Philosophy Inventory - Dr. William Allan Kritsonis

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<ul><li><p>8/3/2019 Philosophy Inventory - Dr. William Allan Kritsonis</p><p> 1/8</p><p>William Allan Kritsonis, PhDProfessor, PhD Program in Educational Leadership,</p><p>PVAMU/Member Texas A&amp;M University</p><p>WHAT IS YOUR PHILOSOPHY?</p><p>Many individuals have a philosophy embedded in their subconscious minds. Although</p><p>one does not realize altogether that certain beliefs follow a selected philosophic approach,</p><p>individual actions parallel certain philosophies more than others. The following medium</p><p>offers information concerning personal philosophic beliefs so that a basic understanding</p><p>can be obtained and a personal philosophy developed. Please answer the following</p><p>statements on the answer sheet at the end of this section utilizing the scale:</p><p>Strongly</p><p>Disagree Disagree Neutral Agree</p><p>Strongly</p><p>Agree</p><p>|--------1------------------2------------------3-----------------4------------------5-------|</p><p>1. The subjects of a school are the most important feature of an education.</p><p>2. Schools should promote a teacher-centered environment in order to encourage</p><p>effective learning.</p><p>3. Education is a prerequisite for a student to understand lifes intentions.</p><p>4. What students are taught should be determined solely by student interest and input.</p><p>5. The deductive approach is the most effective method of teaching any subject to</p><p>students.</p><p>6. Universal truth is an individual perception.7. If it happens, it is real.</p><p>8. Disregard the past and you are destined to repeat it.</p><p>9. A schools curriculum should be determined by the specific needs of each</p><p>community, where content is designed for the betterment of each student.</p><p>10. Education should focus strongly on the development of reasoning skills of students.</p><p>11. Curricular content should center primarily on the scientific method for resolving</p><p>dilemmas.</p><p>12. Students should be free to explore their interests in whatever fashion they desire.</p><p>13. The climate in which one lives solely defines ones behavior.</p><p>14. All children can learn the same thing, but not at the same rate.15. Students should be placed in classrooms according to their individual abilities.</p><p>16. All reform movements in education are basically the same.</p><p>17. The curriculum for students should contain a specific nucleus of information that is</p><p>indigenous for all literate people.</p><p>18. Ethical behavior and morality should be incorporated into a students learning</p><p>process.</p></li><li><p>8/3/2019 Philosophy Inventory - Dr. William Allan Kritsonis</p><p> 2/8</p><p>19. The curriculum of a school should not be decided by a small circle of school</p><p>officials, but by all involved parties within the community.</p><p>20. What is real is perceived differently by individuals, therefore no two things can be</p><p>the same.</p><p>21. Learning by specified programs of material in sequence is paramount to a childs</p><p>education.22. Teachers need to give more individual assistance in the classroom.</p><p>23. Students with a mental disability cannot learn the same subject matter as regular</p><p>students and should not be placed in a regular classroom environment.</p><p>24. Money is not the total answer to increased student achievement.</p><p>25. Learning to read proficiently is the solution to the educational dilemma.</p><p>26. Each individual in society must attain a specified body of knowledge to function</p><p>properly.</p><p>27. Student needs, experiences, and interests should be the determining factor when</p><p>designing a schools curriculum.</p><p>28. A schools curriculum should contain more electives for students to choose.29. A complete curricular analysis for effective teaching should include scope,</p><p>sequence, articulation, pacing, and, most importantly, reward or reinforcement.</p><p>30. All teachers have an underlying concern for students and the learning process.</p><p>31. Effective education begins at the home.</p><p>32. Traditional education of the 1950s should be reinstated in the school curriculum.</p><p>33. Teachers should not teach in areas where their proficiency is below average.</p><p>34. More emphasis should be placed on The Great Men and The Great Books ofpast civilizations.</p><p>35. The curriculum should be entirely a hands-on, practical approach.</p><p>36. Student achievement cannot take place in a traditional, lecture-oriented format.37. The environment is a tangible place where material is a solid representation of what</p><p>is.</p><p>38. Students learn best in a one-on-one basis.</p><p>39. Students, teachers, parents, and administrators should decide solely on the curricular</p><p>structure of a school.</p><p>40. What works in one environment does not necessarily work in another.</p><p>41. There should be a distinct division of subject matter, not the consolidated collection</p><p>presently advocated.</p><p>42. Art/music appreciation should stress past contributions rather than practical</p><p>applications.</p><p>43. The teachers sole function in the classroom should be to guide students through</p><p>problem-solving situations.