where candy booklet form - illinois aitc booklets...• “walnut marketing board, california walnut...

RESOURCE GUIDE Agriculture: Where Candy Comes From Ag in the Classroom Illinois Farm Bureau ® 1701 N. Towanda Ave. Bloomington, IL 61701 (309)557-3334 Fax (309)557-2641 www.agintheclassr oom.or g Candy College ® Library c/o Chocolate Research & Confection History Library 109-125 South Court Street Robinson, IL 62545 (618)546-1558 or (312)388-0656 Fax (618)546-0182 Illinois Center for Food Safety and Technology 6502 South Archer Road Summit-Argo, IL 60501-1933 (708)563-8271 Fax (708)563-1873 www.foodsafety.iit.edu

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Agriculture: Where Candy Comes From

Ag in the ClassroomIllinois Farm Bureau®

1701 N. Towanda Ave.Bloomington, IL 61701(309)557-3334Fax (309)557-2641www.agintheclassroom.org

Candy College® Libraryc/o Chocolate Research &Confection History Library109-125 South Court StreetRobinson, IL 62545(618)546-1558 or (312)388-0656Fax (618)546-0182

Illinois Center for Food Safetyand Technology6502 South Archer RoadSummit-Argo, IL 60501-1933(708)563-8271Fax (708)563-1873www.foodsafety.iit.edu

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Lesson Plan 5: Make Your Own Gumdrops:The Story of SugarActivities:Make Your Own Gumdrop

Materials Needed:-Jello® powder (one teaspoon per child)-Water-Paper Plates-Sugar-Eyedropper

Sugar ConsumptionMaterials Needed:-Internet Access

Holiday Candy

Lesson 6: Peanut CandyActivities:Making Candy with Peanuts

Materials Needed:-1 pound almond bark(chocolate candy coating)-1 12-oz package of semi-sweetchocolate chips-1 box of 10 Ziploc® EZ-FIll™ bags (1 gallon)-Microwave-1 20-oz can of peanuts-Waxed paper

Growing PeanutsMaterials Needed:-Peanut seed-Sand-Potting soil-Pot

George Washington CarverMaterials Needed:-Books about George Washington Carver-Pencils & paper

Lesson 7: Chocolate History and ActivitiesActivities:Yummy, Edible Dirt!

Materials Needed:-8 inch plastic or clay flowerpot-foil-1 large package of Oreos®

-3/4 pound package of gummy worms-1 package miniature chocolate chips-green colored coconut-4 T. butter or margarine-1 8 oz. package of cream cheese-1 cup powdered sugar-3 1/2 cups milk-2-3 oz. packages of vanilla pudding-1-12 oz. container of whipped topping-Refrigerator

Chocolate-Scented Play DoughMaterials Needed:-1 1/4 cup flour-1/2 cup cocoa powder-1/2 cup salt-1/2 T. cream of tarter-1 1/2 T. cooking oil-1 cup boiling water-bowls-mixing Spoons-airtight container-plastic spoons

Trading Cocoa Beans

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It accompanies the “Candy, Culture, and

Creativity” lesson plans created by the Illinois

Ag in the Classroom Program of the Illinois

Farm Bureau®, the Candy College® Library,

and the Illinois Center for Food Safety and

Technology. We suggest that you make your

own “Candy, Culture, and Creativity” kit

using the lesson plan booklet, materials for

the lessons, this reference booklet, and

selected books, videos, and brochures.

Information about the growth and processing

of candy ingredients. A list of books, videos,

and brochures about candy is also included.


Where C

andy Com

es From


• ”Agriculture: Where Candy Comes From” ReferenceBooklet

• ”Candy, Culture, and Creativity” Lesson Plan Booklet• Selected books, videos, and brochures• Materials for the lesson plans

Lesson Plan 1: Candy IngredientsActivities:Candy Smell Test/Taste Party

Materials Needed:-Smell/Taste Testing Materials: almonds,carob chips, carob powder, coconut, cornsyrup, corn oil, corn starch, cottonseedoil, eggs, honey, maple syrup, milk, mint,molasses, peanuts, pecans, salt, soybeanoil, sugar, vanilla, walnuts-Small plates or dishes-“Candy Ingredients From Around theWorld” World Map (included in lessonplan)

Where Does My Candy Come From?

Lesson Plan 2: Candy and CultureActivities:Candy Legends

Materials Needed:-Internet access-Paper-Pencils, crayons, markers

Candy TraditionsMaterials Needed:-Internet access-Paper-Pencils, crayons, markers

Candy Lovers from Around the WorldMaterials Needed:-“Candy Lovers from Around the World” worksheet

Lesson Plan 3: What’s in a Tootsie Roll® Label?Materials Needed:-“What’s in My Tootsie Roll® worksheet”(included in lesson plan)-Tootsie Roll® for each student-Copies of Tootsie Roll® Nutrition Facts-Encyclopedias and other resource books

Lesson Plan 4: Candy and Food SafetyMaterials Needed:-“Fight Bac” Colorado Reader(order from Colorado Foundation forAgriculture at 970-881-2902)-“Food for Thought” worksheet(included in lesson plan)-cooking spray or vegetable oil-cinnamon-water-soap

Materials Needed to Make a “Candy,Culture, and Creativity Kit”

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Page 3 ..................... Corn

Page 4 ..................... Soybeans

Page 5 ..................... Spices

Page 5-6 .................. Grains

Page 6-7 .................. Nuts

Page 8-9 .................. Sweeteners

Page 9 ..................... Fruits

Page 10-11 .............. Extracts

Page 11-13 .............. Others

Where to Find Information About CandyIngredients in this Guide


Page 15 ................... Candy Books,Videos, andBrochures

Page 16-17 .............. Materials NeededList to make a“Candy, Culture,and Creativity Kit”

Candy Books, Videos,and Brochures

BooksBerries, Nuts and Seeds: A Take-Along Guide by Diane L.Burns, ISBN 1-55971-573-1

At the Candy Company by Jenna Anderson, ISBN1-881-50891-9

Candy!: A Sweet Selection of Fun and Easy Recipes by LauraDover Doran, ISBN 1-57990-111-5

Charlie and the Chocolate Factory by Roald Dahl, ISBN0-14-130115-5

Chocolate by Hershey: A Story about Milton S. Hershey byBetty M. Burford, ISBN 0-87614-641-8

