Part I Workbook - ??CHAPTER 1 The Neolithic Revolution and the Birth of Civilization Chapter Summary. Between the Old Stone Age (Paleolithic) and the New Stone Age (Neolithic)—12,000 to
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<ul><li><p>Name: _____________________ Date: __________</p><p>PART I WORKBOOKUnit exam Date: Wednesday, October 30, 2013Foundations Period Chapters 1-3 pp. 3-71</p><p>Early Human Societies, 2.5 million1000 B.C.E.: Origins and DevelopmentThe first human beings appeared over two million years ago, with major stages in physical development ending about 140,000 years ago. They discovered the use of tools and were, therefore, able to move away from hunting-and-gathering practices to form larger groups. The beginnings of agriculture, about 10,000 B.C.E., were based on improved tools during the New Stone Age (Neolithic). More elaborate political and cultural forms slowly emerged. Civilization emerged in five different regions. While focusing on the agricultural revolution, we must not lose sight of the many areas in which other systems prevailed. Hunting-and-gathering was not only a different economic system, but brought with it differences in gender relations, daily life and more complex societies.Triggers for Change. The phase of human history talked about in this chapter is mainly the story of accommodating different environments, especially in the search for food. Around 10,000 years ago, near the Black Sea, humans turned to agriculture, as hunting became less productive. The reasons for the change are not clear, but possibilities include population pressure, and shortages caused by accidental or deliberate over-hunting. Agriculture brought essential changes in social organization, tool-making, and specialization of occupation.The Big Changes. Agriculture involved a different set of challenges and benefits than did hunting-and-gathering. The demands of farming meant a sedentary life and larger settlements. Social structures became more complex, and greater gender divisions of labor. Agriculture also made possible the key elements of civilization: states, towns, and monumental building. The first four civilizations arose in river valleys that made irrigation, and, hence, agriculture possible.Continuity. This transition took place over millennia. Many peoples adhered to their traditional economy, which meant, as well, adherence to traditional social and cultural ways. As they took to farming, traditionally womens work, men developed ideas of superiority over women. This can be interpreted not as innovation, but as a way to compensate for change.Impact on Daily Life: Children. Hunting-and-gathering societies necessitated small families, because of the migratory lifestyle and limited resources. With farming, however, not only were larger families possible, they made sense. Children were an integral part of traditional agriculture. Birth rates increased enormously, although infant mortality remained high. The importance of child labor, moreover, brought with it strict control over children. A culture of parental dominance developedtotalitarian in some instances.Societies and Trends. Chapter 1 deals with the emergence of agriculture and its impact on human life, the spread of agriculture, and the persistence of other patterns. Chapters 2 and 3 cover the four great river valley civilizations of Mesopotamia, Egypt, the Indus Valley, and the Yellow River Valley. These chapters examine not only the commonalities among the four, but also the differences, and each regions enduring legacy.</p></li><li><p>CHAPTER 1 The Neolithic Revolution and the Birth of CivilizationChapter Summary. Between the Old Stone Age (Paleolithic) and the New Stone Age (Neolithic)12,000 to 8,000 B.C.E.changes in human organization and food production prepared the way for the emergence of the first civilized societies. Neolithic development of agriculture, from 8500 to 3500 B.C.E., was the first truly revolutionary transformation in human history. Neolithic farmers were able to remake environments to suit their needs, producing surpluses for the support of specialized elites in agriculture, commerce, and manufacturing. The combination of factors usually resulted in urban settlements marked by complex social stratification based upon birth, sex, and occupation.</p><p>Fill ins pp. 11-14: Human Life in the Era of Hunters and Gatherers. By ____1____ B.C.E., Homo sapiens, one of several humanlike species, were present in all continents except Antarctica. Most groups supported themselves through _____2______ and gathering. Homo sapiens larger brain and erect posture stimulated hand evolution, the use of more efficient ____3_____ and weapons, and the development of language. By the close of the Paleolithic, Homo sapiens had mastered many differing _______4_______.</p><p>Paleolithic Culture. By 12,000 B.C.E. Homo sapiens were still similar in development to rival human species. Fundamental discoveries included the better use of _____5___, thus increasing the range of edible foods. Groups survived by hunting, fishing, and gathering wild plants. More ______6____ tool production, and impressive artistic and ritual creativity, demonstrated sophisticated levels of thinking.