Physical Oceanography Chap. 15 The Oceans Sea Water Ocean Movements

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<ul><li> Slide 1 </li> <li> Physical Oceanography Chap. 15 The Oceans Sea Water Ocean Movements </li> <li> Slide 2 </li> <li> The Oceans 15.1 Objectives identify methods used by scientists to study Earths oceans discuss the origin and composition of the oceans. describe the distribution of oceans and major seas </li> <li> Slide 3 </li> <li> I. Introduction </li> <li> Slide 4 </li> <li> What are some useful features of oceans? A.Uses </li> <li> Slide 5 </li> <li> I. Introduction A.Uses 1.travel 2.fishing/food 3.recreation </li> <li> Slide 6 </li> <li> I. Introduction A.Uses B.Studying </li> <li> Slide 7 </li> <li> I. Introduction A.Uses B.Studying 1.H.M.S. Challenger Measured depth, water temperature, fauna, current, and other data. First measured Mariana trench (26,890 ft.) </li> <li> Slide 8 </li> <li> I. Introduction A.Uses B.Studying 1.H.M.S. Challenger 2.Meteor Used sonar to map undersea topography </li> <li> Slide 9 </li> <li> Example Calculation A sonar signal travels about 1500 m/s in ocean water. If it takes 6 seconds for a signal to return to the ship after it is emitted what is the distance to the ocean floor? </li> <li> Slide 10 </li> <li> I. Introduction A.Uses B.Studying 1.H.M.S. Challenger 2.Meteor 3.TOPEX-Poseidon NASA satellite that measures ocean data </li> <li> Slide 11 </li> <li> TOPEX/Poseidon tracks ocean tides measures sea levels (to 5 cm accuracy) monitors climates by measuring ocean temperatures. </li> <li> Slide 12 </li> <li> II. Ocean origins </li> <li> Slide 13 </li> <li> A.Oceans are as old as Earths rocks </li> <li> Slide 14 </li> <li> II. Ocean origins A.Oceans are as old as Earths rocks 1.Lava flows have been dated at 4.6 b.y. </li> <li> Slide 15 </li> <li> II. Ocean origins A.Oceans are as old as Earths rocks 1.Lava flows have been dated at 4.6 b.y. 2.These formed rocks by cooling quickly (in water) </li> <li> Slide 16 </li> <li> II. Ocean origins A.Oceans are as old as Earths rocks B.Source of water </li> <li> Slide 17 </li> <li> II. Ocean origins A.Oceans are as old as Earths rocks B.Source of water 1.Comets (dirty snow balls) </li> <li> Slide 18 </li> <li> II. Ocean origins A.Oceans are as old as Earths rocks B.Source of water 1.Comets (dirty snow balls) 2.Water was trapped in Earth when it formed. Volcanoes released this into the atmosphere. </li> <li> Slide 19 </li> <li> III. Earths Water This is also called the hydrosphere </li> <li> Slide 20 </li> <li> A.Location Where is the Earths water found? III. Earths Water </li> <li> Slide 21 </li> <li> TypePercentageVolume Used in Model Total100 %2000 mL The Hydrosphere </li> <li> Slide 22 </li> <li> TypePercentageVolume Used in Model Total100 %2000 mL Salt Water (oceans)97.2% The Hydrosphere </li> <li> Slide 23 </li> <li> TypePercentageVolume Used in Model Total100 %2000 mL Salt Water (oceans)97.2%1941 mL Fresh Water2.8% Ice Underground Surface Soil &amp; Air The Hydrosphere </li> <li> Slide 24 </li> <li> TypePercentageVolume Used in Model Total100 %2000 mL Salt Water (oceans)97.2%1941 mL Fresh Water2.8%56 mL Ice2.3% Underground Surface Soil &amp; Air The Hydrosphere </li> <li> Slide 25 </li> <li> TypePercentageVolume Used in Model Total100 %2000 mL Salt Water (oceans)97.2%1941 mL Fresh Water2.8%56 mL Ice2.3%46 mL Underground0.4% Surface Soil &amp; Air The Hydrosphere </li> <li> Slide 26 </li> <li> TypePercentageVolume Used in Model Total100 %2000 mL Salt Water (oceans)97.2%1941 mL Fresh Water2.8%56 mL Ice2.3%46 mL Underground0.4%8 mL Surface~ 0.05%1 mL Soil &amp; Air~ 0.01%0.2 mL The Hydrosphere </li> <li> Slide 27 </li> <li> A.Location B.Amount of frozen water has varied III. Earths Water </li> <li> Slide 28 </li> <li> A.Location B.Amount of frozen water has varied 1.During ice ages as much as 10% of hydrosphere was frozen. III. Earths Water </li> <li> Slide 29 </li> <li> A.Location B.Amount of frozen water has varied 1.During ice ages as much as 10% of hydrosphere was frozen. 