Chocolate: Riches from the Rainforest by Robert Burleigh,ISBN 0-8109-5734-5

Chocolate: Savor the Flavor by Elaine Landau, ISBN1-57103-336-X

Chocolate (What’s For Lunch? Series) by Claire Llewellyn,ISBN 0-51626-218-1

Chocolate Thematic Unit, Teacher Created Materials, #239

Chocolate Thematic Unit, Teacher Created Materials, #2118

Cocoa Commotion by Melissa Peterson, ISBN 0-064-06660

Curious George Goes to a Chocolate Factory by Margret &H.A. Rey, ISBN 0-395-91214-8

Food by Fiona MacDonald, ISBN 0-7787-0248-0

I Like Chocolate by Robin Pickering, ISBN 0-516-23008-5

The Legend of the Candy Cane by Lori Walburg, ISBN0-310-21247-2

The Magic School Bus in the Rain Forest by Joanna Cole,ISBN 0-439-23960-5

A Pocketful of Goobers: A Story about George WashingtonCarver, ISBN 0-876-14292-7

Sugarbush Spring by Marsha Wilson Chall, ISBN0-688-14907-3

VideosMagic School Bus: In the Rainforest, 30 minutes, gradesPre-K through 5, order from libraryvideo.com, $9.95

Making Candy, ages 3-8, order from libraryvideo.com, $9.95

Milton Hershey: The Chocolate King, A&E Home Video,50 minutes, 7th grade to adults, order from libraryvideo.com,$14.95

Mr. Jelly Belly’s NEW Factory Tour, 8 minutes, K-5, FreePermanent Loan, order fromwww.videoplacementworldwide.com

Life’s Sweet Adventure, 20 minutes, includes a teacher’sguide for grades 4-6, Free from the ChocolateManufacturers Association/National ConfectionersAssociation, 703-790-5750

BrochuresFrom the Chocolate Manufacturers Association/NationalConfectioners Association at 703-790-5011:“The Sweet Truth About Candy”“A Chocolate A Day . . .Keeps the Diet Blues Away!”“How Sweet It Is”“Chocolate: Melting the Myths”“The Story of Chocolate”“Fun Facts About Chocolate”“Chocolate & Health”

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Corn syrup and corn starch are made from corn. Corn is anative grain to the American continents. Aztecs, Incas, andMayans were the first to grow corn. Christopher Columbusfound native Americans growing corn in Cuba in 1492. Cornis one of nature’s most amazing energy-storing devices.

A corn kernel weighs about one hundredth of an ounce. Yetthis tiny seed can produce a corn plant that will grow 7 to 10feet tall and that will produce between 600 and 1,000 seedslike the one from which the plant started. The seeds of acorn plant are the kernels that you find on an ear of corn.The kernels are arranged in rows along the ear. An ear ofcorn may have as few as 8 or as many as 36 rows, but thenumber of rows is always even.

Each fall, U.S. farmers produce almost nine billion bushels ofcorn. The area of the U. S. known as the “Corn Belt”produces 86% of the corn harvested in the nation. Statesincluded in the “Corn Belt” are Illinois, Iowa, Nebraska,Minnesota, Indiana, Wisconsin, Ohio, Michigan, SouthDakota, and Missouri.

When corn is harvested in the fall, it is taken to an elevator tobe sold or stored in a grain bin until it is ready to be sold.Next, the grain is transported to a processing plant or exportedto another county. Some processing plants use the corn forlivestock feed, some use it for human food, and some use itfor other products.

Corn oil is made by separating the germ part of the cornfrom the other parts with coarse grinding. (The germ part ofthe corn kernel is about 25 percent oil.) Mechanical andsolvent processes extract the oil from the germ. The oil isrefined and filtered into finished corn oil. Corn oil can bein peanut brittle.

Corn starch is made by soaking corn kernels in a stainlesssteel vat, called steeping. As the corn swells and softensin the water, the mild acidity of the steepwater begins toloosen the bonds that the starch has with the corn kernel.Next it is ground in a mill. Then the starch, gluten, andfiber are suspended over screens which catch the fiber butallow starch and gluten to pass through. The starch-glutensuspension, called mill starch, is piped to starch separators.The starch and gluten are put in a centrifuge. Since thegluten has a lower density than the starch, the gluten isspun out. The starch is diluted and washed. Corn starchcan be found in candies such as M&M’s®, Licorice, BrachsMaple Nut Goodies®, Butterfinger®, Jelly Beans, andGumdrops®.

Corn syrup is made from corn starch. The starch issuspended in water with acids/enzymes which convert thestarch to a sugar syrup (dextrose). Some syrups areprocessed further to become high fructose corn sweeteners.Corn syrup is used for flavoring in candies and saladdressing. In 1998, the U.S. confectionery industry used1,738,215 pounds of corn syrup.

Corn syrup can be found in candies such as Snickers®,Mars®, Junior® Mints, Dots®, York® Peppermint Patties,Almond Joy®, Spree®, Starburst®, M&M’s®, 100 Grand®,Pinwheel Mints®, Licorice, Candy Corn, Brachs® MapleNut Goodies, Gummy Bears, Whoppers®, Butterfinger®,Chocolate Covered Cherries, Peanut Brittle, Jelly Beans,Gumdrops, and Peeps®.




• “Almonds,” www.springtree.com/almonds.htm• “Almonds Are In,” www.almondsarein.com• Candy! A Sweet Selection of Fun and Easy Recipes by

Laura Dover Doran• “Carob,” www.hort.purdue.edu/newcrop/Crops/

carob.html• “Carob,” www.springtree.com/carob.html• “Carob—The Cocoa Substitute,” www.botgard.usla.edu/

html/botanytextbooks/economicbotany/Ceratonia/• “Cocoa Butter,” http://www.thenutfactory.com/kitchen/

facts/facts-chocolate-glossary.html• “Making Learning Sweet,” Creative Classroom,

September/October 2001• “Teaching with Chocolate,” Terese A. D’Amico• “Coconut,” www.hort.purdue.edu/newcrop/Crops/

Coconut.html• “The Many Uses of the Coconut,” www.coconut.com/

museum/uses.html• “Shades of Sweet Gold,” Fancy Food & Culinary

Products• “Honey: More Than Sweet,” Science News, Volume

154• “An Introduction to the History of Maple Syrup

Production & the Maple Production Tour,”www.dnr.cornell.edu/ext/maple/Maple%20Tour/HISTORY/history1.htm

