Paleolithic architecture

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<ul><li>1.PREHISTORIC ARCHITECTURE This was the type of architectureinvented by the primeval man to get shelter and protection : From variable extreme weather conditions. From wild beasts and enemies.</li></ul> <p>2. PALEOLITHIC DWELLINGS Structures created in wood andstone. Fire used on paved hearths. No buildings for any special purposes but dwellings. Categorized into 5 types: 3. CAVES The oldest and mostcommon types of dwellings. Natural underground spaces, large enough for a human. Example: Rock shelters, Grottos, Sea caves. 4. HUTS Located in southern French cities. Oval in shape(8m-15m X 4m-6m). Built close to sea shores. Built using stakes with stones as supports. Stout posts along axis. Floor made of organic matter and ash. 5. MOLODOVA A more sophisticated sought. Wood framework covered with skins, held in place by rough oval mammoth bones, enclosing 15 hearths. 6. DOLNI VESTONICE Palisade of mammoth bones and tusks set into ground, filled with brush wood and turf. Oval shape(16m x10m) Limestone used for walls Central hearth capped with an earthen dome. Summer structure open to sky. 7. MEZHIRICH Consisted offoundation wall of mammoth jaws and long bones, capped with skulls. Roofed with tree branches, overlaid by tusks. 8. LEAN TOS Erected against one wall of cave. Defined at base by stones(12m x 4m). Skin curtain and roof draped over posts. May have two compartments, each having an entrance on the longer side. 9. TENTS Skirts weighed down with pebbles. Paved interiors. Open air hearths. Wooden posts driven into earth covered with skins. At a later stage, were secured by reindeer antlers. 10. PIT HOUSES More common in eastern Europe with severely low temperatures. Oval trapezoidal, pear shaped size(5m-8m x2.5m-3.5m). Central post holes indicating existence of roof. Constructed by making shallow depressions in the ground surrounded by a ring of mammoth bones and tusks. 11. MESOLITHIC PERIOD Villages arranged systematically. Houses aligned in rows. More regular plans. Artefacts came into existence. Settlements began around water bodies. Fishing, cultivation of cereals and vegetables began. Animals were domesticated, farming tools were developed. Dwellings were more durable as compared to that in the Paleolithic age. 12. HUTS The structure mainly comprised of bamboos. Plans were trapezoidal in shape. The size varied from 5.530m. They had wide entrances facing the water bodies (rivers). Floors were plastered with lime. Posts were reinforced with stones. 13. PIT HOUSES Shallow oval pits6m-9m long and 25m wide. Roofs were made of timber. Stone hearths were used as working slabs. 14. NEOLITHIC PERIOD Many changes took place. Production of food. Developments in agriculture lead tosettling down. Dwellings became more sustainable. Houses were built with square/rectangular plans, with sections divided with animal skins. 15. TIMBER FRAMED HOUSES Square plans:25 x25 Mud walls with 3 deep footings. These were more durable as compared to the earlier ones. Pitched and thatched roofs with overhanging caves. Interiors raised, plastered with sunken hearths. 16. LONG HOUSES Rectangular plans(20 x26-150). Oak posts made the framework covered with clay. Floors were defined with layers of clay over a base of logs. It consisted of 3 types of plans: 17. TRIPARTITE: Entrance facing the east. Central part being the living room. The third part containing deep storage area. BIPARTITE: Entrance Living room combined with storage. SINGLE BAY HOUSES: Having living rooms only. 18. DRY STONE HOUSES Stone built houses with 3m thick cavity walls. Inner, outer caves were made of dry stones and the interiors were covered with domestic refuse. Rectangular plan with circular corners. Thatched roofs with a smoke hole at the top positioned over central hearth. 19. MONUMENTS Settlements lead to building ofmonumental stone architecture. These were mainly collective tombs. PASSAGE GRAVES GALLERY GRAVES 20. MEGALITHIC PASSAGE GRAVES Covering mound (38m x32m) surrounded by wide space with wide ditch beyond. Entrance passage 1m wide and 1.5m high. burial chamber(5sqm) Smooth walls built with rectangular blocks and fine joints. Three cells at three sides of the chamber. Built mainly with masoned walls and corbelled roof. 21. MEGALITHIC GALLERY GRAVES 23m long chamberdivided into twelve sections. Covered with a rectangular mound . 22. EARTHERN LONG BARROWS Trapezoid mound(40m x6m approx.) Wide entrance and porch with 4 posts. Earthen mound surrounded by a bedding trunch over 1m deep and 0.5 m wide. Timber retaining wall 2m high. Mortuary houses exactly behind entrance, constructed using three split tree trunks(600mm dia app.) placed 1m apart from each other supporting a ridge post. Sloping timber formed triangular framework(1.5m high, 2.4m wide) at groung level. 