Philippine Primitive Architecture

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<p>History of Architecture 4:Primitive Architecture</p> <p>MAN AND HIS ARCHITECTURE</p> <p>The study of man and his architecture goes beyond the period of existence. The different architectural characters in the different periods of architecture is shown in the interests of man at that time as shown in their buildings.</p> <p>In this 20th Century, our social structure has become so complex that confusion rather than simplicity is its chief characteristic.</p> <p> The automobile has made it possible for us to live many miles from our work but has created a traffic problem.</p> <p> The movies, radio, t.v. and transportation have brought us knowledge of foreign countries. Standardization is more prevalent than individualism.</p> <p> Congestion, economic pressure requires proximity of allied fields of endeavor and adds to the problems of the architect and city planner.</p> <p>This complexity of our social system is reflected in our architecture.</p> <p>Two basic characteristics of human life:</p> <p> Movement Settlement</p> <p>MOVEMENT</p> <p> If life is to exist and civilization is to develop, there are fundamental impulses or desires, which must be satisfied. These forces may be called the stimuli or action. 1. Desire for Preservation - in obtaining food, shelter, clothing and security, civilized man must have commerce, government and religion. These activities call for their accompanying structures, or architecture.</p> <p>2. Desire for Recognition - this is a desire for prestige, pride and ambition, social status, physical supremacy, intellectual attainment, personal or civic, results in the-struggle for position.</p> <p>As a result, man build palaces, skyscrapers, or communities may erect cathedrals or public buildings and monuments. 3. Desire for Response - This arises from the gregarious nature of man, from his wish for love, friendship, and sociability. </p> <p>4. Desire for Self-Expression - This is the urge of man to assert himself as an individual, to do things in his own particular way.</p> <p>SETTLEMENT</p> <p> In geography, statistics and archaeology, a settlement, locality or populated place is a community in which people live. A settlement can range in size from a small number of dwellings grouped together to the largest of cities with surroundin urbanized area. Settlements may include hamlets, villages, towns and cities.</p> <p> In the field of geospatial predictive modeling, settlements are "a city, town, village, or other agglomeration of buildings where people live and work.</p> <p> A settlement conventionally includes its constructed facilities such as roads, enclosures, field systems, boundary banks and ditches, ponds, parks and woods, wind and water mills, manor houses, moats and churches.</p> <p>Early stages in development of human beings tender to gather in groups. The early prototypes of the most primitive kind of permanent human settlement, hamlet or village.</p> <p>PRE-HISTORIC PHILIPPINE ARCHITECTURE</p> <p>The earliest records of pre-colonial architecture in the Philippines are rock shelters and caves in Palawan. Early Filipinos are nomadic since they are constantly in search for food through hunting or fishing so they mainly rely on nature when creating shelter and do not need to build permanent structures.</p> <p>Cavesand rock shelters like theTabon CaveinPalawanserved as shelters for the earlyFilipinos.</p> <p>Cave dwelling gave early man his first conception of architectural space. This walled eclosure was made for practical and material consideration of physical survival namely;</p> <p> To intensify spiritual receptivity and Emotional exaltation</p> <p>Tabon caves (Palawan)</p> <p>TheTabon Caves, dubbed as thePhilippines' Cradle of Civilization,are a set of caves located on Lipuun Point, north ofQuezon municipality, in the south western part of the province ofPalawanonPalawan Island, in thePhilippines. The caves are named after theTabon scrubfowl. It is bordered on the south by the town proper of Quezon, Bgy.Panitianon the west, and the South China Sea on the north and east. Out of 215 known caves, 29 have been explored and seven of these are open to the public. The seven include Tabon, Diwata, Igang and Liyang Caves. One of the oldest human bones found in the Philippines, theTabon Man, was found here in 1962. Other excavated, unexamined remains are stored onsite.</p> <p>Duyong Cave</p> <p>TheDuyong cavein the southwest coast of thePalawanIsland is a site of the earliest intact burial ever discovered in thePhilippineswhich shows traces of man's humanity during the New Stone Age. Excavated in the cave were a 179-centimeter skeleton in a flexed position, bronze tools, glass and gold beads, glass bracelets, shell adzes and ornaments, and nut-chewing paraphernalia which dated between 300 to 500 B.C.