• “Maple Syrup Production in Iowa,”http://www.ag.iastate.edu/departments/forestry/ext/

maplesyr.html• “Mint Fresh,” Wrigley• “Growing Montana Mint,” www.montanamint.addr.com/


• “Mint in Wisconsin,” http://ipcm.wise.edu/piap/mint.htm

• “A New World of Food: Peanuts,” Gourmet,March 1992

• “Pecans,”www.agr.state.nc.us/markets/commodit/horticul/pecans/tips.htm

• “The South’s Family Tree,” Southern Living,November 1996

• “Nutrition Information,” www.ilovepecans.org/nutrition.htm

• “Texas Pecans,” www.texaspecan.com• “Sorghum Molasses,” http://southernfood.about.com/

library/weekly/aa101798.htm• 2001 Soyfoods Guide, Soy Protein Partners• “Soybean,” www.nmsu.edu/~molbio/plant/

soybean.html• “How Beet Sugar is Made,” www.sucrose.com/

lbeet.html• “How Cane Sugar is Made,” www.sucrose.com/

lcane.html• “Sugar,” All Around Wrigley, Winter 1985• “Vanilla Farming? Not as Bland as You Might Think,”

New York Times International, January19, 1998• “Vanilla Enhances Fruit Flavors,”

Prepared Foods, June 2001• “All About Vanilla,” Bon Appetit, March 1986• “Ask Bon Appetit,” Bon Appetit, December 1991• ‘Vanilla: The World’s “flavourite” Orchid,’

www.infoweb.com.au/orchids/vanilla.htm• “Vanilla, the Spice that is not a Spice,”


• “Walnut Marketing Board, California WalnutCommission,” http://www.webcom.com/walnut/californ.html

• “Geography of Walnut and Nuts,” www.internut-fr.com/phtml-uk/page-contenu-geographie-uk.html

• “Walnuts,” www.springtree.com/walnuts.html• “Agriculture’s Hot Spots,” World Watch,

May/June 2000• Consumption of Selected Ingredients by the U.S.

Confectionary Industry,” LEXIS-NEXISÆ Statistical

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SOYBEANSMore soybeans are grown in the United States than anywhereelse in the world. In 1999, Illinois farmers grew 443,100,000bushels of soybeans. Illinois ranks second in soybeanproduction among other states. Approximately 10,600,000acres of Illinois land are used for soybean growth.

Soybeans are the most widely eaten plant in the world! Theycontain protein, carbohydrates, vitamins, minerals, and oil.Soybeans are high in dietary fiber and supply all of the aminoacids (protein) needed for human health. Soy protein foodsmay cut heart disease risk by 25 to 30 percent if eaten as aregular part of a diet low in saturated fat and cholesterol.Studies suggest soy may also cut the risk of osteoporosis andfractures in later years of life by increasing bone density. Soyproducts may also fight cancer through a unique chemicalcalled genistein which suppresses the growth of cancer cells.

In processing, the soybeans are cleaned, cracked, dehulled,and rolled into flakes. This ruptures the oil cells for efficientextraction of the soy oil. After removal of the soybean oil,the remaining flakes can be processed into various edible soyprotein products or used to produce protein meal for animalfeeds.

The dry, solid portion of the bean provides many edibleproducts. Soy flours and grits are used in the commercialbaking industry. Soy hulls are processed into fiber-bran breads,cereals, and snacks. Soybean oil finds its way into suchproducts as margarine, salad, and cooking oils.

Soy flour is the fine powder produced by grinding soybeans.It is an inexpensive, cholesterol-free egg substitute for bakedgoods. You can make your own soy flour and use it in recipesthat call for flour. Blend a half-cup of cleaned dry soybeansin a blender until the particles are fine. Since no preservativesare used, you should freeze the extra flour that will not beused in the next few weeks.

Each year’s soybean crop develops from soybean seed. Theseed contains a seedling (young plant) and food for it. Themain parts of the soybean seed are:

Hilum-the part of the seed where it was once attachedto the pod. The hilum is often black or brown but isyellow on some varieties.Seed Coat-a thin covering that protects the seed.Cotyledon-the part of the seed in which food for theseedling is stored. Each bean has a pair of cotyledonsforming a protective shield around the seedling.Epicotyl-the uppermost part of the seedling. It has twoleaves that are unifoliated (containing only one leaflet).These are the first true leaves to develop on the plant.Hypocotyl-the lower portion of the seedling’s stem.Radicle-the main root of the seedling. It takes up waterand nutrients from the soil to nourish the seedling.

Soy lecithin is extracted from soybean oil. It is used as anemulsifier (mixes oils in with other ingredients) in food productsthat are high in fats and oils.

Soy lecithin can be found in candies such as Hershey® bars,Snickers®, Reese’s® Peanut Butter Cups, Almond Joy®,M&M’s®, 100 Grand®, Mars®, Junior® Mints, York®

Peppermint Patties, Whoppers®, Butterfinger®, ChocolateCovered Cherries, Peanut Brittle, Tolberone®, and ChocolateOrange®.

Soybean oil is the natural oil extracted from whole soybeans.Soybean oil is used more than any other type of vegetableoil, 75% of our total vegetable fats and oils intake in fact. Ifyou see a bottle in the store labeled “vegetable oil,” it is usually100 percent soybean oil or a blend of soybean oil and otheroils. Partially hydrogenated soybean oil is oil that hashydrogen infused into it at a controlled temperature. Thehydrogen solidifies the soybean oil by changing the chemicaland physical structure of the soybean oil.

Partially hydrogenated soybean oil can be found in candiessuch as Snickers®, Almond Joy®, Starburst®, Licorice®,Werthers® Originals, and Brachs® Maple Nut Goodies.

Cream from milk can be found in candies such as Werthers®

Originals and Chocolate Oranges®. Butter is made from milkby pasteurizing (killing bacteria and preventing spoilage) andchurning (mixing) cream. Butter is found in candies such asSnickers®, 100 Grand®, Mars®, and Werthers® Originals.

SALT: Salt comes from brine (salty water). Salt from seawateris obtained by moving the seawater through a series ofevaporating ponds. Most other minerals evaporate beforesalt does, so salt is left at the last pond. Salt from the groundis called rock salt. These deposits were left in the ground bythe evaporation of oceans long ago. Rock salt is obtained bymining or drilling. The U.S., China, Germany, Canada, India,and Mexico are all large salt-producing areas. Salt can beused as a deicer, seasoning for food, ceramic glazes, livestockfeed, medicines, water softening, and much more.

