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    OVULATION, FERTILIZATION AND PREGNANCY

    IMAN SUPRIATNANI WAYAN KURNIANI KARJA

    BAGIAN REPRODUKSI DAN KEBIDANAN

    DEPARTEMEN KLINIK, REPRODUKSI DAN PATOLOGI

    FAKULTAS KEDOKTERAN HEWAN

    INSTITUT PERTANIAN BOGOR

    2010

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    OVULATION

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    Mechanisms of Ovulation

    1. Endocrine mechanisms

    steroids switch from 2.0 0.15 (E:P ratio)

    LH

    Prostaglandins2. Neurobiochemical mechanisms

    Plasmin formation

    theca collagenaselysome rupture

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    3. Neuromuscular mechanisms-

    PGF2 release occurs 30-40h after LH

    surge

    1. Inhibition of PGF2 production inhibits

    ovulation

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    Cyclic activity

    Spontaneous ovulators Continually polyestrous

    Seasonal polyestrous

    Induced ovulators Monoestrous

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    FERTILISASI

    Proses bersatunya/fusi antara sel kelamin betina(oosit) dan sel kelamin jantan (spermatozoa)

    Fertilisasi terjadi apabila oosit telah mencapai tingkatkematangannya yaitu stadium metafase II.

    Spermatozoa telah mengalami kapasitasi

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    Dalam prosesnya, proses fertilisasi dapat

    dibagi menjadi tiga proses yaitu :

    Proses kapasitasi spermatozoa

    Aktivasi oosit oleh spermatozoa untuk dapatberkembang

    Fusi genetikmaterial antara inti jantan danbetina

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    Akrosom mengandung sejumlah enzim yaitu :

    Hyaluronidase

    Acrosine

    ProacrosineAcid proteinase

    Esterase

    Neuraminidase

    Phosphatase

    -N Acetyl hexosaminidase galactosidase

    glucoronidase

    -L Fucosidase

    -Phospholipase

    -Cathepsine

    -Peptidyl peptidase

    -N Acetyl glucosa minidase

    -Ornithine decarboxylase

    -Arysulfatase

    -Arylamidase

    -Collagenase

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    Reproductive System

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    FERTILISASI

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    FERTILIZATION- fertilization in the upper third of the oviduct/fallopian tube- fertilization = union of egg and sperm

    - sperm must undergo capacitation after ejaculationincrease rate of tail beating

    - during capacitationfemale system removes glycoproteins and proteins from the acrosome

    - plasma membrane of the egg is surrounded by an extracellular matrix (glycoproteins) =zona pellucidaand a ring of follicular cells = corona radiata (nourishment in the follicle)

    - after fertilization = zygote

    1. sperm penetrate corona radiata

    2. several sperm enter zona pellucida

    sperm bind to ZP3 receptor protein in

    zonatriggers release of acrosomal

    contents and zona digestion

    3. ONE sperm penetrates the plasma

    membrane of the egg

    4. immediate change in the zona

    pellucida (depolarizes or fast block to

    polyspermy)also the ZP3 protein is

    inactivated which makes the zona physically

    harden (slow block to polyspermy)

    - impervious to more sperm

    5. egg releases the zona pellucida

    away from the egg surface

    6. fusion of the sperms pronucleus with the

    pronucleus of the egg = zygote

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    OVIDUCT:

    -union of sperm and egg nuclei (zygote) -> first cell division (embryo) -> cell

    division continues -> formation of the morula (cell division without growth resultsin a mass of tiny, uniformly sized cells with equal amounts of cytoplasm)

    UTERUS:

    -morula forms a blastocyst (assymetrical ball of cells with a cavity) -> implantation

    into the endometrium (6th day)

    -cells of morula = blastomeres

    embryonic stage:

    1st week to week 8

    -first cell divisionwithin 24 hrs & takes 6 hrs

    to complete

    -second dayfour cells

    -end of third day16 cells

    -fourth daymorula stage

    -fourth to fifth dayblastocyst stage

    -end of fifth dayhatching of blastocyst from

    zona pellucida-6th dayimplantation of blastocyst into

    endometrium

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    Figure 117: Specific cleavage stages at given times after fertilization in the

    cow (281-day gestation) and the sow (114-day gestation). (Source: Bearden and

    Fuquay, 1997, p. 91. Used with permission.)