</p> <p>PRIMITIVE DWELLING/BUILDING AND ARCHITECTURE THEORY</p> <p>Ancestral Crude Building</p> <p>The fact that there is not, and never has been a characteristically Philippine Architecture, is not necessarily a reflection upon the genius of the Filipinos. Geography, religion, and time were responsible for the admixture of our ancient culture. Originally a part of the great continent of Asia, the Philippines became an archipelago of 7,100 islands after the postglacial period.</p> <p>Strategically located, it lies along the borders of the West Pacific and the South China Sea. Before the 16th century, it was an archipelago of independent kingdoms, intermittently invaded by Negritos, Indonesians, Proto-Malays, Malays and swept by the tide of the Southeast Asian Empires - the Shri-Vishaya, the Madjapahit, the Mohammedan-Malay Empire of Malacca, and the Chinese of the Mings.Filipino Architecture is not indigenous. It is an admixture of the Muslim, Malayan, Chinese, and Spanish influences. The indigenous tribes of the Philippines, which were quite a diverse group, and of nomadic nature had little art of building to speak of. Their architectural art was revealed in their houses of nipa, cogon and bamboo. Although these simple buildings were not as enduring as the colossal pyramids of Egypt or as magnificent as the grand temple of Greece, yet they were suitable to the tropical conditions of the islands.</p> <p>The earliest shelters of human beings were probably not built by them. They simply found these shelters or found themselves in them. It was nature which fashioned hollows on cliffs and mountainsides that offered protection from heat, rain, and wind. Communities before lived near bodies of water. Houses were lined across the seas, rivers, lakes, and bays. Why? This is because:</p> <p>1. There is food from the water sources2. The water source is an easy access to food3. It is also a means of transportation4. It is not easily attacked by enemies.</p> <p>Early Shelter</p> <p>1. Caves - Cavesand rock shelters, like theTabon CaveinPalawan,served as shelters for the earlyFilipinos. Early Filipinos lived in caves because they think caves were safer. The Tabon Cave in Palawan yielded the earliest-known remains of human beings in the Philippines.</p> <p>TRIVIA: In Angono, Rizal, evidence of ancient cave dwellers exists in carved figures on cave walls which were declared the earliest known Philippine mural.</p> <p>But later then they moved to plains and coastal areas for fishing.</p> <p>2. Lean-to - Meanwhile, the food gatherers, the fishers, or the hunters, who moved from one place to another in their search for food and game, needed a portable shelter. Thus, they fashioned the lean-to from a frame made of tree branches and twigs, using leaves and fronds for sidings. A screen resting on the ground and help up at an angle by one or several poles, the lean-to is both roof and wall, protecting dwellers from rain the heat of the sun.</p> <p>Alean-tois a type of simple structure originally added to an existing building with the rafters "leaning" against another wall. Free standing lean-to structures are generally used as shelters. It is roof and wall combination made to protect dwellers from rain the heat of the sun. The floor can be the ground itself, or a bed of leaves, or a platform slightly above the ground. The lean-to is light enough to be carried to another site. However, the dweller can simply abandon it and build another. A pair of lean-tos can be joined together to form a tent-like shelter, or a double-slope roof, which, in effect, is the beginning of a house.</p> <p>TRIVIA: Swidden farming or commonly called kaingin led to a relatively settled life. After making a clearing in the forest, the swidden farmer could cultivate it for two years, let it lie fallow, the return to it a few years later. Although dwellings became larger and were better built, they were neither permanent nor durable because sometimes, the kaingin farmer had to move on.</p> <p>Modern Lean to</p> <p>3. Tree Houses - These are platforms orbuildingsconstructed around, next to or between thetrunkand branchesof one or more maturetreeswhile above ground level. For added protection from floods, wild animals, and enemies, houses were built on trees, anywhere from 2 to 20 meters above the ground. Such houses have been found among the Ilongot, Tinguian, and Gaddang in northern Luzon, and among the Mandaya, Manobo, Tiruray, and Bukidnon in Mindanao. One type of tree house nestles on the branches of a tree. Another type rests partly on a tall tree stump and partly on a cluster of tall stilts. Moreover, Houses have ladders hoisted in at night to keep safe from enemies and wild animals. </p> <p>Ifugao Dwellings</p> <p>The people of the Cordilleras in northern Luzon are swidden farmers. But some, particularly the Ifugao, Bontoc, and Kalinga, are known for their rice terraces. With massive, towering walls and a skillfully devised irrigation system, the rice terraces are a wonder of primitive engineering. The terrace builders constructed sturdy dwellings remarkable for both simplicity and ingenuity.