2.Sea level varied by hundreds of meters. Due to melting of glaciers and tectonic forces altering sea floor. III. Earths Water </li> <li> Slide 30 </li> <li> C.Most of Earths surface is covered by water (71%) III. Earths Water </li> <li> Slide 31 </li> <li> 1.The hemisphere contains higher percentage of water. III. Earths Water C.Most of Earths surface is covered by water (71%) </li> <li> Slide 32 </li> <li> III. Earths Water C.Most of Earths surface is covered by water (71%) 1.The southern hemisphere contains higher percentage of water. 2.All oceans are connected. </li> <li> Slide 33 </li> <li> III. Earths Water C.Most of Earths surface is covered by water (71%) 1.The southern hemisphere contains higher percentage of water. 2.All oceans are connected. 3.Pacific, Atlantic, and Indian oceans are main oceans. </li> <li> Slide 34 </li> <li> III. Earths Water C.Most of Earths surface is covered by water (71%) 1.The southern hemisphere contains higher percentage of water. 2.All oceans are connected. 3.Pacific, Atlantic, and Indian oceans are main oceans. 4.Seas are partly or mostly surrounded by land. </li> <li> Slide 35 </li> <li> III. Earths Water C.Most of Earths surface is covered by water (71%) 1.The southern hemisphere contains higher percentage of water. 2.All oceans are connected. 3.Pacific, Atlantic, and Indian oceans are main oceans. 4.Seas are partly or mostly surrounded by land. 5.Sea ice forms in the Arctic and Antarctic seas. </li> <li> Slide 36 </li> <li> The End </li> <li> Slide 37 </li> <li> Seawater - 15.2 Objectives compare &amp; contrast physical and chemical properties of seawater explain ocean layering describe the formation of deep- water masses </li> <li> Slide 38 </li> <li> I. Chemical Properties </li> <li> Slide 39 </li> <li> A measure of the dissolved salts in water. I. Chemical Properties A.Salinity </li> <li> Slide 40 </li> <li> I. Chemical Properties A.Salinity 1.Sea water is about 35 parts per thousand (ppt) salts </li> <li> Slide 41 </li> <li> I. Chemical Properties A.Salinity 1.Sea water is about 35 parts per thousand (ppt) salts 2.Salts include Na +, Cl -, SO 4 2-, Mg 2+, Ca 2+, K +, HCO 3 -, and others </li> <li> Slide 42 </li> <li> I. Chemical Properties A.Salinity 3.The salinity varies and is lower where there is... </li> <li> Slide 43 </li> <li> I. Chemical Properties A.Salinity 3.The salinity varies and is lower where there is... a.a lot of precipitation </li> <li> Slide 44 </li> <li> I. Chemical Properties A.Salinity 3.The salinity varies and is lower where there is... a.a lot of precipitation b.an estuary/river delta </li> <li> Slide 45 </li> <li> I. Chemical Properties A.Salinity 3.The salinity varies and is lower where there is... a.a lot of precipitation b.an estuary/river delta c.melting of glaciers </li> <li> Slide 46 </li> <li> I. Chemical Properties A.Salinity 4.Source of sea salt </li> <li> Slide 47 </li> <li> I. Chemical Properties A.Salinity 4.Source of sea salt a.the atmosphere (Cl - and SO 4 2- ) </li> <li> Slide 48 </li> <li> I. Chemical Properties A.Salinity 4.Source of sea salt a.the atmosphere (Cl - and SO 4 2- ) b.weathering rocks (Na +, K +, Ca 2+ from feldspar) </li> <li> Slide 49 </li> <li> I. Chemical Properties A.Salinity 4.Source of sea salt 5.Removing sea salt </li> <li> Slide 50 </li> <li> I. Chemical Properties A.Salinity 4.Source of sea salt 5.Removing sea salt a.deposited when water evaporates </li> <li> Slide 51 </li> <li> I. Chemical Properties A.Salinity 4.Source of sea salt 5.Removing sea salt a.deposited when water evaporates b.carried via sea spray </li> <li> Slide 52 </li> <li> I. Chemical Properties A.Salinity 4.Source of sea salt 5.Removing sea salt a.deposited when water evaporates b.carried via sea spray c.marine organisms use it in building shells, bones, and teeth </li> <li> Slide 53 </li> <li> II. Physical Properties </li> <li> Slide 54 </li> <li> A.Density is greater than 1.00 g/cm 3 Density of fresh water is 1.00 g/cm 3 </li> <li> Slide 55 </li> <li> Can be as low as -2C II. Physical Properties A.Density is greater than 1.00 g/cm 3 B.Freezing point is less than 0C </li> <li> Slide 56 </li> <li> II. Physical Properties A.Density is greater than 1.00 g/cm 3 B.Freezing point is less than 0C C.Light absorption </li> <li> Slide 57 </li> <li> II. Physical Properties A.Density is greater than 1.00 g/cm 3 B.Freezing point is less than 0C C.Light absorption 1.Water absorbs light The ocean is completely dark at depths &gt; 100 m </li> <li> Slide 58 </li> <li> II. Physical Properties A.Density is greater than 1.00 g/cm 3 B.Freezing point is less than 0C C.Light absorption 1.Water absorbs light 2.Some colors penetrate further than others </li> <li> Slide 59 </li> <li> II. Physical Properties D.Layers </li> <li> Slide 60 </li> <li> II. Physical Properties D.Layers 1.The deeper you go the _____ the temp. </li> <li> Slide 61 </li> <li> II. Physical Properties D.Layers 1.The deeper you go the cooler the temp. 2.Temperature profiles show water depth/temperature relationship </li> <li> Slide 62 </li> <li> II. Physical Properties D.Layers 1.The deeper you go the cooler the temp. 2.Temperature profiles show water depth/temperature relationship 3.The thermocline is a layer in which the temperature decreases linearly with depth </li> <li> Slide 63 </li> <li> II. Physical Properties D.Layers 1.The deeper you go the cooler the temp. 2.Temperature profiles show water depth/temperature relationship 3.The thermocline is a layer in which the temperature decreases linearly with depth 4.There is no thermocline for polar seas </li> <li> Slide 64 </li> <li> II. Physical Properties E.Water masses </li> <li> Slide 65 </li> <li> II. Physical Properties E.Water masses 1.Cold water comes from polar seas </li> <li> Slide 66 </li> <li> II. Physical Properties E.Water masses 1.Cold water comes from polar seas 2.Surface water sinks as salinity increases due to sea ice formation </li> <li> Slide 67 </li> <li> II. Physical Properties E.Water masses 1.Cold water comes from polar seas 2.Surface water sinks as salinity increases due to sea ice formation 3.Deep currents carry water to the equator </li> <li> Slide 68 </li> <li> The End </li> <li> Slide 69 </li> <li> Ocean Movements 15.3 Objectives describe the physical properties of waves explain how tides form compare and contrast various ocean currents http://tv-antenna.com/heavy-seas/3/ </li> <li> Slide 70 </li> <li> I. Waves Periodic movement that carries energy from one place to another. </li> <li> Slide 71 </li> <li> I. Waves A.Wave characteristics </li> <li> Slide 72 </li> <li> I. Waves A.Wave characteristics 1.Crest The peak of a wave http://ans.hsh.no/home/bji/Fys01/week8/nasa/ </li> <li> Slide 73 </li> <li> I. Waves A.Wave characteristics 1.Crest 2.Trough Lowest part of a wave http://ans.hsh.no/home/bji/Fys01/week8/nasa/ </li> <li> Slide 74 </li> <li> I. Waves A.Wave characteristics 1.Crest 2.Trough 3.Wavelength Distance between successive wave crests (or