papillon–lefevre syndrome: a case report

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  • CASE REPORT

    pita

    Received 12 April 2009; revised 8 July 2009; accepted 7 September 2009Available online 6 February 2010

    KEYWORDS

    2010 King Saud University. All rights reserved.

    1. Introduction

    PapillonLefevre syndrome (PLS) is a rare autosomal recessivedisorder of keratinization, characterized by palmoplantar

    by two French physicians, Papillion and Lefevre. It has a prev-

    males are equally affected with no racial predominance (Gorlin

    The disorder is characterized by diffuse palmoplantar kera-toderma and premature loss of both deciduous and permanent

    1968). The sharply demarcated erythematous keratotic plaques

    and knees (Siragusa et al., 2000). This may worsen in winter

    the soles and occasionally onto the skin overlying the Achilles

    tendon and the external malleoli. Other sites that may beaffected include the eyelids, cheeks, labial commissures, legs,thighs and axillae. The hair is usually normal but the nails,

    in advanced cases, may show transverse grooving andssuring.

    The second major feature of PLS is severe periodontitis,which starts at the age of three or four years (Yagmur et al.,

    2004). The development and eruption of the deciduous teeth

    9902617087/9705645566.E-mail address: drpavankumarmds@gmail.com.

    1013-9052 2010 King Saud University. All rights reserved. Peer-review under responsibility of King Saud University.

    doi:10.1016/j.sdentj.2010.02.009

    Production and hosting by Elsevier

    The Saudi Dental Journal (2010) 22, 9598

    King Saud

    The Saudi De

    www.ksuwww.scienceand be associated with painful ssures.The keratosis of the plantar surface extends to the edges of

    * Address: Murali Cloth Stores, Main Road, (Post) Devarakadra,

    (Dist.) Mahabubnagar, 509204, Andhra Pradesh, India. Mobile: +91alence of 14 cases per million persons and both males and fe- may occur focally, but usually involve the entire surface ofpalms and soles resulting in foul-smelling odor (Gorlin et al.,1964). Well-demarcated psoriasiform plaques occur on elbowshyperkeratosis, periodontal involvement and precocious loss

    of dentition (Jain et al., 2005). It was rst described in 1924

    teeth. The palmoplantar keratoderma typically has its onsetbetween the ages one and four years (Bach and Levan,et al., 1964; Cury et al., 2002).PapillonLefevre syndrome;

    Palmoplantar

    hyperkeratosis;

    Premature tooth loss;

    Periodontitiss

    sAbstract PapillonLefevre syndrome (PLS) is a rare autosomal recessive disorder of keratiniza-

    tion, characterized by palmoplantar hyperkeratosis, periodontal involvement and precocious loss

    of dentition. The purpose of this report was to describe the case of an 18-year-old girl who pre-

    sented to the out patient department of Navodaya Dental College and Hospital, Raichur, Karna-

    taka, India, with the chief complaint of multiple loss of teeth. Her gingiva appeared erythematous,

    edematous and bled readily on probing, and the teeth were mobile. Hyperkeratosis of palms and

    oles were found. These ndings are consistent with PapillonLefe`vre syndrome. The clinical pre-

    entation, differential diagnosis, complications and management of this syndrome are discussed.PapillonLefevre syndrome: A

    Kalwa Pavankumar *

    Department of Periodontics, Navodaya Dental College and Hoscase report

    l, Navodaya Nagar, Raichur 584103, Karnataka, India

    University

    ntal Journal

    .edu.sadirect.com

  • radiographs (Janjua and Khachemoune, 2004; Galanter andBleeding was also associated at the time of tooth loss. Hence,the patient expressed a keen desire for replacement of all herlost teeth.

    Figure 1 Absence of upper and lower incisor teeth (except one

    central incisor), upper and lower rst molars. Gingiva appeared

    erythematous, edematous and bled readily on probing.

    Figure 2 Panaromic view of the radiograph showing generalized

    loss of alveolar bone, complete loss of bone support around all

    premolars and second molars. Third molars were found to be

    erupting in three quadrants.

    96 K. PavankumarBradford, 1969; Mahajan et al., 2003).

    The degree of dermatologic involvement may not be relatedto the level of periodontal infection (Ullbro et al., 2003). Nailchanges such as transverse grooving and ssuring are apparent

    in advanced cases. In addition to the dermatologic and oralndings, patients may have decreased neutrophil, lymphocyteor monocyte functions and an increased susceptibility to bac-terial infection, leading to recurrent pyogenic infections of

    the skin. Pyogenic liver abscess is a complication of PLS andis associated with impairment of the immune system (Janjuaand Khachemoune, 2004).