</p><p>44. A school environment should nurture students to find their roles in society.</p><p>45. Fool me once, shame on youfool me twice, shame on me.</p><p>46. Children are born with universal knowledge and it is the teachers job to bring forththat knowledge.</p></li><li><p>8/3/2019 Philosophy Inventory - Dr. William Allan Kritsonis</p><p> 3/8</p><p>47. The universe is made from scientific laws and the scientific process is designed to</p><p>explain our existence.</p><p>48. If it works, it is true.</p><p>49. Enculturation is the primary function of education.</p><p>50. A schools curriculum should concentrate on long-range goals, not on immediate</p><p>concerns.51. A student should feel free to be inventive and communicate inner curiosities without</p><p>the threat of reprimand.</p><p>52. Individuals are first an introvert and second an extrovert.</p><p>53. The scientific approach is the best approach to effectively understand explained and</p><p>unexplained phenomenon.</p><p>54. Reality is what one believes.</p><p>55. Teachers should always adapt and should be flexible in the learning environment.</p><p>56. We learn best from experience.</p><p>57. A strict, proven curricular format is necessary to ensure proper learning.</p><p>58. Even though students learn at different rates, every student should be exposed to thesame learning material.</p><p>59. School environments should be void of any autocracy by the teachers and/or</p><p>administration.</p><p>60. Every child evolves at a different rate, both physically and mentally, and should be</p><p>free, without interference, to do so.</p><p>61. Students learn best when given an incentive or reward.</p><p>62. Students know what they need to know and should follow their beliefs.</p><p>63. Teachers are in the best position to determine appropriate learning activities.</p><p>64. Our past dictates our future.</p><p>65. Students do not do enough outside assignments for effective exposure to the subjectmatter.</p><p>66. The Socratic method of questioning should be utilized more in the classroom to</p><p>cultivate critical thinking skills.</p><p>67. Student-to-student interaction is the best learning method.</p><p>68. Beauty is in the eye of the beholder because there is no standardized scale for</p><p>measuring beauty.</p><p>69. Moral and ethical values are not inborn traits, but learned processes.</p><p>70. Perceptions are everything in learning.</p><p>71. Student success is a product of his/her environment regardless of intellectual</p><p>capability.</p><p>72. Field trips should be utilized more often to enhance the learning process.</p><p>73. All teachers of a given subject should teach the same content in order to establish</p><p>continuity of learning.</p><p>74. Students learn by themselves under direct supervision of the teacher.</p><p>75. Students learn better when grouped together than when separated for individual</p><p>investigation.</p></li><li><p>8/3/2019 Philosophy Inventory - Dr. William Allan Kritsonis</p><p> 4/8</p><p>76. Having a child feel good about himself/herself is more important than what he/she</p><p>learns.</p><p>77. Standardized tests are the best measures of student achievement.</p><p>78. There is no universal standard to describe beauty except in what one perceives.</p><p>79. A structured curriculum is best for students to learn.</p><p>80. I hear and I forgetI see and I rememberI do and I understand.</p><p>Copyright 2011 William Allan Kritsonis, PhD</p></li><li><p>8/3/2019 Philosophy Inventory - Dr. William Allan Kritsonis</p><p> 5/8</p><p>William Allan Kritsonis, PhD - Copyright 2011</p><p>ANSWERSHEET</p><p>Place each numbered response for the corresponding questions in the appropriate spacebelow.</p><p>Scale</p><p>Strongly</p><p>Disagree Disagree Neutral Agree</p><p>Strongly</p><p>Agree</p><p>|--------1------------------2------------------3-----------------4------------------5-------|</p><p>A B C D E F G H</p><p>1. __ 2. __ 3. __ 4. __ 5. __ 6. __ 7. ___ 8.___</p><p>9. __ 10. __ 11. __ 12. __ 13. __ 14. __ 15. ___ 16.___</p><p>17. __ 18. __ 19. __ 20. __ 21. __ 22. __ 23. ___ 24.___</p><p>25. __ 26. __ 27. __ 28. __ 29. __ 30. __ 31. ___ 32.___</p><p>33. __ 34. __ 35. __ 36. __ 37. __ 38. __ 39. ___ 40.___</p><p>41. __ 42. __ 43. __ 44. __ 45. __ 46. __ 47. ___ 48.___</p><p>49. __ 50. __ 51. __ 52. __ 53. __ 54. __ 55. ___ 56.___</p><p>57. __ 58. __ 59. __ 60. __ 61. __ 62. __ 63. ___ 64.___</p><p>65. __ 66. __ 67. __ 68. __ 69. __ 70. __ 71. ___ 72.___</p><p>73. __ 74. __ 75. __ 76. __ 77. __ 78. __ 79. ___ 80.___</p></li><li><p>8/3/2019 Philosophy Inventory - Dr. William Allan Kritsonis</p><p> 6/8</p><p>William Allan Kritsonis, PhD - Copyright 2011</p><p>SCORING</p><p>Step 1</p><p>Total points for each column and place in the appropriate blank below.</p><p>A____ B____ C____ D____ E____ F____ G____ H____</p><p>Step 2</p><p>Place the total of each column in the corresponding blanks below.</p><p>Major Philosophic Off-Shoots Major Philosophies</p><p>Column A = ____ Essentialist Column E = ____ Behaviorist</p><p>Column B = ____ Perennialist Column F = ____ Idealist</p><p>Column C = ____ Progressivist Column G = ____ Realist</p><p>Column D = ____ Existentialist Column H = ____ Pragmatist</p><p>Scores indicate your agreement or disagreement with a particular philosophical point ofview. The highest score indicates a more prominent consensus and the lowest score</p><p>indicates a more prominent conflict. The highest possible score for any philosophical</p><p>category is 50 and the lowest possible score is 10.