troughs) http://ans.hsh.no/home/bji/Fys01/week8/nasa/ </li> <li> Slide 75 </li> <li> I. Waves A.Wave characteristics 1.Crest 2.Trough 3.Wavelength 4.Wave height Depends on wind speed, wind duration, and fetch. </li> <li> Slide 76 </li> <li> I. Waves A.Wave characteristics 5.Breakers Collapsing waves </li> <li> Slide 77 </li> <li> I. Waves A.Wave characteristics 5.Breakers More friction with ocean bottom causes waves to slow. a.Waves slow down </li> <li> Slide 78 </li> <li> I. Waves A.Wave characteristics 5.Breakers The tops of the waves collapse forward because the bottoms are being slowed a.Waves slow down b.Waves become unstable </li> <li> Slide 79 </li> <li> I. Waves B.Tides Periodic rise and fall of sea level. </li> <li> Slide 80 </li> <li> I. Waves B.Tides 1.High tide Highest level to which water rises (a bulge of water) </li> <li> Slide 81 </li> <li> I. Waves B.Tides 1.High tide 2.Low tide Lowest level water rises (caused by lack of water) </li> <li> Slide 82 </li> <li> I. Waves B.Tides 3.Types of daily cycles Caused by topography and latitude </li> <li> Slide 83 </li> <li> I. Waves B.Tides 3.Types of daily cycles Characterized by __ high tides each day a.Semidiurnal </li> <li> Slide 84 </li> <li> I. Waves B.Tides 3.Types of daily cycles Have one pronounced high tide and one _____ high tide a.Semidiurnal b.Mixed </li> <li> Slide 85 </li> <li> I. Waves B.Tides 3.Types of daily cycles a.Semidiurnal b.Mixed c.Diurnal Characterized by one ____ ____ each day </li> <li> Slide 86 </li> <li> I. Waves B.Tides 4.Cause of tides tutorial </li> <li> Slide 87 </li> <li> I. Waves B.Tides 4.Cause of tides a.Gravity from the moon pulls on earth/oceans </li> <li> Slide 88 </li> <li> I. Waves B.Tides 4.Cause of tides a.Gravity from the moon pulls on earth/oceans b.Centrifugal motion moves the water away from Earth </li> <li> Slide 89 </li> <li> I. Waves B.Tides 4.Cause of tides c.During spring tide (unrelated to the season) high tides are highest </li> <li> Slide 90 </li> <li> I. Waves B.Tides 4.Cause of tides c.During spring tide (unrelated to the season) high tides are highest d.During neap tide high tides are lower and low tides are higher than normal </li> <li> Slide 91 </li> <li> I. Waves B.Tides 4.Cause of tides e.The sun influences tides to a smaller degree This is because of the greater distance between Earth and the sun (compared to Earth and the moon) </li> <li> Slide 92 </li> <li> II. Ocean Currents A.Density currents Move bottom water according to temperature and salinity differences </li> <li> Slide 93 </li> <li> II. Ocean Currents A.Density currents B.Surface currents Driven by surface wind. </li> <li> Slide 94 </li> <li> II. Ocean Currents A.Density currents B.Surface currents Trade winds, prevailing westerlies, polar easterly winds. Coriolis effect alters directions 1.Follow global wind patterns </li> <li> Slide 95 </li> <li> II. Ocean Currents A.Density currents B.Surface currents 1.Follow global wind patterns 2.Currents from the poles bring colder water, while currents from equator bring warmer water </li> <li> Slide 96 </li> <li> II. Ocean Currents A.Density currents B.Surface currents Circular surface ocean currents 1.Follow global wind patterns 2.Currents from the poles bring colder water, while currents from equator bring warmer water 3.Gyres develop due to landmasses interacting with current flow </li> <li> Slide 97 </li> <li> Major Ocean Currents </li> <li> Slide 98 </li> <li> II. Ocean Currents C.Upwelling brings nutrient-rich water. Movement of cold water upward as surface water is blown by offshore winds </li> <li> Slide 99 </li> <li> The End </li> </ul>

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