Salt can be found in candies such as Mars®, Snickers®,Reese’s® Peanut Butter Cups, Almond Joy®, M&M’s®, 100Grand®, Licorice, Werthers®, Candy Corn, Brachs® MapleNut Goodies, Whoppers®, Butterfinger®, and Peanut Brittle.

SORGHUM: Sorghum is made from the juice of sorghumcane, a grass with a thick, solid stalk and large clusters ofgrain at the top. It originated in Africa and is used for syrup,grain, broom fiber, and animal feed. The U.S. plants aboutten million acres of sorghum each year. Worldwide, sorghumis the third largest food grain.

There are grain sorghums, sweet sorghums, grassy sorghums,and broomcorn. Sweet sorghums are used for sorghum syrupby pressing the juice out of the stems with rollers and boilingit. Sorghum molasses was a favorite sweetener, especially inthe Southern states in the 1800s and early 1900s. As refinedsugar products became cheaper and more available, therewas a decline in the use of sorghum as a sweetener.

Sorghum can be used to make Sorghum Pie, MolassesPopcorn Balls, and Peanut Candy.

Coffee and mocha are also used as candy flavorings.

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SPICESAllspice can be used to make a variety of candy likesugarplums. It comes from the berries of the pimento tree.These berries are dried in the sun or in a kiln and then groundup or sold whole.

Cinnamon can be used to make a variety of candy such ascinnamon hard candies and sugarplums. It comes from thebark of the cinnamon tree. Large producers of cinnamonare Sri Lanka, Brazil, India, Jamaica, Java, Madagascar, andMartinique. When the bark is peeled off the shoots, it turnsbrown and curls up.


RICEArcheological evidence finds that rice has been growing formore than 5000 years. Rice seems to have originated inChina and slowly worked its way to ancient Greece. Nextrice was grown in Persia, and then the Nile Delta. Rice thenmoved across continents until it reached the WesternHemisphere. Today, rice has grown into a crop that sustainstwo-thirds of the world’s population.

The United States began cultivating rice over 300 years ago.Rice began growing in the U.S. when a storm-battered shipaccidentally arrived at the Charleston Harbor in NorthCarolina. The captain of the ship gave a small amount ofrice as a gift to a planter. This rice, known as “Golde SeedeRice” was grown on Carolina and Georgia plantations. The“Golde Seede Rice” soon became known as “Carolina Golde,”and by 1726 Carolina Golde was the world standard for high-quality rice.

The Civil War, along with hurricanes and competition fromother crops, moved the rice westward along the Gulf Coast.After this occurred, an Iowa wheat farmer realized that thesoils for growing rice could support the equipment used toproduce wheat. The mechanization of growing rice allowedmore states to be able to produce it. Now, Arkansas,Louisiana, Mississippi, Missouri, Texas, and California aremajor rice-producing states. And even more recently, Floridais trying its hand at producing rice.

Nutmeg can be used to make a variety of candy such assugarplums and white chocolate truffles. It comes from theinner part of the seeds of nutmeg trees. Nutmeg trees areraised in the Spice Islands, Indonesia, the West Indies, Brazil,India, and Sri Lanka.

Rice needs long, wet growing seasons that are free of coldand snow for proper growth. It also needs flat areas of wetland with heavy soil and plenty of water to flood the field,which are called paddies. Rice production requires a lot ofmanual labor. One hundred acres of rice may need 100-300laborers to prepare the soil, plant the rice, and harvest thecrop.

After rice is harvested, it is taken to a mill for processing.The purpose of milling is to remove the hull and bran layerswhile preserving as many of the whole kernels as possible.The kernels go through a series of sorting machines, shellermachines, steaming, and drying depending on the form ofrice that is desired. About 55 percent of the yields from ricemilling are whole kernels, 20 percent are hulls, 15 percentare broken kernels, and 10 percent are rice bran and polish.

Rice is a very nutritious food of the bread and cereals foodgroup in the USDA Food Guide Pyramid. It contains complexcarbohydrates that provide energy to the body. Rice alsocontains thiamin, riboflavin, niacin, phosphorus, iron, andpotassium. Rice does not contain sodium, fat, or cholesterol,which is an added benefit for those on special diets. Brownrice will give you a little more fiber, calcium, phosphorus, andVitamin E than white rice. Although most white rice in theUnited States is enriched, white rice provides more iron andthiamin than brown rice.

Rice can be found in candies such as 100 Grand® andNestle Crunch®.

To make chocolate, chocolate liquor is mixed with condensedmilk, sugar, and extra cocoa butter till it is a coarse, brownpowder. Next it is refined with steel rollers by breaking thecrumb mixture into tiny, cocoa, milk, and sugar particles. Thenthe mixture is churned into a smooth blend. Then it istempered-cooled and warmed for a glossy sheen and to ensureproper melting.

Chocolate manufactures use 40 percent of the world’salmonds, 20 percent of the world’s peanuts and 8 percent ofthe world’s sugar. Milk is also a key ingredient in chocolate.3.5 million pounds of whole milk is used every day to makechocolate.

The U.S. grinds the most cocoa for processing at 438,000tons. The Netherlands and Germany are also leaders.Switzerland consumes the most chocolate per person: 23pounds per person each year. The U.S. consumes 12 poundsper person each year. In 1998, Americans ate 3.3 billionpounds of chocolate.

In 1998, the U.S. confectionery industry used 13,485,000pounds of imported chocolate liquor, 47,295,000 pounds ofdomestic chocolate liquor, 135,686,000 pounds of cocoa cakeor powder, 342,898,000 pounds of cocoa butter, and25,120,000 pounds of cocoa powder composition coatings.

Cocoa butter can be found in candies such as Hershey®’sbars, Snickers®, Reese’s® Peanut Butter Cups, Mars®, Junior®

Mints, York® Peppermint Patties, Almond Joy®, M&M’s®, 100Grand®, Chocolate Covered Cherries, Tolberone®, andChocolate Orange®. Chocolate can be found in the samecandies.


OTHERS (cont.)

EGGS: Eggs comes from poultry, mainly chickens. A femalechicken that is raised for eggs is called a laying hen. They siton eggs for 21 days until they hatch. In large commercialchick production, large incubators are used to hatch chicksinstead of laying hens. Only fertilized eggs will hatch. Malechickens are called roosters. They have larger combs andwattles than hens and their feathers are more colorful.Chickens eat chicken feed. The main ingredient is corn,wheat, sorghum, or another grain.