</p><p>The Spread of Human Culture. Fire and tools, plus the effects of climatic change, allowed the human species to spread widely. By around 12,000 B.C.E., they had moved from Africa into ___7_____, Asia, Australia, and the Americas.</p><p>Human Society and Daily Life at the End of the Paleolithic Age. Human groups experimented with different survival strategies. Most individuals were members of small ____8___ of hunters and gatherers constantly moving in pursuit of game and plants. Others harvested wild grains and established long-enduring settlements where they resided for a year or even longer. Only the communities making the transition to true farming were capable of producing _____9________. Most peoples lived in open areas, and population density was very _____10____since extensive territories were necessary to support groupings that probably numbered no more than20 to 30 men, women, and children. In a gender division of labor, males ___11______, fished, and protected the band. Womens roles were equally important: they ___12________ vital food supplies and herbal medicines.</p><p>KEY TERMS </p><p>1. Hunting and gathering: 2. Civilization: 3. Paleolithic: 4. Neolithic: 5. Nomads: </p><p>6. Savages: 7. Culture: </p></li><li><p>8. Homo sapiens: </p><p>9. Neanderthals: 10.Band11.Agrarian revolution: 12.Natufian complex: 13.Matrilocal: </p><p>14.Shifting cultivation: 15.Pastoralism:16.Huanghe (Yellow) River Basin: 17.Jericho: 18.atal Hyk: </p><p>19.Bronze Age:</p><p>Questions:1. What does civilization mean?2. How is the term civilized misused?3. Compare and contrast the terms civilized, barbarians, and inferior peoples.4. Describe the culture of Paleolithic hunting-and-gathering societies.5. What is the difference between hunting-and-gathering societies and intensive hunting-and- gathering societies?6. Where were the first sedentary agricultural communities established? How are the first sites connected to the spread of sedentary agriculture?7. How did the Neolithic agrarian revolution transform the material life and social organization of human </p><p>communities?</p></li><li><p>Map Question: Why is migration an achievement of nomadic peoples? </p><p>CHAPTER 2The Rise of Civilization in the Middle East and Africa</p><p>Chapter Summary. Full civilizations emerged first in the Tigris-Euphrates valley, by 3500 B.C.E., and in Egypt along the Nile by 3000 B.C.E. The two very different civilizations had distinct political and cultural characteristics that influenced both neighboring and distant succeeding generations. Both civilizations encountered difficulties around 1000 B.C.E. as the river valley period ended, but by then they had produced offshoots in neighboring regions.</p><p>KEY TERMS 1. Mesopotamia: 2. Potters wheel: 3. Sumerians: 4. Cuneiform: 5. City-state: 6. Epic of Gilgamesh: 7. Ziggurats: 8. Animism: 9. Sargon I of Akkad:10. Babylonian Empire:11. Hammurabi: 12. Hittites: 13. Pharaoh: </p></li><li><p>14. Akhenaton: 15. Pyramids: 16. Mummification: 17. Hieroglyphs: 18. Patriarchate: 19. Axum:20. Kush: 21. Yahweh: 22. Monotheism: 23. Minoans: 24. Mycenae: 25. Phoenicians:</p><p>Fill ins pp. 28-32Civilization in Mesopotamia. The first civilization appeared around 3000 B.C.E. and generated the characteristic features of writing, expanded cities, complex ____1____ structure, and distinctive _____2______ beliefs and artistic styles.</p><p>The Sumerians. Civilization began in the _____3____ Crescent, the arable plain of the Tigris and ______4____river valleys. The rivers annually deposited fertile soil in a region of low rainfall. Irrigation and technological advances produced _____5____ surpluses for population growth. Sumerians, migrating from the north about 4000 B.C.E., mixed with local groups to establish Mesopotamian civilization.</p><p>Sumerian Political and Social Organization. Political organization was based on ___6_____-states; their leaders___7_____ and local councilsruled agricultural hinterlands. The government defined state boundaries, regulated and enforced religious duties, and provided ____8____ systems for justice. Kings were responsible for defense and warfare, and, along with priests, controlled land worked by ___9______. Political stability and the use of ____10____ allowed urban growth, and agricultural, commercial, and technological development.</p><p>Sumerian Culture and Religion. Around 3500 B.C.E. the Sumerians introduced writing to meet the needs of recording religious, commercial, and _____11______ matters. Their system of writing, called ____12_______, evolved from pictures baked on clay tablets that eventually became phonetic elements. Its complexity confined its use mostly to specialized scribes. Writing helped to produce a more _____13_____ culture. The worlds oldest story, the _____14_________ epic, portrayed a hero constantly defeated by the gods. In art, statues and painted frescoes adorned temples and private homes. The Sumerians created patterns of observation and abstract thought, such as the science of astronomy and a numeric system based on units of 12, __15___, and 360, still useful to many societies today. Their religion, based upon a pantheon of anthropomorphic gods intervening arbitrarily in human affairs, was accompanied by fear and gloom among believers. Each city had a patron god. Priests were important because of their role in placating gods and in making astronomical calculations vital to the running of ______16_____ systems. Many Sumerian religious ideas influenced ____17_______, Christianity, and Islam.