23. Fussels lodge 24. MENHIRS Large, upright standing stones. Uneven textured, square shaped, tapered towards the top. May exist as monoliths or a part of group. Existed as identification marks at burial sites or otherwise. 25. DOLMENS Two or more stonessupporting a large one at the top. Burial features. Also called cromlechs (brythonic origin). 26. HENGES Open air ritual structures. The plan comprised of concentric circles. An altar located in the centre. Surrounded by five trilithon pairs of stones. Followed by a circle of blue stones. Example: The stone henge. 27. BRONZE AGE DWELLINGS Enclosed timber framed and dry stonefarmsteads. Cooking area and storage were added features. 28. TIMBER FRAMED HOUSES Log built houses with central houses and lateral wings. Large proportions and layout. Contained large central hall(10 x5m),attached six rooms, five of them contained hearths. Logs interlocked by means of notches cut near the extremities. 29. Entrance porch facing the street, living areaand loft accessible by ladder. Stone hearth on the left of entrance with a family bed located against southern wall. Wooden floors, thatched roofs. Houses placed in rows oriented east-west. 30. CIRCULAR BRONZE AGE Linked group of earthwork enclosures and hut platforms(734m x55m). Principal enclosures surrounded by a timber fence. Containing 4-5 additional huts(4.8m dia), both with a ring about 250mm wide. Ring containing timber uprights supporting a thatched roof. Porch at the entrance. 31. BURIAL MOUNDS Single grave burials. Variable forms in exterior and interior forms and arrangements and groupings. In their simplest form, barrows consisted of earth or stone. Others were timber mortuary houses or stone cists. 32. NEW GRANGEStone revetments retaining the side supports to the burial chamber. Sandstone paved floor at the northern and reed floor on the southern end. 33. TEMPLES AND RITUAL STRUCTURES Structures had three to four rooms.(8.8m x 5.2m) Megaron like porch leading to a room containing a hanging altar. Followed by a large squarish room with plastered frieze. Two raised altars on raised clay platforms set against side walls. Six supports for a reed thatched roof. 34. DEFENSIVE STRUCTURES Palisaded forts in low lying areas. Massive encircling ramparts enclosing a roughly circular or oval area. Plank walls erected 2-3m apart with tie beams in between. Space between palisades filled with rubble and earth. 35. Upland forts had timber replaced with stones. A third type, consisting of parallel rows of timber laid in consecutive layers at right angles; forming a grid. Interstices filled with wood chips, earth and stones. 36. STONE TOWERS Circular towers ranging from 10 to 15m in diameter. Built in dry stone walling. Some having an internal corridor.(3m high) Main chamber roofed by means of false corbelling. Served both defensive and ritualistic purposes. 37. IRON AGE Development in domesticarchitecture. Traditional farmstrade maintained. 38. TIMBER FRAMED HOUSES Circular timberstructures.(15m diameter) Timber palisaded enclosure.(120 x90m) Palisade consisting upright stakes edge to edge in a trench.(300mm deep) Main house defined by 4 groups of post holes. 39. Outer rings supported wall. Posts had continuous lintels with sloping rafters. Both sets of posts had continuous lintels overlaid by horizontal members, thatched roof attached. Raised canopied roof containing smoke hole. Elaborate porch. Central loft Ancillary buildings and storage pits excavated within palisaded enclosures. woodburry 40. DRY STONE HOUSES East facing open courtyards. Main living room at the rear end. On the left, front open, roofed shelter. Storage room at the right. Drains, external terraced areas were added features. Roofed with stone slabs. Internal radial walls tapering in plan.Chysauster 41. FUNERARY MONUMENTS Artificial shafts, ritual wells sunken to12 to 40 m. Ditch and earthwork enclosures (10 x10 m approximately). Long , parallel sided rectilinear enclosures containing standing stones, post holes and hearths. 42. DEFENSIVE STRUCTURES Parapets varying from sloping front earth work backed by stone or timber revetting. Stone cladded fortifications reinforced with timber, fired occasionally for vitrification. Gates in the east and the west. Century later, eastern gates were elaborated with claw like structures and the western gates were enlarged. Ramparts were reinforced with stones. 43. FORTIFIED BUILDINGS BROCH Approximately 20m wide. 10-15m high. 5m thick wall at the bottom. 10m wide central court leading to narrow doorways accessible by oval intra mural chambers with corbelled roof. 44. Timber galleried accommodation built against the inner wall leading to a spiral staircase within the wall accessing the rampart at the top. DUNS Similar to broch in size and structure. </p>