Peer Groups

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The evolution of the ecology of peer groups, from infancy to adolescence.

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<ul><li> 1. Peer Groups Stephanie Scharf CEHS 200: Chapter 8 Nov. 3, 2008</li></ul> <p> 2. Main Points: </p> <ul><li>Purpose </li></ul> <ul><li>Evolution of Interaction </li></ul> <ul><li>Peer Groups and Play </li></ul> <ul><li>Organization </li></ul> <ul><li>Behavior Influences </li></ul> <ul><li>Acceptance vs. Rejection </li></ul> <ul><li>Positive and Negative Outcomes </li></ul> <p> 3. Peers equals, individuals who are usually of the same gender, age, and social status and who share interests 4. Ecological Model Real Life Example I am an only child. Therefore,my social interactionswithpeers took place onlyatschoolandchurch . Often, thefriends I made would come visit in the evenings,wheremy parentswould superviseour activities. Friends visit Make Friends CHILD PEERS FAMILY SCHOOL/ CHURCH 5. Purpose of Peer Groups 6. </p> <ul><li>Satisfy certain belonging needs </li></ul> <ul><li>Often preferred to other socializing agents </li></ul> <ul><li>Influence social, cognitive and psychological development </li></ul> <ul><li>Influence development of morals and values </li></ul> <ul><li>Interaction provides instruction on acceptable behavior. </li></ul> <p> 7. </p> <ul><li>Social Support resources provided by others in times of need </li></ul> <ul><li><ul><li>Validation for the self </li></ul></li></ul> <ul><li><ul><li>Encouragement to try new things </li></ul></li></ul> <ul><li><ul><li>Opportunities for comparison </li></ul></li></ul> <ul><li><ul><li>Enable self-disclosure </li></ul></li></ul> <ul><li><ul><li>Provide identity </li></ul></li></ul> <p> 8. Evolution of Peer Interaction 9. </p> <ul><li>Infancy/Toddlerhood </li></ul> <ul><li>First feel belonging and developattachment to parents </li></ul> <ul><li>Capable of simple interactionsdistinguishing self from others </li></ul> <ul><li>Progress from emotional tobehavioral interactions </li></ul> <ul><li>By 3.5 can be socially involvedwith peers </li></ul> <ul><li>Friendship: momentaryplaymateship </li></ul> <p> 10. </p> <ul><li>Early Childhood </li></ul> <ul><li>Parenting styles affect opportunityfor social interactions </li></ul> <ul><li>Deal with more complex issues suchas power, compliance, cooperation,and conflict </li></ul> <ul><li>Interaction increases and becomesmore complex, forming groups </li></ul> <ul><li>Friendship: one-way assistance </li></ul> <p> 11. </p> <ul><li>Middle Childhood </li></ul> <ul><li>School age children experience increasein social interaction </li></ul> <ul><li>Peer group attractive because opportunityfor independence from family </li></ul> <ul><li>Enjoy the closeness and sharing of emotions </li></ul> <ul><li>Group provides identity models </li></ul> <ul><li>Peer interaction more than 30% of their time </li></ul> <ul><li>Activities become gender-specific andreflect culture </li></ul> <ul><li>Friendship: Two-way, fair-weathercooperation; intimate, mutuallyshared relationships </li></ul> <p> 12. </p> <ul><li>Adolescence </li></ul> <ul><li>Develop best friends and base friendshipsoff closeness of the relationship </li></ul> <ul><li>Peer group activities escalate </li></ul> <ul><li>Turn to group for whats hot now </li></ul> <ul><li> hang out, talk, watch TV, listen to music,play video games, be seen, see who else ishanging with whom, wait forsomething to happen </li></ul> <ul><li>Friendship: autonomousinterdependent friendships </li></ul> <p> 