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    Placenta

    Classification is based on:

    1) The gross shape ofthe placenta andthe distribution ofcontact sites

    between fetalmembranes andendometrium.

    2) The number of layers of tissuebetween maternal

    and fetal vascularsystems.

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    A cow has a cotyledonary placenta.

    Cotyledonary: Multiple, discrete areas of attachment called cotyledons are formed by

    interaction of patches of allantochorion with endometrium. The fetal portions of this type of

    placenta are called cotyledons, the maternal contact sites (caruncles), and the cotyledon-

    caruncle complex a placentome. This type of placentation is observed in ruminants.

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    The three potential maternal layers in a placenta are:1.Endothelium lining endometrial blood vessels.2.Connective tissue of the endometrium.

    3.Endometrial epithelial cells.

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    Type of Placenta

    Maternal Layers Retained

    ExamplesEndometrial

    Epithelium

    Connective

    Tissue

    Uterine

    Endothelium

    Epitheliochorial + + +

    Horses,

    swine,

    ruminants

    Endotheliochorial - - + Dogs, cats

    Hemochorial - - -Humans,

    rodents

    http://arbl.cvmbs.colostate.edu/hbooks/pathphys/reprod/placenta/equine.htmlhttp://arbl.cvmbs.colostate.edu/hbooks/pathphys/reprod/placenta/pigs.htmlhttp://arbl.cvmbs.colostate.edu/hbooks/pathphys/reprod/placenta/ruminants.htmlhttp://arbl.cvmbs.colostate.edu/hbooks/pathphys/reprod/placenta/dog_cat.htmlhttp://arbl.cvmbs.colostate.edu/hbooks/pathphys/reprod/placenta/primates.htmlhttp://arbl.cvmbs.colostate.edu/hbooks/pathphys/reprod/placenta/rodents.htmlhttp://arbl.cvmbs.colostate.edu/hbooks/pathphys/reprod/placenta/rodents.htmlhttp://arbl.cvmbs.colostate.edu/hbooks/pathphys/reprod/placenta/primates.htmlhttp://arbl.cvmbs.colostate.edu/hbooks/pathphys/reprod/placenta/dog_cat.htmlhttp://arbl.cvmbs.colostate.edu/hbooks/pathphys/reprod/placenta/ruminants.htmlhttp://arbl.cvmbs.colostate.edu/hbooks/pathphys/reprod/placenta/pigs.htmlhttp://arbl.cvmbs.colostate.edu/hbooks/pathphys/reprod/placenta/equine.html
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    PLACENTA COMMON EXAMPLES

    Diffuse,epitheliochorial

    Horses and pigs

    Cotyledonary,epitheliochorial

    Ruminants(cattle, sheep, goats, deer)

    Zonary,

    endotheliochorial

    Carnivores

    (dog, cat, ferret)Discoid,

    hemochorialHumans, apes, monkeys

    and rodents

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    The function of the placenta. The placenta combine in one organ many activities of the

    Fetus -- hormones, respiration, digestion and excretion -- that are separate in adult

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    PLASENTA (exchange organ, Austauschorgan, dg fungsi spesifik)

    1) Sintesa enzim

    2) Thermoregulator

    3) Sebagai sistem respirasi, gastrointestinal, excretion

    4) Metabolisme (osmose, difusi, resorpsi, transport aktif metabolit)

    5) Sintesa hormon (eCG, hCG, estrogen, progesteron, relaxin,protein B, placental lactogen)

    6) Barrier pasase mikroba (infeksi). Dalam keadaan patologis

    plasenta dapat dipasase oleh virus, bakteri, shg dpt menimbulkankerusakan irreversible dari fetus abortus

    7) Pasase Ig transplasentar dari Ig/Ab tgt dari tipe plasenta.Pada sapi, domba, kambing, babi dan kuda plasenta tidak dapatdipasase oleh Ig. Pada anjing dan kucing dapat dipasase oleh Ig.

    Pada manusia dapt dipasase hanya oleh Ig G (mol. kecil).Umumnya neonat memperoleh Ig/Ab melalui kolostrum

    8) Plasenta tidak dapat dilalui oleh pharmaka spt antibiotik,sulfonamide.

    Aplikasi narkotik intrapartum depresi respirasi neonatlemah

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    Parturition Initiated by the fetus stress

    Corticosterone from Adrenal

    Decreased progesterone

    Foals