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Personal Trainer Flashcards w Theme


  • Describe the different types of muscle contraction.

  • There are 3 types of muscle contractions.Concentric muscle actions produce enough force to overcome external load and shorten the muscle.Example: lifting barbell in bicep curlEccentric muscle actions produce force while the muscle is lengthening it is the resistance of the movement.Example: lowering barbell from bicep curlIsometric muscle actions produce force, but there is no change in muscle length.Example: holding the barbell in position

  • What are the 3 kinds of primary warning signs that can indicate the individual needs a break from training or is training too hard? Give at least one example of each.

  • Life signsLoss of interest in normally enjoyed activities.Increased irritability.Increased sleeping problems.Training signsDeterioration in performance.Fatigue during workout that lasts throughout day.Loss of motivation.Health signsIncreased resting heart rate and/or blood pressure.Loss of appetite or nausea.Head colds.

  • What information should be included in the initial client assessment?

  • The initial client assessment is comprised of a general history and medical history. After the initial assessment has been completed, but before beginning training, a physical assessment should be completed.Information Included in General HistoryOccupation daily work routine, working conditions, and routine work activities (i.e., sitting at a computer)Lifestyle hobbies, likes and dislikes, opportunities for small fitness changes, diet and alcohol consumption, smoking, etc.

    Information Included in Medical HistoryInjuries & SurgeriesDiseases and Medical Conditions includes things like arthritis, diabetes, and hypertension, as well as chronic pain issues (sciatica, shin splints, etc.)Medications prescription, over-the-counter, and herbal/natural remedies

  • Define periodization and list at least three ways to accomplish periodization in the training program.

  • Periodization is the use of progressive cycles (varying volume and intensity) in resistance training to avoid overtraining, deter boredom, keep stimulus levels up and increase effectiveness of the training program.Ways to Vary Volume and Intensity

  • Name and describe the different types of flexibility.

  • There are 3 types of flexibility: corrective, active, and functional.Corrective flexibility First part of the flexibility continuum.Designed to correct muscle imbalances and improve joint ailments.Involves static stretching stretching the antagonist muscle and holding the position.Active flexibilitySecond phase of flexibility continuum.Improves the efficiency of neuromuscular interactions.Active-isolated stretching uses agonist and synergist muscles to allow the antagonist muscle to stretch.Functional flexibilityFinal phase of the flexibility continuum.Allows for the achievement of maximum extensibility of soft tissue and neuromuscular control, increasing power as well as strength.Dynamic stretching utilizes a combination of active muscle exertion, speed of movement, and momentum to stretch a group of muscles.

  • What is the recommended order of the fitness assessment tests?

  • Fitness assessment tests should be completed in the following order for the best, most accurate results:Non-fatiguing tests (i.e., height/weight measurements, skinfolds, vertical jump, etc.)Agility testsMaximal strength and power testsSprint testsMuscular endurance testsFlexibility tests

  • How is the maximum heart rate determined?How are the upper and lower limits of the heart rate range determined?

  • 220 Age = Maximum heart rateLower limit of heart rate range =Maximum heart rate multiplied by 0.6

    Upper limit of heart rate range =Maximum heart rate multiplied by 0.85

    Target Heart Rate RangeIntensity of Activity% Maximum Heart RateVery Light< 35Light35 54Moderate55 70Hard71 90Very Hard> 90To calculate target heart rate range:Example for moderately intense activity level: Maximum heart rate X 0.55 to Maximum heart rate X 0.70

  • How much of an active persons diet should come from carbohydrates, from proteins, and from fats?

  • Percentage of Daily Calories:for an active adult





    Percentage of Daily Calories

    Carbohydrates, 40 - 60%

    Fat, 25 - 30%


    Percentage of Daily Calories




    To resize chart data range, drag lower right corner of range.

  • What are the 7 most common legal claims made against personal trainers?

  • 7 Most Common Legal Claims:Slip and FallEquipment UsageSupplementsSexual HarassmentProper QualificationsEmergency ResponseClient Confidentiality

  • Name at least 5 ways in which you can manage your legal risk as a personal trainer.