</p><p>Comparing the scores on the left to the scores on the right will offer an interesting</p><p>perspective concerning original philosophic views to the philosophic off-shoots. The</p><p>participant is directed to corresponding sections within the text for a review of</p><p>philosophic convictions.</p><p>William Allan Kritsonis, PhDCopyright 2011</p></li><li><p>8/3/2019 Philosophy Inventory - Dr. William Allan Kritsonis</p><p> 7/8</p><p>William Allan Kritsonis, PhDCopyright 2011</p><p>PHILOSOPHIES OF SCHOOLING</p><p>KEY POINTS</p><p>1. Philosophy is not a science; it is an attempt to understand the world.</p><p>2. Educational philosophy is the application of formal philosophy to the field of</p><p>education.</p><p>3. Metaphysics is the branch of philosophy that deals with ultimate reality;</p><p>epistemology focuses on knowledge, and axiology deals with the study of values.</p><p>4. Idealism, the philosophy of Plato, focuses on the search for truth.</p><p>5. Realism, the philosophy of Aristotle, supports the notion that knowledge can be</p><p>gained through the senses and from deductive reasoning.</p><p>6. Pragmatism is an American philosophy that is associated with human experience;</p><p>John Dewey was a prominent pragmatist.</p><p>7. Existentialism, an individualized philosophy, represents a radical departure from</p><p>other schools of philosophy and focuses on the individual.</p><p>8. Perennialism is an educational philosophy developed from realism, while the</p><p>educational philosophy of essentialism is the basis for the back-to-the-basics</p><p>movement in education.</p><p>9. Progressivism is associated with problem-solving techniques, while</p><p>reconstructionism focuses on social reform.</p><p>10. Basic philosophy and educational philosophy are directly related to what occurs in</p><p>school classrooms.</p><p>11. Philosophy directly impacts on curriculum and teaching practices.</p><p>12. Some philosophies encourage a highly structured curriculum with close student</p><p>monitoring, while others focus on limited structure and wide freedoms for students.</p><p>Dr. Kritsonis provides basic information regarding philosophy and educational</p><p>philosophy. It begins by discussing the basic philosophies, such as idealism and</p><p>realism, and then moves into a discussion of specific educational philosophies.</p><p>B. KEY TERMSDEFINITIONS</p><p>ANALYTICAL - allows the use of language to analyze words; currently the dominating</p><p>activity of American and British philosophers; given to studying a problem by breaking it</p><p>down into its various parts.</p></li><li><p>8/3/2019 Philosophy Inventory - Dr. William Allan Kritsonis</p><p> 8/8</p><p>ANALYTICAL PHILOSOPHY- philosophy based on analytical activity.</p><p>AXIOLOGY- area of philosophy that focuses on values.</p><p>BEHAVIORAL ENGINEERING - Philosophy of education that focuses on controlling</p><p>the learners environment.</p><p>BEHAVIORISM - educational philosophy and practice that emphasized reinforcing</p><p>appropriate behavior or learning: includes the concepts of stimulus and response.</p><p>ECLECTIC - selecting what appears to be the best doctrines, methods, styles, or</p><p>philosophies.</p><p>EPISTEMOLOGY- deals with knowledge; therefore, directly related to the instructional</p><p>methods employed by teachers.</p><p>ESSENTIALISM - area of philosophy that believes a common core of knowledge and</p><p>ideals should be the focus of the curriculum.</p><p>EXISTENTIALISM- philosophy that emphasizes individuals and individual decision-making.</p><p>IDEALISM- a philosophy that emphasizes global ideas related to moral teachings.</p><p>METAPHYSICS - the branch of philosophy that deals with ultimate reality.</p><p>ONTOLOGY- the study of what is real; the primary focus of metaphysics dealing with</p><p>what is real about material objects, the universe, persons, being, mind, existence, and so</p><p>forth. Hard core reality.</p><p>PERENNIALISM- educational philosophy that believes in the existence of unchanging</p><p>universal truths.</p><p>PRAGMATISM- philosophy that focuses on practical application of knowledge.</p><p>PRESCRIPTIVE - attempts to establish standards for assessing values, judging conduct</p><p>and appraising art: ordered with the force of authority.</p><p>PROGRESSIVISM- educational philosophy emphasizing experience.</p><p>RECONSTRUCTIONISM - educational philosophy calling for schools to get involved</p><p>and support social reform.</p><p>SPECULATIVE - considerate of possibilities and probabilities; philosophy is a search</p><p>for orderliness applied to all knowledge; it applies systematic thinking to everything that</p><p>exists.SYNOPTIC- providing a general summary of data collected at many points to present an</p><p>overview.</p><p>SYNTHESIS - assembling various parts into a whole; reasoning from self-evident</p><p>propositions, laws or principles to arrive by a series of deductions at what one seeks to</p><p>establish; enables educators to see the relationship of ideas to practice.</p></li></ul>