phd thesis 2008

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PhD Thesis about the Garzan Carbonates and their log charecters, microfaices and sequence stratigraphy. Garzan Oil field and its log to micrfacies correlations.

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  • 1. Z.E.YILDIZEL June, 2008 DEPOSITIONAL STACKING PATTERNS AND CYCLES OF GARZAN FORMATION IN THE GARZAN-GERMK OIL FIELD: AN APPROACH TO CYCLE TO LOG CORRELATION BY ZEYNEP ELF GAZULUSOY YILDIZEL June 2008

2. Z.E.YILDIZEL June, 2008 Outline of the Presentation 1. Introduction (8 slides) The methodology The location and general geology of the study area General acceptances about GR and SONIC logs 1. Microfacies, cycles types, depositional environment and stacking patterns of the Garzan Formation (10 slides) 2. An example to some of the studied wells (3 slides) 3. Cycle to log correlation (4 slides) 4. Discussions and conclusions (3 slides) 3. Z.E.YILDIZEL June, 2008 Acknowledgements Prof. Dr. Demir Altner Mr. Mehmet Snnetiolu, Mrs. Ekmel Uygur, TPAO management, A. Faruk ner (24th October 2003 GM authorization) My Family Dr. Ali Yldzel Miss. Zeynep Ezgi Yldzel. She gives meaning to my life being my daugther 4. Z.E.YILDIZEL June, 2008 Purpose Of The Study To find a direct correlation with the cycles?, facies?, stacking patterns? with the logs of the Garzan Formation To achieve this purpose; Microfacies of the Garzan Formation are described by using Dunham (1962) Depositional environment is comprehended Cycle types are defined from microfacies and the stacking patterns of the Garzan Formation is outlined Log correlation with the cycles and stacking patterns is interpreted 1. Introduction 5. Z.E.YILDIZEL June, 2008 Geographical Setting and Historical Precedence of the Garzan-Germik Oil Field 45km west of Siirt and 120km east of Diyarbakr town Fields are on surface anticline trending NW-SE 1944-1989 107 wells on Garzan field (73 oil well) 1957-1988 23 wells on Germik field (2 oil well) MTA discovered the field in 1950 by Garzan-2 Second field discovered in Trkiye after Raman Avarage porosity is 10% and permeability is 10md in Garzan field Avarage porosity is 15% and permeability is 10md in Germik field. Thickness 190m in Garzan field. Thickness 150m in Germik field. 45810823 bbl (April 2008) Garzan field oils 26.4o API Germik field oils 19o API 1. Introduction GARZAN FIELD 14 73 6 2 5 7 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 DRY WELL OIL WELL DRY WELL with OIL SHOW ABANDONED FOR TECHNICAL WATER WELL INJECTION WELL GERMK FILED 3 2 0 10 7 0 0 2 4 6 8 10 DRY WELL OIL WELL DRY WELL with OIL SHOW ABANDONED FOR TECHNICAL WATER WELL INJECTION WELL 6. Z.E.YILDIZEL June, 2008 Geological Map of the Study Area Hoya Fm. (Middle-Upper Eocene) exposed on the crest Germik (U. Eocene-Oligocene) and elmo (Miocene) outcrop along the flanks General trend is NW-SE 1. Introduction Garzan-Germik Oil Feld B. Raman Raman Kentalan Softek Hazro 7. Z.E.YILDIZEL June, 2008 Major Structures of Southeast Anatolia modified from Perinek et. al., 1987) 1. Introduction 8. Z.E.YILDIZEL June, 2008 Top Garzan Formation Top Garzan map Highest subsurface elevation is at Garzan- 23 well The lowest subsurface elevation is at Germik-3 well 1. Introduction 9. Z.E.YILDIZEL June, 2008 Geology and Stratigraphy of Garzan Formation Garzan Formation is firstly defined as Krada reef limestone by Schmidt in 1961 and named as