perkembangan arsitektur komputer

Click here to load reader

Download Perkembangan Arsitektur Komputer

Post on 29-Dec-2015

87 views

Category:

Documents

0 download

Embed Size (px)

DESCRIPTION

Arsitektur Komputer materi Teknik Komputer Dasar

TRANSCRIPT

  • PERKEMBANGAN ARSITEKTUR KOMPUTER*

  • AnggotaAhmad Ataka A. R.Ahmad Raditya C. B.Aulia ReckyGuntur BagaskoroM. Ubeid SubhanToniTrianto*

  • Komponen KomputerSejak 1940-an, komputer mempunyai beberapa komponen:Input devicesOutput devicesStorage devicesVolatile memory devices: DRAM, SRAM, Permanent storage devices: Magnetic, Optical, and Flash disks, DatapathControlKomponen keenam: Network

  • What is Computer Architecture?

    Technology

    ApplicationsComputer Architect

    Interfaces

    Machine Organization

    Measurement &EvaluationISAAPILinkI/O Chan

  • Apa itu Computer Architecture ?Computer Architecture = Instruction Set Architecture + Computer OrganizationInstruction Set Architecture (ISA)APA yang dilakukan komputer (logical view)Computer OrganizationBAGAIMANA ISA diimplementasikan (physical view)

  • Instruction Set Architecture (ISA)Definisi oleh Amdahl, Blaaw, dan Brooks 1964 the attributes of a [computing] system as seen by the programmer, i.e. the conceptual structure and functional behavior, as distinct from the organization of the data flows and controls the logic design, and the physical implementation.ISA mencangkup:Instruksi dan Format InstruksiType Data, Penyandian, dan RepresentasiProgrammable Storage: Registers dan MemoriAddressing Modes: Pengaksesan Instruksi dan DataPenanganan Kondisi Khusus

  • Instruction Set ArchitectureISA merupakan penghubung antara hardware dan softwareContoh(versi)Diperkenalkan TahunIntel(8086, 80386, Pentium, ...)1978 IBM Power(Power 2, 3, 4, 5)1985HP PA-RISC(v1.1, v2.0)1986MIPS(MIPS I, II, III, IV, V)1986Sun Sparc(v8, v9)1987Digital Alpha(v1, v3)1992PowerPC(601, 604, )1993

  • Instruction Set ArchitectureSemua instruksi mempunyai lebar 32-bitMacam2 instruksi:Load/StoreInteger ArithmeticJump dan BranchFloating PointMemory Management

  • Organisasi KomputerRealisasi dari Instruction Set ArchitectureBeberapa komponennya:Registers, ALU, FPU, Caches, ...Cara komponen2 tersebut terhubungMengatur arus informasi antar komponen

  • Abstraction Layers

  • Perubahan Teknologi Menimbulkan Perubahan Arsitektur1970an multi-chip CPUsMemori semikonduktor masih sangat mahalmicrocoded controlSet instruksi kompleks1980an1 buah chip CPU, dimungkinkan dalam chip RAMsimple, hard-wired controlSet Instruksi yang lebih simpelCache : chip kecil

    1990an (fast clocks)Terdiri dari banyak transistorKontrol yg kompleks untuk mengeluarkan instruksi2000anLebih banyak transistorMenggunakan teknologi yg lebih canggih

  • Intel 4004 - 1971Microprocessor pertama2,300 transistor108 KHz

  • Intel Pentium IV - 2001

    42 juta transistor2GHz

  • Application ConstraintsApplications drive machine balanceNumerical simulationsfloating-point performancemain memory bandwidthTransaction processingI/Os per secondinteger CPU performanceDecision supportI/O bandwidthEmbedded controlI/O timing, powerMedia processinglow-precision pixel arithmetic

  • Interface DesignA good interface lasts through several generations of implementationsIBM 360 and x86 ISAs, DOS APIsis simple - economy of mechanismInterfaces are visible, Implementations generally arent3 Types of InterfacesBetween LayersAPI, ISABetween ModulesNetwork protocol (Ethernet), I/O channel or bus (SCSI or PCI)Standard RepresentationsASCII, IEEE floating-point

  • Instruction-Set ArchitectureSoftware impactsupport OS functionsrestartable instructionsmemory relocation and protectiona good compiler targetsimpleorthogonaldenseHardware impactadmits efficient implementationacross generationsadmits parallel implementationno serial bottlenecksAbstraction without interpretationOPR1R2R3immOPim2im2...Hardware/Software Interface

  • System-Level OrganizationDesign at the level of processors, memories, and interconnect.More important to application performance than CPU designFeeds and speedsconstrained by IC pin count, module pin count, and signaling ratesSystem balancefor a particular applicationDriven by performance/cost goalsavailable components (cost/perf)technology constraintsPSW800MHz 4-way Issue16Bytes x 200MHzI/OMMMMDiskNetDisplay

