Ozone Creation

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Ozone Creation. Chapter 4 Atmosphere and Surface Energy Balances. Geosystems 6e An Introduction to Physical Geography. Robert W. Christopherson Charles E. Thomsen. Why do we have to learn about energy?. Energy powers the biosphere, hydrosphere, and atmosphere. - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

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<ul><li><p>Ozone Creation</p></li><li><p>Chapter 4Atmosphere and Surface Energy Balances </p><p>Geosystems 6eAn Introduction to Physical Geography</p><p>Robert W. ChristophersonCharles E. Thomsen</p></li><li><p>Why do we have to learn about energy?Energy powers the biosphere, hydrosphere, and atmosphere.Energy deficits are created by the earths curved surfacesolar insolation varies with latitude.To compensate for energy deficits, ocean currents, global winds, and weather systems move energy around the globe. This is why we have weather and climate.</p></li><li><p>Energy EssentialsEnergy Pathways and PrinciplesShortwave energy in from the SunLongwave energy out from EarthTransmissionPassage of energy through atmosphere or waterRefers to shortwave radiation that goes straight through the atmosphere to the surface</p></li><li><p>Energy PathwaysFigure 4.1</p></li><li><p>Energy PathwaysInsolation inputAll radiation received at Earths surface direct and indirectScattering (diffuse radiation)Changing direction of radiations movement, without altering its wavelengthsPollutants, ice, and water vapor increase scatteringWhy is diffuse radiation important?Because it colors the sky</p></li><li><p>Energy PathwaysScattering (diffuse radiation)Rayleigh Principle the shorter the wavelength, the greater the scattering; the longer the wavelength, the less the scatteringShorter wavelengths of visible light (blues and violets) scatter the most and dominate the lower atmosphereMore blue present in sunlight, so the sky is blueIf we had NO atmosphere, what color would the sky be?</p></li><li><p>Energy PathwaysSunrise/SunsetWhen the sun is low on the horizon, its rays must travel through more atmosphereThis increases scattering of shorter wavelengths (blues) so that only the longer wavelengths color the sky (oranges, reds)</p></li><li><p>Energy PathwaysRefraction change in speed and direction of lightWhen a form of radiation moves from one medium to another (air to water, space to atmosphere), its speed and direction changeThe wavelengths of radiation are bent into different angles, separating the light into its component colorsRainbows created when visible light passes through raindrops, is refracted, and reflected showing all colors</p></li><li><p>RefractionFigure 4.3</p></li><li><p>RefractionMirage an image that appears near the horizon where light waves are refracted by layers of air at different temperatures and densities on a hot dayWhen the sun is low in the sky, its light must penetrate through more air its refracted by layers of air at different temperatures and densities creating a mirage</p></li><li><p>RefractionFigure 4.4</p></li><li><p>Energy EssentialsAlbedo - % of insolation an object reflectsDarker colors have lower albedos (they absorb more insolation)Lighter colors have higher albedos (they reflect more insolation)During the day, clouds reflect radiation back to spaceAt night, clouds reflect longwave radiation back to Earths surface</p></li><li><p>Energy EssentialsAerosolsVolcanic originDecrease atmospheric albedosLeads to cooling of almost 1FInsolation reflected by dirty sky</p></li><li><p>AlbedoFigure 4.5</p></li><li><p>Energy Balance in the TroposphereGreenhouse Effect where gases (carbon dioxide, water vapor, methane, and CFCs) absorb insolation and reradiate it back to Earth in longer wavelengths thereby warming the lower troposphereThe Greenhouse Effect and Atmospheric WarmingAtmosphere absorbs heat energyAtmosphere delays transfer of heat from Earth into space</p></li><li><p>EarthAtmosphere Radiation BalanceFigure 4.12</p></li><li><p>Energy Budget by LatitudeFigure 4.13</p></li><li><p>Daily Radiation PatternsFigure 4.14</p></li><li><p>Simplified Surface Energy BalanceNET R =+SW (insolation)SW (reflection)+LW (infrared)LW (infrared)Figure 4.16</p></li><li><p>Global NET RFigure 4.17</p></li><li><p>Global NET RNon-vegetated surfaces lose heat in one of 3 ways:Latent heat of evaporation energy released as water changes stateSensible heat heat you can feel and measure; convection and conductionGround heating and cooling energy stored during warm periods and released during cool periods</p></li><li><p>Radiation BudgetsFigure 4.20El Mirage, CAPitt Meadows,BC</p></li><li><p>The Urban EnvironmentFigure 4.21</p></li><li><p>Urban Heat IslandFigure 4.22</p></li><li><p>Urban Heat IslandPilotProjectFigure 4.23</p></li><li><p>Solar Cooking SolutionFigure FS 4.1.1</p></li><li><p>Solar EnergyFigure FS 4.1.2</p></li></ul>