    Radiographic features are characterized by generalized lossof alveolar bone. Gorlin et al. have added the third feature ofdural calcication (Newman, 2003). Reyes also observed radio-

    graphic evidence of intracranial calcication (Reys et al., 1998).Histopathologic ndings of affected skin consist of hyperkera-tosis, occasional patches of parakeratosis, acanthosis, and

    slight perivascular inammatory inltrate (Angel et al., 2002).An increased prevalence of parental consanguinity has been

    reported in PLS patients (Gorlin et al., 1964). All PLS patientsare homozygous for the same cathepsin-C gene mutation inher-

    ited from a common ancestor. It would be pertinent to men-tion that there are reports of at least six cases of late onsetvariation of PLS without underlying cathepsin-C gene muta-

    tion (Itni, 1992). This case report describes a case of PLS withclinical features and brief review of literature.

    2. Case report

    An 18-year-old female patient presented to the out patientdepartment of Navodaya Dental College and Hospital, Rai-

    chur, Karnataka, India, with the chief complaint of multipleloss of teeth. Her history revealed that this condition, togetherwith thickening of the skin, palms and soles was noticed by herfamily at the age of ve.

    Intraoral examination showed premature loss of upper andlower incisor teeth (except one central incisor), upper and low-er rst molars. Gingiva appeared erythematous, edematous

    and bled readily on probing (Fig. 1). Her deciduous teethstarted exfoliating at age of three years and only her lower inci-sors erupted again that too became mobile soon. There was

    loosening of permanent teeth from 12 years of age and eventu-ally many of the permanent teeth were lost by 15 years of age.proceeds normally, but their eruption is associated with severegingival inammation in the absence of any local etiologicfactor. The gingiva is bright red, edematous and bleeds easily.

    The periodontal pockets rapidly deepen, with severe loss ofalveolar bone and marked fetor exoris. Although gingivalinammation and alveolar resorption is usually so severe that

    the alveolar process is completely destroyed, even during themost active phase of periodontal destruction, the rest of theoral mucous membrane is reported to be completely normal.

    Primary dentition is usually exfoliated prematurely by theage of 4 years. After exfoliation, the inammation subsidesand gingiva appears healthy. With the eruption of permanentdentition, the whole process of gingivitis and periodontitis is

    repeated and there is subsequent premature exfoliation of thepermanent teeth by the age of 1316 years. Later, the third mo-lars also undergo the same fate. Severe resorption of alveolar

    bone gives the teeth a oating-in-air appearance on dentalPanaromic view of the radiograph showed generalized lossof alveolar bone, complete loss of bone support around all pre-molars and second molars. Third molars were found to be

    erupting in three quadrants (Fig. 2).Medical history was noncontributory. Parents were not of

    consanguineous marriage. Dermatological examination re-

    vealed symmetrical, well-demarcated, rough, erythematous,hyperkeratotic, scaly lesions on her knees, elbows, palms andsoles (Figs. 3 and 4). Transverse grooves, which were presentin most of the ngernails, were most prominent on the thumb-

    nail (Fig. 5). Subsequently, there was reddening of the palmsand soles at six months of age, which gradually thickenedand became rough and scaly. Her general growth, hair growth,

    sweat glands and mental development were all normal.Routine hematological examination revealed Hb% of

    11.0 g/dl, bleeding time 2 min, clotting time 2 min 10 s, to-

    tal leukocyte count of 9900, polymorph 73%, lymphocyte 23%, eosinophil 4%, and ESR was 20 mm/h.

    Summing up the clinical features and investigations diagno-sis was conrmed as PapillonLefevre syndrome and oral tet-

    racycline was given for two weeks, after which clinical

  • PapillonLefevre syndrome: A case report 97improvement was observed. For her dental condition, oralprophylaxis and a temporary removable prosthodontia appli-ance were suggested. The patient was referred to a dermatolo-

    gist for further opinion and management.

    3. Discussion

    In our case, the skin and periodontal ndings bore a strikingresemblance to the classical descriptions of the syndrome.The dental history of the patients was also in accordance with

    the known symptoms of the syndrome, i.e., early exfoliation of

    Figure 4 Yellow colored hyperkeratotic areas on soles.

    Figure 3 Symmetrical, well-demarcated, rough, erythematous,

    hyperkeratotic, scaly lesions.all deciduous teeth commencing at 3 years of age, with com-plete exfoliation within 23 years.

    Clinically, the patients had the characteristic skin lesions:

    sharply demarcated keratotic plaques involving the entire sur-face of the palms and soles. The lesions were diffuse, with adry, scaly surface; they va