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  • Part 1: An Introduction to Dictation ActivitiesPurposes of Doing DictationGuiding Principles for Conducting DictationStrategies to Improve Pupils Spelling and Note-taking Skills

  • 1) Purposes of Doing DictationDevelopment of phonics skillsDevelopment of listening and note-taking skillsDevelopment of writing skillsPromoting autonomy in language learningPromoting assessment for learning

  • Development of phonics skillsDictation helps pupils develop phonics skills that facilitate pronunciation and spelling.

    CG* p.1751) Purposes of Doing Dictation*CG stands for English Language Curriculum Guide (Primary 1-6) (CDC, 2004)

  • Dictation helps pupils develop a range of listening skills.Dictation is a useful tool to develop pupils note-taking skills.Listening skillsDevelopment of listening and note-taking skills discriminating sounds, stress and intonation identifying key words identifying the main ideas understanding the connection between ideas

    CG pp.51&521) Purposes of Doing Dictation

  • Development of writing skills1) Purposes of Doing DictationApplying language knowledge in writingBy using dicto-comp / dictogloss, pupils can make use of the notes taken during listening to reconstruct texts and develop their writing skills.CG p.177

  • Dictation can be used to promote self-learning.Pupils should be encouraged to collect more vocabulary related to the theme / topic they are learning.Autonomy in learningPromoting autonomy in language learningCG pp.176&1771) Purposes of Doing Dictation

  • Dictation is a useful tool that helps teachers understand pupils learning progress.Teachers should provide constructive feedback to pupils by analysing their problems and giving suggestions for improvement. Promoting assessment for learningAssessment for learning1) Purposes of Doing Dictation

  • Providing constructive feedbackTeachers should analyse pupils mistakes and give suggestions for improvement by guiding pupils to make use of - context, - grammar knowledge, and - phonics skills in writing the words with accurate spelling.Teachers should design follow-up learning activities whenever appropriate to consolidate learning.1) Purposes of Doing Dictation Promoting assessment for learning

  • Making use of contextIt is about something you can see in the sea. What should it be?I got it. It should be ship.1) Purposes of Doing Dictation Promoting assessment for learning Providing constructive feedbackBack to Providing Constructive Feedback

  • Making use of grammar knowledgeThis sentence is about things that happened last night. What tense should you use?1) Purposes of Doing Dictation Promoting assessment for learning Providing constructive feedbackBack to Providing Constructive Feedback

  • Applying phonics skills in spelling1) Purposes of Doing Dictation Promoting assessment for learning Providing constructive feedbackHow do you spell the word class?...Now, listen to this word again, oclock. Do class and clock begin with the same sound? Now try to apply your phonics skills and spell oclock.Back to Providing Constructive Feedback

  • 2) Guiding Principles for Conducting DictationDesignCoverageFrequencyWeighting and Marking

  • DesignDictation should be contextualised to illustrate the communicative use of language and help pupils progress towards the Learning Targets.Dictation could be conducted in combination with a range of activities to develop pupils language skills.CG pp.176&1772) Guiding Principles for Conducting Dictation

  • CoverageNot every word in the learning materials must be learnt by heart.Pupils should not be asked to study formulaic expressions or classroom instructions for dictation.Pupils should not be asked to spell the spoken form of the date in full words.CG p.1752) Guiding Principles for Conducting Dictation

  • FrequencyTeachers should not overburden pupils with excessive dictation as it may kill their interest in learning English and deprive them of the opportunities to engage in other meaningful English learning activities.CG p.1742) Guiding Principles for Conducting Dictation

  • Weighting and MarkingDictation should not take up more than 10% of the subject marks.Marks should not be deducted for repeated mistakes. Bonus marks can be given to promote autonomy in language learning.