Eggs can be found in candies such as Spree®, Snickers®,Almond Joy®, Mars®, York® Peppermint Patties, andTolberone®.

MILK: Illinois dairy cattle produce two-and-a-half millionpounds of milk in one year. The dairy cow, which must givebirth to a calf before beginning to give milk, performs a veryimportant job in our food production industry. Cows changegrass and grains, which people can’t eat, into milk—a nearlyperfect food. The dairy cow is a ruminant, which means ithas four compartments to its stomach. A good milk producingcow will give 20,000-30,000 pounds of milk each year,although most cows give an average of 15,000 pounds peryear. All milking today is done by electric machines whichguide the flow of milk from the cow to a very clean refrigeratedholding tank.

After the cows are milked and the milk is in the refrigeratedtank, an insulated truck comes to the farm and hauls the milkto a dairy plant. After the milk is tested for safety, it ishomogenized, pasteurized, and packaged. Milk can also beprocessed into cheese, yogurt, ice cream or other productsat the dairy. Milk products are stored in a refrigerated roomand then taken to a grocery story for you! In 1998, the U.S.confectionery industry used 497,258 pounds of milk and milkproducts.

Lactose, also called milk sugar is found in the milk of allmammals. It is obtained commercially from skimmed milkand whey, a liquid by-product of the cheese-making process.Lactose can be found in candies such as 100 Grand®,Snickers®, Mars®, York® Peppermint Patties, Reese’s® PeanutButter Cups, Almond Joy®, M&M’s®, and Tolberone®.

Milk can be found in candies such as Mars®, Hershey®’s bars,Snickers®, Almond Joy®, M&M’s®, 100 Grand®, Whoppers®,Butterfinger®, Chocolate Covered Cherries, Tolberone®,Reese’s® Peanut Butter Cups, Werthers® Originals, and York®

Peppermint Patties.

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WHEATWheat is the third largest crop in Illinois. Illinois wheat is usedas livestock feed or made into flour for foods like cakes, cookies,crackers, and pretzels. Our wheat is also used for non-fooditems such as glue and pharmaceuticals. The farmer plantsthe tiny wheat kernels (another name for seeds) in the groundusing a grain drill. The seed germinates (sprouts) and beginsto grow into a plant, which consists of roots, a stem, long,slender leaves, and a head, which has kernels.

In June or July, the farmer combines the wheat and unloadsthe combine hopper into trucks or wagons. The farmer willhaul the wheat to the country elevator. A country elevator hasgiant silos to store grain. The farmer receives payment for hiswheat, and then the country elevator ships the wheat by truck,rail, or barge to a grain terminal. Next, the wheat is sold tovarious industries which make food or feed, or for shipmentoverseas.

The place where wheat is shipped to make flour is called themill. The people who process the wheat are called millers.The wheat is put through a cleaning process to remove foreignmatter (weed seeds, corn seeds, beans, stems). Rollers thenpress over the wheat kernels to break them into pieces, andthey are shaken on screens to sift out the bran (the brokencoat of the kernel) and germ (the part of wheat used to growa new plant) not used in wheat flour. This is repeated threetimes to make a soft powdery substance we know as flour.

Wheat can be found in candy such as licorice and Whoppers®.Another grain, barley, can be found in Whoppers®.

ALMONDS:Almonds are the seeds of a tree in the peach family. Theearliest varieties of almonds were found in China and carriedto Greece, Turkey, and the Middle East. Today they aregrown in the bordering countries to the Mediterranean Sea.They also grow well in California.

Almonds are harvested in late August through October usingmechanical tree shakers and sweepers. Almonds must alsobe hulled, shelled, fumigated, sized, graded, processed,packaged, and shipped. Almond trees may grow up to 40feet tall.

There are sweet almonds and bitter almonds. Sweet almondsare toasted, salted, eaten whole, or added to candies andpastries. Bitter almonds are not edible. Oil can be extractedfrom both sweet and bitter almonds. Almonds provide morecalcium than any other nut and more dietary fiber than anyother nut or seed. In 1998, the U.S. Confectionery Industryused 41,588,000 pounds of almond kernels.

Almonds are found in candy such as Hershey®’s bars, AlmondJoy®, Mars®, Tolberone®, Zero®, Heath®, Skor®, andSymphony®

PEANUTS: Peanuts probably originated in Brazil or Peru.Explorers to South America and Mexico took peanuts backto Spain. From Spain, traders and explorers took peanuts toAfrica and Asia. In Africa, the plant became common in thewestern tropical region. When Africans were brought to NorthAmerica, peanuts came with then. Today, about 75% ofpeanuts grown are used domestically. The remaining areusually shipped raw to major buyers like Western Europe,Canada and Japan. In 1998, the U.S. confectionery industryused 320,304,000 pounds of peanuts

The peanut plant actually flowers above the ground and fruitsbelow the soil surface. The peanut plant averages about 18inches tall. It produces a yellowish-orange flower that afterblooming will create a “peg” that will grow down into thesoil. After about 60-70 days the peg will mature into a peanut.The peanut plant is a legume, which means that they can

GRAINS (cont.)



Pure vanilla extract is made by hydroalcoholic extraction fromthe cured whole beans. Alcohol, water, and possibly sugarare added to this. Vanilla is the second most expensive spicein the world, second only to saffron. Natural vanilla flavor isa mix of pure vanilla extract and other natural substances.Imitation vanilla is made from synthetic substances, andartificial vanilla is a by-product of the paper industry chemicallytreated to taste like vanilla. In the United States, we consumeabout 60 percent of the world’s natural vanilla, but artificialvanillin flavoring still takes up about 90 percent of the market.

Vanilla can be found in candies such as Almond Joy®,Hershey®’s bars, 100 Grand®, Junior® Mints, York®

Peppermint Patties, Werthers® Originals, Chocolate CoveredCherries, Tolberone®, and Chocolate Orange®.

Other extracts used in candy include orange, lemon, almond,and others.