13. Peer Groups and Play 14. </p> <ul><li>Help learn about environment </li></ul> <ul><li>Imaginary situations governedby social rules </li></ul> <ul><li>Acceptable way to expressemotions and impulses </li></ul> <ul><li>Practice skills necessaryfor adult life </li></ul> <p> 15. Peer Group Organization 16. </p> <ul><li>Cliques </li></ul> <ul><li><ul><li>mutually connected by doing things together </li></ul></li></ul> <ul><li>Crowds </li></ul> <ul><li><ul><li>loosely organized reference groups of cliques </li></ul></li></ul> <p> 17. Ways Peer Groups Influence Behavior 18. </p> <ul><li>Reinforcement </li></ul> <ul><li><ul><li>giving attention andacceptance </li></ul></li></ul> <ul><li>Modeling </li></ul> <ul><li><ul><li>imitation, conformity </li></ul></li></ul> <ul><li>Punishment </li></ul> <ul><li><ul><li>teasing, physical aggression, rejection </li></ul></li></ul> <ul><li>Apprenticeship </li></ul> <ul><li><ul><li>the expert helps the novice </li></ul></li></ul> <p> 19. </p> <ul><li>Stratify </li></ul> <ul><li><ul><li>some individuals moredominant and othersubmissive </li></ul></li></ul> <ul><li>Develop norms </li></ul> <ul><li><ul><li>standards that serve asguidelines </li></ul></li></ul> <ul><li>Frustration and competitioncontribute to hostility </li></ul> <ul><li>Competition between groups fosters cohesiveness within groups </li></ul> <ul><li>Intergroup hostility can often be reduced by working towards a common goal </li></ul> <p> 20. </p> <ul><li>Adult influence </li></ul> <ul><li>How adults mediate thesocial interaction within apeer group competitiveor cooperative influenceschildrens behavior </li></ul> <ul><li>Adult leadership styleinfluences socialization </li></ul> <p> 21. Peer Acceptance Versus Rejection 22. Common Behavior Traits 23. Positive Peer Group Outcomes 24. </p> <ul><li>Collaboration </li></ul> <ul><li>Tutoring </li></ul> <ul><li>Counseling </li></ul> <ul><li>Neighborhood affectspositive or negative effects </li></ul> <p> 25. Negative Peer Group Outcomes 26. </p> <ul><li>Bullies and Victims </li></ul> <ul><li>Gangs </li></ul> <p> 27. </p> <ul><li>Bully Characteristics </li></ul> <ul><li>Domination </li></ul> <ul><li>Physically stronger </li></ul> <ul><li>Impulsive, low frustrationtolerance, easily angered </li></ul> <ul><li>Rule-breakers </li></ul> <ul><li>Show little empathy </li></ul> <ul><li>Positive self-concept </li></ul> <ul><li>Antisocialbehavior </li></ul> <p> 28. </p> <ul><li>Victim Characteristics </li></ul> <ul><li>Physically weaker </li></ul> <ul><li>Show fear of pain </li></ul> <ul><li>Poor physical coordination </li></ul> <ul><li>Cautious, sensitive, quiet, passive, submissive, shy </li></ul> <ul><li>Anxious, insecure, unhappy </li></ul> <ul><li>Negative self-concept </li></ul> <ul><li>Relate betterto adults than peers </li></ul> <p> 29. </p> <ul><li>What to do? </li></ul> <ul><li><ul><li>Intervention withbullies that do not reinforce harassment </li></ul></li></ul> <ul><li><ul><li>Intervention with victimsto alter negative self-concept and to respond in nonreinforcing ways to threats </li></ul></li></ul> <p> 30. </p> <ul><li>Gang </li></ul> <ul><li>group of people who form an allegiance for a common purpose and engage in unlawful or criminal activity </li></ul> <p> 31. </p> <ul><li>Reasons Gangs Form </li></ul> <ul><li>Racism </li></ul> <ul><li>Socioeconomics </li></ul> <ul><li>Family structure </li></ul> <ul><li>Belief system </li></ul> <p> 32. Peer Groups Stephanie Scharf CEHS 200: Chapter 8 Nov. 3, 2008</p>

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