</p> <p>Introduced to the Philippines by Late Neolithic People (Indonesia B), a seafaring group, came directly to the archipelago from South China to Northern Indo-China (2000-1500 BC), the one-room Ifugao house, known as fale, is a little marvel of construction. Outside, the Ifugao house seems to be nothing more than a pyramidal roofs raised on four posts. The interior spaceenclosed by slanting walls, sloping roof, and ceiling formed by the loftappears nearly spherical. The dark, windowless chamber suggests a womb. Four wooden posts rest on a pavement and support two wooden girders which, in turn, support three wooden transverse joists. On the posts are wooden discs that prevent rats from entering the house. The ladder is drawn up at night or is hung across the front when the occupants are away. The floor joists, floor sills, vertical studs, and horizontal beams at about head level form a cage that rests on the posts and girders. Floor boards are fitted between the joists. Wooden sidings slant outward and rise to waist height to form the lower half of the wall. The upper half of the wall is formed by the inner side of the roof.</p> <p>Wave Migration Theory</p> <p>The most widely known version of the peopling of the Philippines during the prehistoric times is the theory of Prof. H. Otley Beyer. The theories of Prof. Beyer about Philippine prehistory on the waves of migration are now under attack by the new breeds of historians and anthropologists. Indeed the migration of ancient Filipinos cannot now be held tenable due to many questions about the manner in which this theory was postulated, and the be archaeological evidence which challenge many of Dr. Beyers hypotheses. These are presented below on the ancestors of the Filipinos came in different waves of migration.</p> <p>1. The Cave-man Dawn Man Group</p> <p>This type was similar to the Java Man, Peking Man, and other Asian homo sapiens of 250,000 years ago. Beyer called the first Filipino the Dawn Man, for he appeared at the dawn time. It is claimed that he reached the Philippines through land bridges.</p> <p>a. Thickly haired and brawny had no knowledge in agriculture.b. He lived by means of gathering wild plants, by fishing and hunting.c. Hunting, for that time many Pleistocene animals such as boars, deer, and rhinoceros, small and giant elephants.</p> <p>2. Negritos Group</p> <p> The aboriginal pygmy group, who came between 25,0000 and 30,000 years ago, again they walked across the land bridges from the Malay Peninsula, Borneo, and the Australian connection. Hence they looked like the aborigines. After their arrival, the land bridges became submerged under the seas, and the Negritos lived permanently in the archipelago and became its first settlers. They are also known as Aeta, Ati or Ita. The Negritosare among the smallest people on earth. They are usually 5 feet tall, with black skin, dark kinky hair, round eyes, and flat noses. The Aetas are primitive people with culture belonging to the Old Stone Age (Paleolithic)</p> <p>a. They had no permanent dwelling but wandered in the forests, living by hunting, fishing, and foraging for wild plants.b. Their homes consisted of temporary sheds made of tree branches and jungle leaves.c. They wore little clothing.d. They had no community life and only practiced the crudest religion, with a belief in charms, amulets, fetishes, or even animal and human sacrifices.e. They were among the worlds best archers and herbalists.</p> <p>Wave Migration Theory: Study of people migrations gradually coming into the Philippines from neighboring countries.</p> <p>1. First Wave: Indonesia from the South</p> <p>These were the maritime Indonesians, who belonged to the Mongoloid race with Caucasian feature, who came about 5,000 -6,00 years ago. They were the first immigrants to reach the Philippines by sea. They were tall, with height ranging from 56 to 62. According to Beyer, the Indonesian came in two waves of migration, with type A arriving about 3,000 to 4,000 BC and the second about 1,500 to 500 BC.</p> <p>Indonesian A was tall and slender with light complexion, thin lips and high aquiline nose.</p> <p>Indonesian B was shorter, with bulky body, dark complexion, thick lips, and large nose.</p> <p>It is said that the descendants of the Indonesians are the terrace-building tribes of Northern Luzon(Ifugao), and also Igorots, Apayaos, Gaddangs, Kanlinga and Ibanags; the Mangyans of Mindoro; the Tagbanuas of Palawan; and the Bagobos, Bilaans, Bukidnons, Manobos, Mandaya, Subanuns, Tirurays, and other tribes of Mindanao.</p> <p>a) They brought a more advanced culture than the Negritos, for they belonged to the New Stone (Neolithic) Age, and they displaced the Negritos who moved to the mountains.</p> <p>b) They had permanent dwellings, wore clothing and personal ornaments, and knew agriculture, mining and copper tools.</p> <p>2. Second Wave: Direct from Malaysia</p> <p>The Malays migrated from 300 BC to as late as the 14thand 15thcenturies AD. There were several waves of Malay migration to these islands: (1) The first group representing the Bontoks, Ilongots and Tinggian of Northern Luzon;(2) The second group representing the alphabet-using Malays who became the Tagalogs, Bicolanos, Pampangenous, Visayans and other Chr...</p>