springer-Verlag London, Oliver Jackson and Anthony Doyle, and at Springer Verlags New York offices, Jenny Wolkowicki, for their kind encour- agement, and patience during the gestation period of the book. Also the copy editor and typesetter, Ian Kingston, is thanke