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My Presentation on Persecution of the Jews, History Timeline and Review, presented to Dr. Kamal Hassan

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  • 1. PERSECUTION OF JEWS Review of Historical Events

2. Research PaperPresented to: Dr. Kamal HassanPrepared by: Maha YoussufHigher Institute for Islamic Studies in Foreign Languages-- Second Year- English Department 3. OUTLINE 4. Outline Introduction Holocaust Persecution ConclusionTimeline Notes 5. INTRODUCTION 6. IntroductionJews have been subjected to clear incidents of persecution throughout history,from the times of the Pharaohs of Egypt to the Nazi of Germany. But before we gothrough their history of persecution lets first delve into the origin of their nation andtheir cult.The name Israel derives from the name given to Prophet Jacob (Genesis 32:28).His 12 sons were set the seeds of different tribes that later developed into theJewish nation. As for the name Jew, its a derivative of Yehuda (Judah) one of the12 sons of Jacob (Reuben, Shimon, Levi, Juda, Dan, Naphtali, Gad, Asher,Yisachar, Zebulun, Joseph, Binjamin)(Exodus 1:1).So, the names Israel, Israeli or Jewish refer to people of the same origin,themselves descendant of the Semite race from which Muslims originated.After 40 years of their bewilderment in the Sinai desert, Moses led the Children ofIsrael to the Land of Canaan, that is cited in The Bible as the land promised by 7. Introduction (continued- 1)When the punishment or sentence was lifted, the Jews were permitted into Palestinewith the leadership of Joshua. The Jews maintained presence in the land previouslyknown as Canaan, for the past 3,300 years, and the rule of Israelites there starts withthe conquests of Joshua (ca. 1250 BCE).A line of stewards, or chiefs, known as judges succeeded Joshua and were laterthemseles followed by a succession of kings. The first three kings were Talit, Dawud,and Sulaiman, many the be blessed. The kingdom was later divided into two parts, Israeland Judea, due to civil war and a succession crisis. In the sixth century B.C. theBabylnians invaded the land and exiled the Jews to Babylon. The rightous King, Cyrusthe Great (Dhul Quarnain?) eventually allowed them to return. But in 70 A.D. an invadingRoman army expelled the Jews again, as punishment for their submitting to Rome. (Howto Tell Others about Islam by Yahya Emerick). 8. Introduction (continued-2)Following centuries witnessed a new phase of bewilderment of the Jews (Jews of theDiaspora) in Europe, the Middle East and Africa. Those who settled in Europe were the onesamongst which the dream of a separate homeland sprouted, for they were widely prejudicedagainst and hated. Whereas in the Middle East, Jews enjoyed considerable freedoms,excelling in Phylosophy, politics and arts. In the 19th century the aspirations of the EuropeanJews of a new separate Homeland translated into the first Zionist movement, the politicalprogram supporting an all Jewish state.European nations shipped Jews off their lands to a land that would witness theirconcentration and their future home away from their lands, hoping this would make up fortheir persecution against them, giving them a free hand to kill, mayhem and annihilate theoriginal inhabitants of those lands to establish their own home- A genocide againstPalestinians, who inhabited that lands for a few centuries took place.The outcome of all this was the creation of nation of Israel. 9. TIMELINE 10. Timeline Name Date RemarksTimeline (A) Roman Destruction of 70 A.D.The Roman army invaded Jerusalem Jerusalem, expelled the Jews. Kitos War73 A.D.TheFirst Roman-Jewish War- The Bar-Kokhba Revolt(132-135 C.E.) A revolt against the Roman Empire that witnessed great expectations for Jews and ended with violent despair. Edict of Milan 313 A.D. Issuedby theRoman Emperor Constantine,it made Christianity the primary religion of the Roman Empire Serious Persecution of 134 CE Rabbinical literature alludes Jews at the hands ofto the Hadrianic persecution Emperor Hadrian of Jews that caused fear and apostasy. The Jews now passed through a period of bitter persecution; Sabbaths, festivals, the study of the Torah, and circumcision were banned. 11. Timeline (continued- 1) Emperor379- 395 The Emperor permittedTimeline (B) Theodosiusthe destruction of permitted the synagogues if it served destruction ofa religious purpose. Synagogues Burning ofMilan380 A.D. Ambrose, the patron Synagogue saint of Milan, was considered a Jewish enemy. He had hoped to become a martyr by the destruction of a synagogue. Expelling Jews from415In Alexandria, through Egypt the bishop Cyril, hostility broke out between the Jews and the Christians, and Cyril expelled the Jews from the city-- (Socrates, "Hist. Eccl." vii. 15; Theophanes, l.c. p. 223). 12. Timeline (continued-2) 11 Emperor Justines528 A.D. EmperorJustinianTimeline (C)persecutionof issued the JustinianJewsCode, banning Jewsfrombuildingsynagogues, readingthe Bible in Hebrew,assembling in public,celebrating Passoverbefore Easter,ortestifyingagainstChristians in court. 