    CG pp.175&1772) Guiding Principles for Conducting Dictation

  • Note-taking SkillsHelping pupils understand the meanings of key words through demonstrationListening for key wordsIdentifying main ideas and supporting details Using headings to organise ideasUsing tables and other graphic organisers to organise ideas Using short forms, abbreviations, numbers and symbols to take notes

    3) Strategies to Improve Pupils Spelling and Note-taking SkillsSpelling SkillsDeveloping pupils awareness of letter-sound relationshipsDividing words into small partsIdentifying affixes to root wordsLooking for letter patternsHighlighting problem partsUnderstanding the meanings of words

  • Developing pupils awareness of letter-sound relationshipsDraw pupils attention to the letter-sound relationships and help them develop phonics skills.Let them try pronouncing new words using phonics skills instead of telling them the pronunciation right away. Different sounds for different letters:Examples: boy, toyDifferent ending sounds:Examples: foot, foodDifferent spellings for the same sound:Examples: s sound: glass, piece, horselong e sound: me, teeth, sea3) Strategies to Improve Pupils Spelling Skills

  • Dividing words into small partsDividing words into small words:

    football = foot + ballbreakfast = break + fastbedroom = bed + roomblackboard = black + board

    Guide pupils to divide words into syllables and identify the small words in the word.3) Strategies to Improve Pupils Spelling Skills

  • Identifying affixes to root wordsDevelop pupils knowledge of word formation, e.g. adding prefixes and suffixes to the root words.Examples of prefixes:un unclear, unkindre replay, reuseim impolite, impatientmis misuse, misunderstand

    Example of suffixes: ed interested, boreding exciting, amazingful helpful, beautifulcian magician, musicianness happiness, sadnessment excitement, amusement3) Strategies to Improve Pupils Spelling Skills

  • Looking for letter patternsDraw pupils attention to the letter patterns, i.e. groups of letters that often appear together, in lots of English words.Remind pupils to learn letters as a group or pattern instead of as an individual letter on its own. Pattern: oughExamples: tough, rough, enoughPattern: ightExamples:light, fight, night Pattern: ouldExamples:should, would, could

    3) Strategies to Improve Pupils Spelling Skills

  • Highlighting problem partsDraw pupils attention to the silent letters in some words.Highlight that some contractions and words sound the same / similar. Examples of silent letters:Silent d sandwich, badgeSilent k knife, knowSilent h honest, hourSilent w whole, wrongExamples of contractions and words with the same / similar sounds: its vs. itsyoure vs. yourwere vs. werewhos vs. whosetheyre vs. their / there3) Strategies to Improve Pupils Spelling Skills

  • Understanding the meanings of wordsGuide pupils to understand the meanings of the words learnt.Draw pupils attention to the confusing words, i.e. words with the same / similar pronunciation but different meanings. Pronunciation vs. Meaning3) Strategies to Improve Pupils Spelling Skills

  • 3) Strategies to Improve Pupils Note-taking SkillsNote-taking Skills Helping pupils understand the meanings of key words through demonstration Listening for key words Identifying main ideas and supporting details Using headings to organise ideas Using tables and other graphic organisers to organise ideas Using short forms, abbreviations, numbers and symbols to take notes

  • Read a short text with the whole class.Underline the key words, which carry the important messages in the textExplain to pupils that function words are less important.3) Strategies to Improve Pupils Note-taking SkillsHelping pupils understand the meanings of key words through demonstrationDear Mark,How are you? I am going to visit Hong Kong with my parents at Christmas! We will stay for four days. On the first day, we are going to do some shopping. At night, we are going to watch the beautiful lights in Tsim Sha Tsui. Over the next few days, we can visit the theme parks and the Peak together. We will be in Hong Kong on 23 December. The plane leaves Beijing at a quarter past eight in the morning and arrives at around eleven oclock.See you soon.Leo

  • Divide the text into smaller parts and read aloud the text bit by bit.Use guiding questions to help pupils jot down the relevant information.Read aloud the text several times if necessary.Allow time for pupils to tidy up their work.Listening for key words3) Strategies to Improve Pupils Note-taking SkillsGuiding questionsPart 1When will Leo visit Hong Kong? How many days will he stay in Hong Kong?Part 2What will he do on the first day?What will he do over the next few days?Part 3When will he be in Hong Kong? What time will the plane arrive?

  • Identifying main ideas and supporting detailsMr Chan is my favourite teacher. Hes a great teacher in many ways. First, hes humorous. He looks funny and has many interesting topics to talk about, so we like him very much. Mr Chan is also helpful. When we tell him our troubles, he gives us useful advice. Were lucky to have such a good teacher. Lastly, Mr Chan is a healthy person. He doesnt get sick easily. Hes good at

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