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Download Percent Composition and Chemical Formulas -   Composition and Chemical Formulas ... Percent Composition and Chemical Formulas 10.3  Molecular Formulas Methanal, ethanoic acid,

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    chemistry

    Copyright Pearson Prentice Hall

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    Percent Composition and Chemical Formulas

    It helps to know the percents of the components in a shirt because they affect how warm it is, whether it will need to be ironed, and how it should be cleaned. You will learn how the percents of the elements in a compound are important in chemistry.

    10.3

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    Copyright Pearson Prentice Hall

    Percent Composition and Chemical Formulas

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    The Percent Composition of a Compound

    The Percent Composition of a Compound

    How do you calculate the percent by mass of an element in a compound?

    10.3

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    Copyright Pearson Prentice Hall

    Percent Composition and Chemical Formulas

    > The Percent Composition of a Compound

    The percent by mass of an element in a compound is the number of grams of the element divided by the mass in grams of the compound, multiplied by 100%.

    10.3

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    Slide 5 of 40

    Copyright Pearson Prentice Hall

    Percent Composition and Chemical Formulas

    > The Percent Composition of a Compound

    Percent Composition from Mass Data

    The relative amounts of the elements in a compound are expressed as the percent composition or the percent by mass of each element in the compound.

    10.3

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    SAMPLE PROBLEM

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    10.9

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    SAMPLE PROBLEM

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    10.9

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    SAMPLE PROBLEM

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    10.9

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    SAMPLE PROBLEM

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    10.9

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    Copyright Pearson Prentice Hall

    Percent Composition and Chemical Formulas

    > The Percent Composition of a Compound

    Percent Composition from the Chemical Formula

    10.3

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    SAMPLE PROBLEM

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    10.10

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    SAMPLE PROBLEM

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    10.10

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    SAMPLE PROBLEM

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    10.10

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    SAMPLE PROBLEM

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    10.10

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    Slide 15 of 40

    Copyright Pearson Prentice Hall

    Percent Composition and Chemical Formulas

    > The Percent Composition of a Compound

    Percent Composition as a Conversion Factor

    You can use percent composition to calculate the number of grams of any element in a specific mass of a compound.

    10.3

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    Copyright Pearson Prentice Hall

    Percent Composition and Chemical Formulas

    > The Percent Composition of a Compound

    Propane (C3H8) is 81.8% carbon and 18% hydrogen. You can calculate the mass of carbon and the mass of hydrogen in an 82.0 g sample of C3H8.

    10.3

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    Copyright Pearson Prentice Hall

    Percent Composition and Chemical Formulas

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    Empirical Formulas

    Empirical Formulas

    What does the empirical formula of a compound show?

    10.3

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    Copyright Pearson Prentice Hall

    Percent Composition and Chemical Formulas

    > Empirical Formulas

    The empirical formula gives the lowest whole-number ratio of the atoms of the elements in a compound.

    The empirical formula of a compound shows the smallest whole-number ratio of the atoms in the compound.

    10.3

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    Copyright Pearson Prentice Hall

    Percent Composition and Chemical Formulas

    > Empirical Formulas

    Ethyne (C2H2) is a gas used in welders torches. Styrene (C8H8) is used in making polystyrene.

    These two compounds of carbon have the same empirical formula (CH) but different molecular formulas.

    10.3

    Copyright Pearson Prentice Hall

    SAMPLE PROBLEM

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    10.11

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    SAMPLE PROBLEM

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    10.11

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    SAMPLE PROBLEM

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    10.11

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    SAMPLE PROBLEM

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    10.11

    Copyright Pearson Prentice Hall

    Percent Composition and Chemical Formulas

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    Molecular Formulas

    Molecular Formulas

    How does the molecular formula of a compound compare with the empirical formula?

    10.3

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    Percent Composition and Chemical Formulas

    > Molecular Formulas

    The molecular formula of a compound is either the same as its experimentally determined empirical formula, or it is a simple whole-number multiple of its empirical formula.

    10.3

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    Copyright Pearson Prentice Hall

    Percent Composition and Chemical Formulas

    > Molecular Formulas 10.3

    Methanal, ethanoic acid, and glucose all have the same empirical formulaCH2O.

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    Copyright Pearson Prentice Hall

    Percent Composition and Chemical Formulas

    > Molecular Formulas 10.3

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    SAMPLE PROBLEM

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    SAMPLE PROBLEM

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    10.12

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    SAMPLE PROBLEM

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    10.12

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    SAMPLE PROBLEM

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    10.12

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