12 Ferreol, Bishop of 558 A.D. Ferreol ordered theUzsexpelledJews of his diocese toJewsmeet in the Church ofSt. Theodoric, andpreached to them abaptismal sermon.Some Jews abjuredtheir faith; he forbadethe others to remain inthe city, and expelledthem from his diocese(558) 13. Timeline (continued-3) 13 First Persecution of 613 A.D. King Sisebut ordered theTimeline (D)Jews in Spain first persecution of Jewsin Spain. Whether hewas influencedbyEmperor Heraclius, orwhethertheclergybrought it about, isunknown,but heordered that within ayear all Jews shouldeither submit to baptismor leave the kingdomforever. 14 Exile of Jews from 855 A.D. Emperor Ludwig II. (855-Italy 75) is said to have issuedan edict in 855 orderingall Italian Jews to leavethe country before the1st of October of thatyear. 14. Timeline (continued-4) 15 Crusades targeted 1096 The Crusaders huntedTimeline (E)Jews in Cologne the Jews of Cologne outof the villages 16 Crusades slaying of 1096 ExpeditionsfromJewswestern Europetorecover Jerusalem andthe holy sepulcher fromthe control of the infidel.The undisciplined mobsaccompanying the firstthree Crusades attackedthe Jews in Germany,France, and England,and put many of them todeath. 15. Timeline (continued-4) 17 The Second Crusade- 1146The inflammatory sermonsTimeline (F)A French Monk,of the FrenchmonkRudolph, called for the Rudolph causedthedestruction ofthe populace throughout theJews. Rhine provinces to attackthe Jews, and torture andkill such of them as wouldnot accept baptism. 18 King of France, Philip1180Philip Augustus shoed anti-AugustususurpedJewish hostility, and inJewish properties and1180, he ordered thepersecuted them. imprisonment of all the Jews in his kingdom, their release being conditioned on the payment of the sum of 15,000 silver marks. In the spring of 1181 he banishedthemall, confiscated their lands and dwellings, and annulled four-fifths of their claims against theChristians, exacting the remainder for himself. 16. Timeline (continued-4) 19 The Crusade 1189- 1189 At the coronation ofTimeline (G)1190 Richard I.- on Sept. 3, 1189, and before he started for the Third Crusade, a severe riot broke out, and after he had left the country the crusaders who were preparing to follow him attacked, with the aid of the populace, the Jews at Lynn, Stamford (March 7), Bury St. Edmunds (March 18), Colchester, Thetford, and Ospringe. In York on the night of March 16, 1190, 150 Jews, headed by Rabbi Yom-Tob of Joigny, immolated themselves to escape slaughter or forced baptism. 17. MORE PERSECUTIONSWERE FOUNDBut the authenticity of their reporting needsreview 18. THE HOLOCAUST 19. The HolocaustIn 1933, Adolph Hitler was appointed the Chancellor of Germany. Under his rule, the nationgrew increasingly prejudiced against the Jews and gradually their rights faded with strictAdopted to limit their control and influence in the country, educing them to second-classcitizens with no right to vote, hold office, works in prestigious posts or marry non-Jews.Moving in Eastern Europe in 1939, Hitler gained control over Jews in Poland, Hungary andCzechoslovakia, indigenous inhabitants of these nations cooperated largely with the Naziforces, in hope of controlling the Jews.By then millions of Jews were said to have been trapped in European countries, andbecame a burden for those nations. And one of two solutions had to be pursued, Eitherdeport them to concentration camps in occupied countries. And indeed thousands of Jewswere shipped to Eastern Europe where they worked till they died. The second solution wasbrought a long in 1941, and was led by the Nazi, Hitler. 20. The Holocaust (continued)Jews were biologically exterminated, using Zyklon B Gas- it was the cheapest methodsought by the Nazi and his aids. Jews were grouped into gas chambers, where allvaluables and possessions taken away from them, even gold teeth, before they weretrapped till asphyxiation.The Germans called the Holocaust the final solution to the Jewish question. The wordHolocaust itself is derived from the Greek holokauston, a translation of the Hebrew wordolah,which means a burnt sacrifice offered whole to God. (according to Encyclopedia Britannica)The Holocaust has long been the cause of much controversy, over its acceptance as ahistorical fact, denial of its existence, the number of Jews persecuted and the truemotives that drove the Nazi, the leader of a nation thats credited for many artistic,philosophical and scientific breakthroughs, commit such heinous crime. 21. The Holocaust (continued)While some put the number of those killed in the mass extermination of Jews at thehands of the Nazis at 6 million (and that is the most accepted statistics), someexaggerate the number,andothers deny the incident altogether.To conclude this part about the Holocaust, let me quote this valuable research paperthat was prepared on the sidelines of The Tehran Conference on The Holocaust-inDecember 2006, with the prime aim of refuting the story about 6,000,000 Jews beingexterminat

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