  • MicroarchitectureImplementasi dari instruction setExploit capabilites of technology technologylocality and concurrencyIterative processgenerate proposed architectureestimate costmeasure performanceCurrent emphasis is on overcoming sequential nature of programsdeep pipeliningmultiple issuedynamic schedulingbranch prediction/speculation

    RegsInstr.CacheIRPCBAC

  • Performance Measurement and EvaluationCPU execution timeby instruction or sequencefloating pointintegerbranch performanceCache bandwidthMain memory bandwidthI/O performancebandwidthseekspixels or polygons per secondRelative importance depends on applicationsP$MMany Dimensions to Performance

  • Perkembangan TeknologiProcessor transistor: 30% - 40% per tahunKapasitas Memori: 60% per tahunKapasitas Disk: 60% per tahunKesempatan untuk aplikasi-aplikasi baruOrganisasi dan design yang lebih baik

    TahunTeknologiRelative performance/biaya1951Vacuum tube11965Transistor351975Integrated circuit (IC)9001995Very large scale IC (VLSI)2,400,0002005Ultra large scale IC6,200,000,000

  • Pertumbuhan Kapasitas per DRAM ChipKapasitas DRAM berlipat empat kalilipat hampir setiap 3 tahunBertambah 60% per tahun, selama 20 tahun

  • Performa Processor (1978-2005)Meningkat hampir 10000x antara 1978 dan 2005

  • Penjualan Microprocessor (1998 2002)Penjualan processor ARM melebihi processor Intel IA-32, yang muncul lebih duluProcessor ARM biasa dipakai pada cell phoneKebanyakan processor kini tertanam di cell phones, TV digital, video games, dan banyak peralatan lain.

  • Kelas KomputerDesktop / NotebookTujuan umum, bermacam-macam softwareServer ComputersBerbasis jaringanKapasitas, Performa, dan Keandalan tinggiUkuran bervariasi dari yang kecil hingga seukuran bangunanEmbedded ComputersTersembunyi sebagai komponen dari sistemKendala daya/performa/biaya yang ketat

  • Penjualan Komputer (1998 2002)

  • Pasar Processor (1997-2007)

  • *Multilevel machineTypical virtual machine levelsHigh-level-language (HLL) machine levelAssembly language machine levelOperating system machine levelInstruction set architecture (ISA) levelMicroarchitecture levelDigital logic levelDigital logic level adalah hardware (berisi transistors, kabel, power supply, dll.)

  • *

  • *Perkembangan multilevel machinesTiga level architectureISA levelMicroprogram levelDigital logic levelMicroprogram levelMenginterpretasikan perintah-perintah ISA menggunakan digital logic level

  • *Perkembangan multilevel machinesOperating system levelMemberikan perintah kepada ISA levelPerintah yang diberikan:Bisa langsung dijalankan oleh ISA levelDiinterpretasikan lebih lanjut oleh microprogram level

  • *Perkembangan multilevel machinesCISC (Complex Instruction Set Computer)Zaman keemasan bagi microprogram level 1960an hingga1970anmicroprogram level berevousi menjadi semakin canggihProses ekseskusi lambatRISC (Reduced Instruction Set Computer)Perintah-perintah kecil langsung dieksekusiMenambah kecepatan eksekusi sekaligus harga

  • *computer architecture dari masa ke masa

    TahunDibuat olehNamaKeterangan~1834Charles BabbageAnalytical EngineFirst programmed computer (mechanical)1943British governmentCOLLOSSUSFirst electronic computer1944Howard AikenMark IElectromagnetic relays1946Mauchley & EckertENIAC IVacuum tubes, computed artillery tables~1952John von NeumannIASFirst stored program computer (von Neumann architecture)1960sKen Olson (DEC)PDP-1 and PDP-8Transistors, minicomputer1964Seymour CrayCDC 6600First scientific supercomputer1964IBMSystem/360Integrated circuits, first family of computers1978DECVAXFirst 32-bit superminicomputer1981IBMIBM PCStarted personal computer era1985MIPSMIPSFirst commercial RISC machine1992DECAlphaFirst 64-bit personal computer

  • *Computer generations0th 1642 1945Mechanical1st 1945 1955Vacuum tubes2nd 1955 1965Transistors3rd 1965 1980Integrated circuits4th 1980 -VLSI, personal computers5th 1970s -Invisible computers

  • *Moores LawJumlah transistor pada chip bertambah 2 kali lipat setiap 18 bulanGordon Moore (co-founder Intel) 1965Bukan merupakan hukum alam, hanya observasi empirisMoores law terbukti benar sejak tahun 1960-an sampai sekarangBertambah dari 103 menjadi108 transistor per chip

  • *Moores Law

  • *Jenis Komputer

  • *Contoh komputer architectures

    rchitectureTypePentium 4CISC personal computersUltraSPARC IIIRISC serversIntel 8051(MCS-51 family)8-bit microcontrollers imbedded systems

  • *Intel computer family

  • *Intel computer familyMoores law pada chip (Intel) CPU.

    Design state of art organization in 1990