Garzan Reef limestone by Kellog in 1961 under the subsurface. Maastrichtian in age Subtidal to open marine carbonate 1. Introduction 10. Z.E.YILDIZEL June, 2008 Base Map of the Study 1. Introduction 11. Z.E.YILDIZEL June, 2008 Basic Terminology SONIC and GR logs The sonic log provides a formations interval transit time which is the reciprocal of the velocity. (1/v) (msec/feet). the sonic log is sensitive to subtle textural variations and it can help to identify the lithology. Sonic log is used for correlation because of its distinctive characteristic. The radioactivity of the rock measured by GR log tool is generally a direct function of the clay mineral content and this grain size and depositional environment. Gamma ray logs are often used to infer changes in depositional energy, with increasing radioactivity reflecting increasing clay content with decreasing depositional energy. The GR log can be used to correlate and to suggest facies and sequences and to identify lithology. Carbonates in their pure state are not radioactive and this aids their identification. However, carbonates contain organic matter and this is frequently radioactive due to uranium. Shapes on gamma ray log can be interpreted as grain size trends and by sedimentological association as facies succession 1. Introduction The correlation of log shape with grain size trend is tenable only under very limited conditions. A universal application of gamma ray log shape to grain size trend and depositional facies is wrong (Rider, 1990) 12. Z.E.YILDIZEL June, 2008 Microfacies Types Of The Garzan Formation Miliolid Wackestone Rotalid Miliolid Wackestone Orbitoid Miliolid Wackestone Pelagic Foraminiferal Mudstone Rudist Wackestone 2. Microfacies subtidal, backshoal, shoal, foreshoal and open marine environment are present. The supratidal, intertidal and slope facies are not present in this study. 13. Z.E.YILDIZEL June, 2008 Miliolid Wackestone Subtidal Environment miliolids 1%-20%, cuneolins 2%, other benthic foraminifers 1%-4%, matrix 60%-80%, orbitoids 1% as fragments, algs 1%-3%, pelecypods and gastropods 1%-5%, echinoid fragments 1%-6%, rotalids 1%-3%, osracodes 1%-4% 2. Microfacies Miliolid Wackestone 0.43 0.93 0 6.48 3.95 0 2.4 1.48 0.55 1.04 0 2.08 78.73 1.93 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 O R B IT O D E S A LG R U D IS T FR A G M E N T S M ILIO L ID A E U N D IF FE R E N T IA T E D C O R A L FR A G M E N T S E C H IN O ID FR A G M E N T S P E LE C Y P O D A +G A ST R O P O D A C U N E O LIN A R O T A L ID A E P E LA G IC F O R A M IN IFE R A O T H E R B E N T H IC FO R A M IN IFE R A M A T R IX O S T R A C O D A avarage% m d? avarage Germik-21 well (X4, core) (m:miliolid, d:disyclina?) 14. Z.E.YILDIZEL June, 2008 Rotalid Miliolid Wackestone Shoal to Foreshoal rudist fragments (2%-4%), miliolids (1%-20%), algs (1%), coral fragments (2%), echnoid fragments (1%-3%), pelecypods and gastropods (1%-6%), cuneolins (1%), rotalids (12%-40%), other benthic foraminifers (2%-5%), matrix (40%-70) ostracode (1%-5) 2. Microfacies Rotalid-Miliolid Wackestone 0.01 0.49 0.87 10.23 0 0.52 1.61 2.04 0.46 20.54 0 2.38 57.94 2.91 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 O R B IT O D E S A LG R U D IS T FR A G M EN T S M ILIO LID A E U N D IF FE R E N T IA T E D C O R A L FR A G M E N T S E C H IN O ID FR A G M E N T S P E LE C Y P O D A +G A ST R O P O D A C U N E O LIN A R O T A L ID A E PE