  • Risk management means the avoidance of liability in the event that something goes wrong. There are certain steps a personal trainer can take to reduce their chances of liability. Risk can be managed through:Receiving the proper educationAppropriate training for each clientLimiting liability through avoidance, retention, reduction, and transferProper conductProviding a proper training areaDocumentation detailed and thorough

  • What does the acronym READ stand for with regards to customer service?

  • READ:R RapportConfidence, enthusiasm, and professionalism are essential to forming a good rapport with clients.E EmpathyFor empathy, try to understand the thought process behind actions.A AssessmentAsk the client questions, and paraphrase what the client has said to verify your understanding.D DevelopmentDevelop individualized programs by taking into account the clients needs and goals.

  • List and define the different business types available to personal trainers.

  • Type of BusinessDefinitionIndependent ContractorA personal trainer who is paid by health clubs in exchange for personal training servicesSole ProprietorshipBusiness owned by one person & the operating license is obtained from the state/local city in which the business is locatedPartnershipBusiness owned by two or more people informally or by contractCorporationFormal business ruled by a contract & bylaws; separate from owners & managersS CorporationCorporation treated as a proprietorship or partnership

  • Define biomechanics.

  • BiomechanicsDefinition: the mechanics of tissues, joints, and human movement.Biomechanics applies engineering principles like fluid mechanics and thermodynamics to biological organisms, incorporating mathematical concepts to analyze biological systems and design and develop equipment & techniques to correct problems, prevent injuries, and enhance performance.

  • Name and describe the planes of motion.

  • The 3 planes of motion are:SagittalSeparates the body into a right side and a left side.FrontalSeparates the front of the body from the back.TransverseSeparates the body into upper and lower halves.

  • What are the different types of training used in exercise program design?

  • Exercise program design utilizes the following types of training to provide an integrated workout that will benefit the entire body and overall health:Posture and Movement TrainingBalance/Stability TrainingFlexibility TrainingResistance TrainingCardiovascular TrainingFunctional TrainingPlyometrics

  • Identify the different kinds of fats.

  • Fats are essential to good health, but certain fats are better for you than others. Omega-3 fatty acids are the most beneficial fats they assist in brain function, and are important for the health of the heart and joints. Found primarily in fatty fish (like salmon or sardines), avocados, and walnuts.TriglyceridesUnsaturated fatsSaturated fatsTrans fats are the least healthy of all the fats because they are difficult for the body to metabolize and are associated with health problems like high cholesterol and heart disease.

  • What are the signs and symptoms of dehydration?

  • The function of water in the human body is extensive and should be repeatedly emphasized to clients. When we exercise our bodies generate heat, to regulate our temperature we sweat, and as we sweat our body loses water and other valuable nutrients which can increase the chance of muscle cramps or injury. Additionally, dehydration can cause serious health issues and even death, if not properly addressed. At the first sign of dehydration, it is vital that the person STOP training and adequately rehydrate before continuing.Signs of Mild-Moderate DehydrationSticky, dry mouthFatigueHeadacheLightheadedness or dizzinessMuscle weaknessSigns of Severe DehydrationVery dry mouthExtreme thirstRapid heartbeatConfusion and irritabilitySunken eyesCessation of sweatingFever

  • What exercises are safe to perform during pregnancy?

  • Exercise can be a beneficial part of a normal, healthy, complication-free pregnancy. However, in every case, a pregnant women should discuss any plans to continue or begin exercising with her physician beforehand to ensure the safety of both the mother and baby.Safe Exercising During Pregnancy

  • What are the three major functions of the nervous system?

  • The 3 major functions of the nervous system are sensory, integrative and motor functioning.Sensory function Gathering information about our inner and external surroundings.Integrative function Processing and interpreting the information.Motor function Responding to these stimuli.

  • Describe proprioception.

  • Motor control involves cognition (learning and reasoning) and areas of perception known as p