OTHERSCAROB:Carob trees are native to the Eastern Mediterranean area,probably the Middle East. Most carob used in the U.S. comesfrom the Mediterranean Region, especially Sicily, Cyprus,Malta, Spain, southern Sardinia, and Italy. Carob trees aremedium sized and they have evergreen leaves. The fruit of acarob tree is the fleshy pod. The pods are up to a foot longand an inch wide with three to five seeds. Carob trees bloomand about six to eight months later, they are harvested. Theaverage annual yield per tree is 200-250 pounds of fruit.Carob prefers dry climates that receive more than 30centimeters of rainfall. Carobs are used mostly for livestockfeed, but finely ground pods and seeds make a sweet, nutritioushuman food.

Carob looks similar to cocoa and is sometimes used as a cocoasubstitute. The carob pods are roasted and ground into carobpowder. Carob contains vitamin B1, niacin, vitamin A, vitaminB2, calcium, magnesium, and iron.

Carob can be found in Whoppers® and some other types ofcandies.

COCOA: Cacao beans were used in a spicy drink (calledchocolatl) by the Ancient Aztecs. Aztec traders got cacaobeans from the Mayan lands and hauled it to their capital.Since the beans were used for money, warriors had toaccompany the traders to protect them from thieves. WhenCortés and his Spanish explorers came to the Aztec capital,they saw Montezuma drinking chocolatl in gold cups. TheSpanish explorers took the spicy drink back to Spain andpeople there loved it. Soon travelers from other Europeancountries took the chocolate drink back home, people addedsugar to the drink, and chocolate became a favorite drink ofthe upper class. In the late 19th century, Rodolphe Lindtinvented a conching machine. It squeezed cacao beans andmade a smooth chocolate blend. In 1875, Daniel Peterteamed up with Henri Nestle’ and they added milk to their

chocolate recipes. The popularity of candy bars grew afterWorld War I. By 1930, there were 40,000 different kinds ofcandy bars.

Chocolate is a natural product that comes from the cacaobeans cacao trees. Cacao trees can only grow in tropicalclimates- 20 degrees north or south of the equator. This isreferred to as the Cocoa Belt. The most cacao trees aregrown at the Ivory Coast: 1.4 million tons per year. Indonesiais second with 410,000 tons per year. Other leading cacaotree growing countries are Ghana, Nigeria, Brazil, Cameroon,Ecuador, Fernando Po (and Rio Muni), Dominican Republic,New Guinea, and Mexico.

Cacao flowers on the cacao trees are pollinated by midges,which are tiny flies. They live and breed in the decayingleaves and pods around cacao trees. The midges are only 2-4 millimeters long, but they beat their wings 1000 times asecond. The cacao trees rely on the midges for pollinationand the midges rely on the cacao trees for food and shelter.

Cacao trees have pods, each with 20 to 40 almond-sizedbeans. It takes almost 400 cacao beans to make a pound ofchocolate liquor. The pods are harvested with a machete andthe broken apart to retrieve the cacao bean. The beans thenmust fermented, dried, and shipped at chocolate factoriesin burlap bags. At the chocolate factory, cacao seeds areroasted, cracked, fanned, winnowed, and then ground intochocolate liquor. Chocolate liquor is used to make chocolate.Some chocolate liquor is pressed to remove cocoa butterand further processing turns it into cocoa powder. Cocoabutter is the fatty part of the cacao bean and it makesthe chocolate smoother. It is extracted from chocolate liquorunder high pressure.

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produce a very essential nutrient called nitrogen, which isvery beneficial for the soil. Runner, Virginia, Spanish, andValencia peanuts are used primarily for peanut butter.Virginias are the largest kernels and account for most of theroasted in-shell peanuts. Spanish are found mainly in candiessince they have a very distinct reddish-brown skin.

George Washington Carver was an agricultural researcher ofthe early 1900’s. He is especially noted for his research withpeanuts. George Washington Carver received many awardssuch as the Spingarn Medal from the National Associationfor the Advancement of Colored People and the TheodoreRoosevelt Medal for his valuable contributions to science.There is a George Washington Carver National Monumenton the Missouri farm where Carver was born and January 5th

has been named George Washington Carver Day.

Carver’s interest in plants began when he was a child.Although he was too sick to work in the fields, he kept apersonal garden. Carver attended a school for black childrenin Neosho, Missouri as a child and gained further educationat Simpson College in Indianola, Iowa and Iowa State Collegein Ames. In 1896, George Washington Carver joined thefaculty of Tuskegee Institute, an industrial and agriculturalschool for blacks. Carver was the head of the agriculturaldepartment, the director of a state agricultural station, andlater the head of Tuskegee’s Department of Research. Heworked hard to teach more productive agricultural practicesto Southern farmers, black farmers in particular. After findingover 300 uses for peanuts, Carver lectured about the usesbefore a committee of Congress. Some uses he found wereshaving cream, leather dye, coffee, ink, and shoe polish.

*Adapted with permission from the Georgia Farm Bureau®

Federation Ag in the Classroom Program.

Peanuts can be found in candies such as Snickers®, Reese’s®

Peanut Butter Cup, Brachs® Maple Nut Goodies,Butterfinger®, Peanut Brittle, Mr. Goodbar®, and Pay Day®.Maple Nut Goodies® also contain peanut oil.

PECANS: Pecans are native to the U.S., particularly theSouthern states. Today, 13 different states grow pecans.Georgia produces the most with Texas producing the secondmost. 250 million pounds of pecans are produced in theU.S. each year. Pecan day is March 25-the anniversary ofplanting by George Washington at Mt. Vernon (1775).

Pecan trees don’t bear nuts until they are 5 or 6 years oldand they may take up to 20 years to produce a full crop ofnuts. Pecan trees may grow 180 feet tall. Pecans can beharvested using mechanical shakers. They are then taken toprocessing centers where they are cleaned, graded, andpackaged.

Pecans have over 19 vitamins and minerals including vitaminA, vitamin E, folic acid, calcium, magnesium, phosphorus,potassium, several B vitamins and zinc. They are in the proteingroup of the USDA Food Guide Pyramid, with meat, poultry,fish, eggs, and dried beans.

Pecans are found in candies such as Russell Stover® PecanDelights and Turtles®.

WALNUTS: Walnuts originated in Persia. They were broughtto California by Franciscan (Spanish) Fathers from Spain orMexico. Today, California grows over 98% of the total U.S.commercial crop and 2/3 of the world production. Othertop producers include China, Greece, and Turkey. Idealwalnut growing conditions are a mild climate and fertile soils.

