people onthe move

People on the Move Immigration, Industrialization, Urbanization

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Page 1: People onthe Move

People on the Move

Immigration, Industrialization, Urbanization

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Why? A chance to improve

“Rags to Riches” Golden opportunity

NYC=“Golden Door” Free land

Homestead Act School, no forced time

in military, could take part in democracy, increased freedom

Who? EXAMPLES: Potato famine in Ireland (1845-

1852) Ireland loses 25% of its

population Germans from Russia Pogroms, violent massacres of

Jews, in Russia (1880s) 2 million emigrated

Italy, fleeing rural poverty & high taxes More than 4 million came to U.S.

between 1880 & 1924

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Old Immigration (Thru 1880)

Northern or western Europe Irish & German

Literate & skilled Mostly families Quick to assimilate Experience w/


New Immigration (1880-1920)

Southern or eastern Europe

Fewer Protestants; more Catholics & Jews

Many were illiterate & unskilled

“Birds of passage” Young, single men, planning

to return Less willing to assimilate;

more “clannish” Often poor

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1882—Chinese Exclusion Act 1886—Statue of Liberty put in place in NY Harbor 1890—Roughly 10 million immigrants have arrived since the end of the Civil War 1892—Ellis Island opens

70% of immigrants came thru NYC 1892—Gov’t requires all immigrants to pass

physical exam 1910—Mexican Revolution leads to increased # of immigrants from Mexico


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The Usual Irish Way of Doing Things

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Uncle Sam’s Boarding House

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Jacob Riis, photographer, NYC

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OMAHA1860 1,8831880 30,518

1900 102,555

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The “Great American

Desert” “Rain follows the plow” New states

Kansas (1861), Nebraska (1867), Colorado (1876), North Dakota & South Dakota (1889), Montana (1889), Oklahoma (1907)

Land taken from Indians through war & declared “public domain” Buffalo Soldiers Little Bighorn, AKA “Custer’s Last Stand (1876) Indian Wars are over after Wounded Knee Massacre (1890) Turner Thesis declares that frontier is closed (1893)

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The Shores Family in Custer County, Nebraska

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Cherry County Homesteaders

Near Broken Bow

Hilton Family; Custer County

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BY 1900: U.S. population triples between 1850 & 1900

23 million to 76 million Frontier closed; Indians forced to assimilate

Increased diversity in the Plains & West Looking for a new frontier

Increased urbanization leads to problems…. Overcrowding, tenements, sanitation issues, crime, corruption, poverty

Nativism/anti-immigration Push for assimilation

Salad bowl or melting pot? U.S. becomes industrial giant, but…

Low wages, long hours, increase in strikes/protests Need for reform

Lack of government involvement/regulation; “laissez-faire”