pengantar organisasi komputer pendahuluanmputra/semester3/osk/01-structure-of...° pengantar...

of 22 /22
1 Pengantar Organisasi Komputer Pendahuluan

Author: nguyenkhue

Post on 12-Mar-2019

245 views

Category:

Documents


0 download

Embed Size (px)

TRANSCRIPT

1

Pengantar Organisasi Komputer Pendahuluan

2

Pengantar Organisasi Komputer Mata kuliah ini mengajarkan dasar-dasar organisasi komputer

sekuensial, yang terdiri dari komponen-komponen: input, output, memori, dan prosesor (kontrol dan datapath), melalui pemrograman dengan bahasa assembly.

Prasyarat: Pengantar Sistem Digital

Konsep Pemrograman I

Bobot: 2 SKS

Buku Acuan: V. Carl Hamacher, dkk. Computer Organization. Edisi ke-5.

McGraw-Hill, 2002.

David Patterson & John Hennessy. Computer Organization & Design: The Hardware/Software Interface. Morgan Kaufmann Publishers, Inc.

Linda Null and Julia LoburThe Essentials of Computer Organization and Architecture

3

Administrasi Perkuliahan

Penilaian: Tugas: 10%

Quiz 20%

UTS: 30%

UAS: 40%

Jadwal Kuliah: Jumat: 08:15 09:50 WIB

Jadwal Ujian: UTS: Oktober 2012

UAS: Januari 2013

4

Organisasi Sistem Komputer

5

Organisasi Sistem Komputer

I/O systemProcessor

CompilerOperating

System(Windows 98)

Application (Netscape)

Digital DesignCircuit Design

Instruction Set Architecture

Koordinasi dari berbagai tingkat abstraksi

Datapath & Control

transistors

MemoryHardware

Software Assembler

20210

6

Tingkat-tingkat Abstraksi Organisasi Komputer

Application S/W MS Word computer as electronic type-writer

MS Excel computer as electronic calculator

System S/W Compilers computer as translator (source to executable

program)

Operating Systems computer as machine that executes programs, stores files, prints content of files to printers, communicate with other computers

Instruction Set What basic operations can be carried out

What, where, and how data can be stored & retrieved in/from memory

How can data be exchanged to the outside world

Computer H/W The 5 components: Datapath, Control, Memory, Input, Output

7

Tingkat-tingkat Bahasa Pemrograman

High Level Language Program (e.g., C)

Assembly Language Program (e.g.,AVR)

Machine Language Program (AVR)

Control Signal Specification

Compiler

Assembler

Machine Interpretation

A = 25;

B = 8;

C = A * B;

lds r1, 0x100

lds r2, 0x102

add r1, r2

sts 0x104, r1

0000 1001 1100 0110 1010 1111 0101 1000

1010 1111 0101 1000 0000 1001 1100 0110

1100 0110 1010 1111 0101 1000 0000 1001

0101 1000 0000 1001 1100 0110 1010 1111

20210

8

Organisasi Bahasa Pemrograman Java

Java Language

Java Virtual Machine

Operating System

Computer H/W

byte code

JVM dapat langsung

berhubungan dgn h/w

9

5 Komponen Utama Komputer

Processor (active)

Computer

Control( brain )

Datapath( brawn )

Memory(passive)

(where programs, data live whenrunning)

Devices

Input

Output

Keyboard, Mouse

Display, Printer

Disk (where programs, data live whennot running)

10

Contoh-contoh (Organisasi) Komputer

11

Contoh: Komputer Berbasis Pentium

Processor/Memory Bus

PCI Bus

I/O Busses

12

Contoh: Komputer Berbasis SPARCstation20

TI SuperSPARCtm TMS390Z50 in Sun SPARCstation20

Floating-point Unit

Integer Unit

Inst Cache

Ref MMU

Data Cache

Store Buffer

Bus Interface

SuperSPARC

L2 $

CC

MBus Module

MBus

L64852 MBus control M-S Adapter

SBus

DRAM Controller

SBus DMA

SCSI

Ethernet

STDIO

serial

kbd mouse

audio

RTC

Boot PROM

Floppy

SBus Cards

13

Contoh: Microcontroller AT90S8515

14

Struktur (Umum) Interkoneksi Antar-Komponen

Proc

Caches Processor-Memory Bus

Memory

I/O Devices:

Controllers

adapters

Disks Displays Keyboards

Networks

Semua komponen memiliki organisasi & antar-muka

I/O Bus

15

Outline Materi Kuliah

Konsep-konsep Dasar Stored Program Computer

Instruction Set

Set Instruksi/Pemrograman

Input/Output

Memori

Aritmatika

Prosesor Datapath

Control Unit

Pipeline

16

Generasi Komputer

I: 46 57: UNIVAC 1103 Bahasa Rakitan

Vacuum Tube

40.000 instruksi/detik

II: 58 64: IBM 7094 Bahasa Tingkat Tinggi (Fortran, Cobol), Kompilator

Transistor

I/O & Processor Parallelism

200.000 instruksi/detik

III: 65 71: IBM System/360, DEC PDP-8 Sistem Operasi

Small- & Medium-scale Integrated Circuit (IC)

Cache & Virtual Memory, Microprogramming, Pipelining, Parallelism

1.000.000 instruksi/detik

IV: 72 77: Apple IIe, IBM PC Large Scale Integrated Circuit (LSI)

Microprocessor, PC

10.000.000 instruksi/detik

IV: 78 : 80286 Pentium IV, MIPS, Sparc, PowerPC Very Large Scale Integrated Circuit (VLSI)

100.000.000 instruksi/detik

17

Tren Teknologi

18

Year

1000

10000

100000

1000000

10000000

100000000

1970 1975 1980 1985 1990 1995 2000

i80386

i4004

i8080

Pentium

i80486

i80286

i8086

Tren Teknologi: Kapasitas Mikroprosesor

2X transistors/Chip Every 1.5 years

Called

Moore s Law

Alpha 21264: 15 million

Pentium Pro: 5.5 million PowerPC 620: 6.9 million

Alpha 21164: 9.3 million Sparc Ultra: 5.2 million

Moore s Law

19

Tren Teknologi: Kinerja Prosesor

0

100

200

300

400

500

600

700

800

900

87 88 89 90 91 92 93 94 95 96 97

DEC Alpha 21264/600

DEC Alpha 5/500

DEC Alpha 5/300

DEC Alpha 4/266

IBM POWER 100

DEC

AXP/

500

HP

9000/

750

Sun

-4/

260

IBM

RS/

6000

MIPS

M/

120

MIPS

M

2000

1.54X/yr

Processor performance increase/year, mistakenly referred to as Moore s Law (transistors/chip)

20

Tren Teknologi: Kapasitas Memori (1 Chip DRAM)

size

Year

1000

10000

100000

1000000

10000000

100000000

1000000000

1970 1975 1980 1985 1990 1995 2000

year size(Megabit) 1980 0.0625

1983 0.25

1986 1

1989 4

1992 16

1996 64

2000 256

Now 1.4X/yr, or doubling every 2 years

4000X since 1980

21

Teknologi Komputer Perubahan Dramatis

Prosessor 2X lebih cepat setiap 1,5 tahun

100X lebih cepat dalam dekade terakhir

Memori Kapasitas DRAM: 2x / 2 years

Kecepatan Memori: meningkat 10% per tahun

Biaya per bit: membaik 25% per tahun

Kapasitas meningkat 64X dalam dekade terakhir

Disk Kapasitas disk: > 2X setiap 1,0 tahun

Biaya per bit: membaik 100% per tahun

Kapasitas meningkat 120X dalam dekade terakhir

22

Bicycle Computer (Embedded)

P. Brain wireless

heart monitor strap

record 5 measures: speed, time, current distance, elevation and heart rate

Every 10 to 60 sec.

8KB data 33 hours

Stores information so can be uploaded through a serial port into PC to be analyzed

Speed

Altitude

Heart Rate

Dramatic change !!!