After a walnut orchard is planted, it takes 6-8 years to yieldnuts. It will bear nuts for almost 100 years. Walnut treescan grow up to 100 feet tall. Walnut trees must be pruned,sprayed, fertilized, and irrigated. Harvesting begins in Augustwhen the green husks split. Harvesting machines are used toshake the trees and the walnuts are swept to have themechanical harvesters pick them up for cleaning and hulling.Next the walnuts are dried and sized. Walnuts are stored intheir shells, the shells are only removed when there is demandfrom the consumer and industrial users. When the shells areremoved, the walnuts are separated by size. They arepackaged after being hand sorted for quality. Walnuts areused for snacks, bakery items, dairy products, confections,sauces, and dressings. Walnut shells can be used for glues,plastics, and cleaning solutions.

Walnuts can be found in candies such as taffy, fudge, grapewalnut candy, yogurt walnut pieces, and chocolate walnutpieces.


EXTRACTSCOTTONSEED OIL: Cottonseed oil comes from the seedsof cotton plants. The leaders in cotton production are China,the United States, India, Pakistan, and Uzbekistan. Cottonseedoil can be used for shortening, margarine, cooking oil,confections, and salad oil. Cottonseeds are 15-24% oil. Toextract the oil from a cottonseed, the hull is removed andthen the oil can be extracted by soaking the seed in a solvent.

Cottonseed oil can be found in candies such as Brachs® MapleNut Goodies and Almond Joy®.

MINT: Peppermint and spearmint were grown in Europeand brought to America by English colonists. The U.S. isnow the largest producer of mint oil. The Pacific Northwestaccounts for 90 percent of mint grown in the U.S. Mintgrows well in Indiana, Michigan, Wisconsin, Oregon,Washington, Idaho, South Dakota, and Montana. Mint inthe Pacific Northwest needs irrigation. Mint is also abundantin the countries that border the Mediterranean Sea.

Mint is a perennial plant that produces no seed. New fieldsare planted with root stock or underground runners (stolons)from existing plants. Mint is planted as a row crop, butby the second year is spreads out and creates a solid meadow.Every three to five years, the mint fields are rotatedwith another field crop and then the mint planting cyclebegins again.

The oil is stored in the glands on the underside of thepeppermint and spearmint leaves. The plant reacts to sun byproducing oil, so a very sunny season makes for a higheryield. An acre of land will grow about 76 pounds of oil. Mintis harvested with windrowers. They mow the fields and leavea mounded row of “hay” or cut mint. The hay is left to dry inthe field for 24 to 36 hours. Then the hay is picked up by amechanical mint chopper and blown into a mint tub that holdsone acre of mint. Oil is extracted from the mint leaves bydistillation. Trucks pull the mint tubs to a still where steam

and vapor lines are hooked to the tubs. Steam moves throughthe mint hay, taking oil off as a vapor. About two hours arerequired to cook the hay in the tub.

Mint oils are identified by their growing areas. Companieslike Wrigley buy an assortment of mint oils, which arecombined in specified proportions to create each flavorformula. Mint is used for flavoring for chewing gum, candy,tooth paste, and medicines. There are about 3,500 speciesof mint. Some popular cooking mints include marjoram,rosemary, and sage. Mints such as white horehound andpeppermint add a cool, sharp flavor to candies. Peppermintaccounts for 80 percent of the U.S. mint production.

Peppermint oil can be found in candies such as Junior® Mints,York® Peppermint Patties, and Pinwheel Mints.

VANILLA: The word vanilla comes from the word sarkarawhich means sand or grain. Vanilla beans are in the pods ofan orchid called Vanilla plantifolia. Vanilla trees grow incountries such as Madagascar, Indonesia, Tahiti, and Mexicoas they like hot, humid, tropical climates. Vanilla vines couldgrow up to 350 feet tall, but they pruned or looped to keepthe beans in easy reach of the workers who pollinate them.Only the Melipone, a tiny bee found in the vanilla districts ofMexico, is uniquely equipped to pollinate the flowers, but willnot survive outside of Mexico, so hand-pollination must beused elsewhere. Each vanilla orchid blossoms for only a fewhours and must be pollinated by hand during that time. Agood vanilla vine can produce 100 pods per year. Each podis five to ten inches long. The bean is odorless when harvested,becoming fragrant only after it has been fermented and dried.Expert workers can pollinate up to 1,500 blossoms a day.After fertilization, the pods mature in four to nine months.They are picked when their color begins to change from greento yellow. The beans are thick and about five to ten incheslong. Sometimes the pods are marked with pinpricks toprevent theft. About five pounds of fresh vanilla pods areused to make one pound of dried beans.

Vanilla is native to the Americas-Central Americas and possiblynorthern South America. It was taken to Spain and theneverywhere else. It was first introduced to Europeans in 1520when Diaz, an officer of Cortes, noted its use by the Aztecsin southern Mexico to flavor their chocolatl. (a chocolatedrink) The Spaniards established factories to manufacturechocolate with vanilla flavoring and for many years theSpaniards has control of vanilla production. At first, vanillawas used only in combination with the cocoa bean. By 1602,vanilla began to be used as a flavoring on its own. In the1800’s, vanilla plants were grown in England, France,Belgium, Indonesia, Mauritius (southwest Indian Ocean), andMadagascar. This started the vanilla industry centered aroundthe Indian Ocean.

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HONEY: Honey is made by bees. They drink the sweetnectar of flowers and then take it back to their hives andshare it with other bees. The bees keep the nectar in theirbodies where the sugar in the nectar breaks down into fructoseand glucose. Next they deposit the nectar in a honeycomb.Here the water in the nectar evaporates and the nectarbecomes honey. China, the U.S., Argentina, Belarus, India,Mexico, Russia, Turkey, and the Ukraine are all large honeyproducing areas.

Honey can be found in candies such as Candy Corn, Bit-O-Honey®, and Tolberone®.

MAPLE SYRUP: Using sugar maple trees to produce syrupis most common in New England and the Great Lakes statesas well as Ohio, Pennsylvania, and New York. Vermont leadsthe U.S. states in maple syrup production. Soils for growingsugar maples should be deep, moist, and well drained withmedium or fine textures. Sugar maple trees average about1 foot of height growth and 0.2 inch of diameter growthannually for 30-40 years. Sugar maple trees can grow up to100 feet tall.