LA G IC F O R A M IN IFE R A O T H E R B EN T H IC FO R A M IN IFE R A M A T R IX O S T R A C O D A avarage% avarage G. Germik-1 well (X4, cutting), (o: orbitoid, ro: rotalid, r:rudist). o ro ro r 15. Z.E.YILDIZEL June, 2008 Orbitoid Miliolid Wackestone Backshoal to Shoal orbitoides (2%-24%), rudist fragments (20%-36%), echinoid fragments (2%-30%), rotalids (2%-16%), matrix (20%-70%), miliolids (%-11%), algs (1%), coral fragments (2%-7%), pelecypods and gastropods (2%-11%), cuneolins (1%), other benthic foraminifers (2%-10%), ostracodes (2%-6%) pelagic foraminifers are absent Orbitoid-Miliolid Wackestone 11.30 0.61 9.41 2.06 0.00 1.41 8.86 2.99 0.08 8.30 0.00 2.35 50.43 2.20 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 O RB ITO DE S ALGRU D IST FRAG M EN TS M ILIO LID A EU N DIFFEREN TIATEDCO R AL FRA G M EN TS ECH IN O ID FRAG M EN TS PELECY PO D A+G A STRO PO DA CU N EO LIN A RO TALIDA E PELA G IC FO RAM IN IFERA O TH ER BEN TH IC FO R AM IN IFER A M A TR IX O STR ACO D A avarage% 2. Microfacies avarage o r Garzan-31 well (X4, core), (o:orbitoid, r:rudist). 16. Z.E.YILDIZEL June, 2008 Pelagic Foraminiferal Mudstone Foreshoal to Open Marine pelagic foraminifera (6%-20%) matrix (70%-90%) orbitoids (1%-7%), other benthic foraminifera pelecypods and gastropods (1%), ostracodes (5%) Pelagic Foraminiferal Mudstone 1.90 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.02 0.00 0.00 14.77 0.33 81.00 1.98 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 O R B IT O D E S A LG R U D IS T FR A G M E N T S M ILIO L ID A E U N D IF FE R E N T IA T E D C O R A L FR A G M E N T S E C H IN O ID FR A G M E N T S P E LE C Y P O D A +G A ST R O P O D A C U N E O LIN A R O T A L ID A E P E LA G IC F O R A M IN IFE R A O T H E R B E N T H IC FO R A M IN IFE R A M A T R IX O S T R A C O D A avarage% Garzan-23 well (X10, cutting), (p: planktonic foraminifera). 2. Microfacies avarage 17. Z.E.YILDIZEL June, 2008 Rudist Wackestone Backshoal to Shoal rudist fragments (3%-54%), echinoid fragments (3%-15%), pelecypods and gastropods (1%-9%) matrix (30%-90%) orbitoids and ostracodes (1%), miliolids (1%-4%), coral fragments (2%), rotalids (1%) other benthic foraminifera (3%-23%) Rudist Wackestone 0.76 0.00 27.89 0.81 0.00 0.53 7.44 4.94 0.00 0.32 0.00 6.23 50.90 0.17 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 O R B IT O D E S A LG R U D IS T FR A G M E N T S M ILIO L ID A E U N D IF FE R E N T IA T E D C O R A L FR A G M E N T S E C H IN O ID FR A G M E N T S P E LE C Y P O D A +G A ST R O P O D A C U N E O LIN AR O T A L ID A E P E LA G IC F O R A M IN IFE R A O T H E R B E N T H IC FO R A M IN IFE R A M A T R IXO S T R A C O D A avarage% Garzan-95 well (X4, core), (r:rudist, b:bryozoan?) 2. Microfacies avarage 18. Z.E.YILDIZEL June, 2008 Cycle Types Of Garzan Formation 2. Cycles Type A Type B Type C Type D Type E 19. Z.E.YILDIZEL June, 2008 Cycle Stacking in the Garzan Formation 2. Cycles 20. Z.E.YILDIZEL June, 2008 Stacking Patterns and Their GR lgos 2. Stacking Patterns 21. Z.E.YILDIZEL June, 2008 Depositonal Environment of the Garzan Formation 2. Depositional environment 22. Z.E.YILDIZEL June, 2008 G.Germik-1 Garzan fm (1957- 2091m) 134m Garzan thickness GR-SONIC 3. Wells 23. Z.E.YILDIZEL June, 2008 Garzan-82 Garzan fm (1553-1719m) 166m Garzan thickness SP-SONIC 3. Wells 24. Z.E.YILDIZEL June, 2008 Garzan-23 Garzan fm (1461-1524m) 63m Garzan thickness GR-Resistivit