</p></li><li><p>Fill ins pp. 40-41Egypt and Mesopotamia Compared. The two civilizations had important differences and similarities. In political life, the Mesopotamians developed regional ____18_______ while the Egyptians lived under a strong, ____19_____ government. Both had ___20_________ social classes. Mesopotamia developed an epic ___21_____ tradition lacking in Egypt. With better access to building materials, the ability to organize masses of ____22_____, and a strong belief in an afterlife, the Egyptians focused more on ___23________ structures than did the Mesopotamians. Both societies traded widely, but _____24________ trade contacts were more extensive, and greater attention was given to the merchant class and commercial law. Because of its more difficult environment, Mesopotamia produced more technological advances. Egypts different environment contributed to its __25______ civilization and cheerful outlook both of life and the afterlife. In social organization, _____26_____probably held higher status in Egypt. Both societies had a noble ____27_____-owning class, powerful priesthoods, and masses of ____28_______ and slaves. In science, both emphasized ______29______ and mathematics. Aided by relative regional isolation, the two conservative civilizations resisted ____30_______ until pressured by natural disaster or invasion.</p><p>Questions: 1. What is the importance of private property in civilization? 2. What is the connection between irrigation systems and civilization? 3. Why did the earliest civilization emerge in Mesopotamia? 4. How did the Sumerians politically organize early Mesopotamia? 5. What factors defined civilization in Sumerian culture? 6. Why were cities important in Mesopotamian civilization? 7. Was writing indispensable to civilization? 8. What are some of the great social losses associated with civilization?9. What was the form of political organization in ancient Egypt?10. What other early centers of civilization developed in the Middle East and Africa besides Mesopotamia </p><p>and Egypt?</p></li><li><p>Map Question: Why were the Phoenicians so well suited to being traders? </p><p>CHAPTER 3Asias First Civilizations: India and China</p><p>Chapter Summary. East and South Asia developed civilizations near great river systems. Chinese civilization emerged along the Huanghe River, and the ancestor to Indian civilizations, Harappa, flourished in the Indus River Valley. Nomadic Aryan invaders moved into the region of the latter between 1500 and 1000 B.C.E. and established the basis for a new pattern of civilization in South Asia. In North China the formation of the Shang kingdom, from around 1500 to 1122 B.C.E., and the succeeding Zhou dynasty, marked the origins of the distinctive and enduring Chinese civilization.</p><p>Fill Ins: pp. 60-63The Decline of the Shang and the Era of Zhou Dominance. The Zhou, a Turkic- speaking nomadic people from____1___ Asia, became vassals of the Shang. By the end of the 12th century B.C.E. they seized power and established a dynasty enduring until the 3rd century B.C.E. The first ruler, _____2____, greatly expanded the states borders to the east and south. The new rulers had a more _____3____ government than the Shang. Their most powerful vassals were relatives or loyal allies who controlled other relatives under them in the hierarchy. </p></li><li><p>Formal oaths of ___4_____and regularized fief-granting procedures transformed the Shang vassal system into a more genuinely ____5_____ order. Zhou rulers granted fiefs in return for loyalty and military service. The system worked under ___6___ rulers, but weakness at the royal center facilitated rebellion.</p><p>Changes in the Social Order. The continuance of the____7____ system was undermined by two developments. The first was the elaboration of the concept of the ___8______ of Heaven. King Wu, when the Shang were conquered, claimed that they had lost the Mandate of Heaven. This appeal to a supernatural source of authority enhanced the capacity of rulers to become absolutist, _____11_______, kings. However, if rulers failed to govern effectively, they might lose the mandate, making it legitimate for subjects to____12____ and replace the dynasty. The second development weakening feudalism was the emergence of a professional _____13______ that provided an alternative to the use of military vassals. They were educated men, known as ____14_______, who kept records, ran departments, and organized rituals. They were supported by land grants or regular salaries. By the middle of the 8th century B.C.E., some of the shi gained considerable influence with rulers and powerful vassals.</p><p>New Patterns of Life....</p></li></ul>
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