Sap comes out of trees in the spring. During warm periodswhen temperatures rise above freezing, pressure (positivepressure) develops in the tree. This causes the sap to flowout of the tree through a tap hole. During cooler periodswhen temperatures fall below freezing, suction (negativepressure) develops, drawing water into the tree through theroots. This replenishes the sap in the tree, allowing it to flowagain during the next warm period. Sap flows through aportion of the outer tree trunk called sapwood. Power augersare used to tap maple trees. Holes are drilled at an upwardslant, 2.5-3 inches beyond the bark.

Sap season is about 6 weeks long in New York. In Iowa, sapcollection begins in late February or early March and lasts for3 weeks. Maple producers used to use buckets hung on treesto collect sap. This was very impractical. In the 50’s and60’s, maple producers and scientists experimented withconnecting a plastic tube to each tree which led to a centralcollection tank. Trees have been tapped for over 25 yearsusing vacuum tubing with no apparent damage to the tree.

The sugar house is the point where sap becomes syrup. Maplesap is 2% sugar content, maple syrup is 66% sugar, so ittakes many gallons of sap to make one gallon of syrup. Sapis boiled in an evaporator (can be an open pan over heat ormore complex systems) to make syrup. Sap is boiled to 2190Fto make syrup. It can be boiled beyond the syrup stage formaple butter, taffy, or sugar.

Maple syrup can be found in candies such as Brachs® MapleNut Goodies and maple candy.

MOLASSES: Molasses is made from the juice of sugarcaneor sugar beets. It is a by-product in the manufacturing ofsugar. (It is the liquid that remains after the sugar crystals areremoved.) Molasses can be used for brewing, cooking,candymaking, and distilling alcohol, and as livestock feed.

Molasses can be found in candy such as Butterfinger®.

SUGAR: Sugar is made from sugar cane or sugar beets.Americans today consume about 11.8 pounds of sugar candyeach year. In 1998, the U.S. confectionery industry used2,789,837,000 pounds of sugar (cane and beet). Sugarcan also be used by nonfood industries: mixing cement,tanning leather, making plastics, and medicines (to disguiseor enhance taste).

The word sugar comes from the word sarkara, meaning sandor grain. It is thought that between 325 BC and 325 AD theIndians or the Persians started turning sugarcane juice into asemicrystalline form. This had a lot of impurities and molasses.Until the 19th century, most sugar consumed had a brownishcolor because of this. Sugar was brought to America byColumbus on his second voyage.

SUGAR CANE: Sugar cane is a tall grass plant that growsin tropical and semi-tropical climates. The top producers areBrazil, India, China, Cuba, and Mexico. Sugar cane isharvested by chopping down the stems and leaving the rootsso that it re-grows for the next harvest. Cane juice must beextracted from the cane. The cane is crushed in a series oflarge rollers and the juice comes out. Since the juice still hassoil, small fibers, and green extracts in it, it must be cleanedwith slaked lime. The juice is thickened into syrup by boilingoff the water using steam and evaporation. The syrup is putinto large pans for boiling. Most water is boiled off until the


sugar crystals can grow. This is spun in a centrifuge toseparate the crystals and mother liquor. The crystals are driedwith hot air before storage. The final raw sugar looks like asticky brown mountain, so it is usually refined when it gets tothe country where it will be used.

SUGAR BEETS: Sugar beets grow in temperate climates.Top sugar beet growing countries are France, the Ukraine,Germany, Russia, and the U.S. Sucrose is stored in the plant’sfleshy root. The tops of sugar beets are fed to livestock orused as fertilizer. Beets are harvested in autumn and earlywinter by digging them out of the ground. They are taken tothe factory and washed and separated from any beet leaves,stones, or trash materials that was collected with them duringharvest. To extract the sucrose, the beets are sliced into thinchips. This increases the surface area so the sugar is easierto extract. The extraction takes place in a diffuser for aboutan hour with hot water. (Similar to the color and flavor of teacoming out of tea leaves in a teapot.) Next the sugar beetslices are pressed to squeeze as much juice from them aspossible. The pulp leftover from the pressing is sent to a

drying plant where it is turned into pellets which are used forsome animal feeds. The juice is cleaned before it’s used forsugar production. This is done by growing small clumps ofchalk in the juice. The chalk collects the non-sugars so whenthe chalk is filtered out, so are the non-sugars. The juice isthen put in a multi-stage evaporator. As the water is boiled,sugar crystals grow. This mixture is spun in a centrifuge toseparate the crystals and mother liquor. The crystals are driedwith hot air before being packed or stored. The final sugar iswhite. Because you can’t get all the sugar out of the juice, aby-product is made, beet molasses.

Sugar can be found in candies such as Hershey®’s bars,Snickers®, Reese’s® Peanut Butter Cup, Almond Joy®, Spree®,Starburst®, M&M’s®, 100 Grand®, Mars®, Junior® Mints,Dots®, York® Peppermint Patties, Pinwheel Mints, Licorice,Werthers® Originals, Candy Corn, Brachs® Maple NutGoodies, Whoppers®, Butterfinger®, Chocolate CoveredCherries, Peanut Brittle, Gumdrops, Tolberone®, ChocolateOrange®, and Peeps®.

COCONUT: Coconuts are native to Southeast Asia andMelanesia. The world production of coconuts is about2,400,000 tons per year. Leaders in coconut productionare the Philippines, Indonesia, India, Vietnam, and Mexico.Coconut palms can grow up to 100 feet tall and their leavescan be 18 feet long.

The coconut has a thick, fibrous husk. The husk can be usedto make ropes, aquarium filters, car seat covers, flower pots,mulch, bristles, mattresses, carpets, and much more. Theedible, oily flesh or kernel is called copra. It is producedin great quantities mainly for its oil. The copra adheres tothe shell of the coconut. Coconuts have a hollow centerwhich contains a liquid during growth. A well tended treeproduces about 100 coconuts a year. Each fruit takes abouta year to ripen.

About 300,000 tons of copra and over 200,000 tons ofcoconut oil are imported into the U.S. annually. (Only133,000 pounds of coconut are produced in the U.S.) In1998, the U.S. confectionery industry used 20,926,000pounds of copra.

Coconut can be found in candies such as Almond Joy® andcoconut oil can be found in Spree®, 100 Grand®, Brachs®

Maple Nut Goodies, and Gummy Bears.

Fruits such as bananas, raisins, grapes, cranberries, cherries,strawberries, blueberries, and peaches may also be used incandy and candied fruits for breads.